A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, firing torpedoes and bullets, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. Strategic bombing is done by heavy bombers designed for long-range bombing missions against strategic targets such as supply bases, factories and cities themselves, to diminish the enemy's ability to wage war by limiting access to resources through crippling infrastructure or reducing industrial output. Current examples include the strategic nuclear-armed bombers: B-2 Spirit, B-52 Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-95'Bear', Tupolev Tu-22M'Backfire'. IV, Avro Lancaster, Heinkel He 111, Junkers Ju 88, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Tupolev Tu-16'Badger'. Tactical bombing, aimed at countering enemy military activity and in supporting offensive operations, is assigned to smaller aircraft operating at shorter ranges near the troops on the ground or against enemy shipping.
This role is filled by tactical bomber class, which crosses and blurs with various other aircraft categories: light bombers, medium bombers, dive bombers, fighter-bombers, attack aircraft, multirole combat aircraft, others. Current examples: Xian JH-7, Dassault-Breguet Mirage 2000D, the Panavia Tornado IDS Historical examples: Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, Hawker Typhoon and Mikoyan MiG-27; the first use of an air-dropped bomb was carried out by Italian Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti on 1 November 1911 during the Italo-Turkish war in Libya. Although his plane was not designed for the task of bombing, his improvised attack on Ottoman positions at Ainzzarra had little impact; these picric acid-filled steel spheres were nicknamed "ballerinas" from the fluttering fabric ribbons attached. In 1912, during the First Balkan War, Bulgarian Air Force pilot Christo Toprakchiev suggested the use of aircraft to drop "bombs" on Turkish positions. Captain Simeon Petrov developed the idea and created several prototypes by adapting different types of grenades and increasing their payload.
On 16 October 1912, observer Prodan Tarakchiev dropped two of those bombs on the Turkish railway station of Karağaç from an Albatros F.2 aircraft piloted by Radul Milkov, for the first time in this campaign. This is deemed to be the first use of an aircraft as a bomber; the first heavier-than-air aircraft purposely designed for bombing were the Italian Caproni Ca 30 and British Bristol T. B.8, both of 1913. The Bristol T. B.8 was an early British single engined biplane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. They were fitted with a prismatic Bombsight in the front cockpit and a cylindrical bomb carrier in the lower forward fuselage capable of carrying twelve 10 lb bombs, which could be dropped singly or as a salvo as required; the aircraft was purchased for use both by the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps, three T. B.8s, that were being displayed in Paris during December 1913 fitted with bombing equipment, were sent to France following the outbreak of war. Under the command of Charles Rumney Samson, a bombing attack on German gun batteries at Middelkerke, Belgium was executed on 25 November 1914.
The dirigible, or airship, was developed in the early 20th century. Early airships were prone to disaster, but the airship became more dependable, with a more rigid structure and stronger skin. Prior to the outbreak of war, Zeppelins, a larger and more streamlined form of airship designed by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, were outfitted to carry bombs to attack targets at long range; these were strategic bombers. Although the German air arm was strong, with a total of 123 airships by the end of the war, they were vulnerable to attack and engine failure, as well as navigational issues. German airships inflicted little damage with 557 Britons killed and 1,358 injured; the German Navy lost 53 of its 73 airships, the German Army lost 26 of its 50 ships. The Caproni Ca 30 was built by Gianni Caproni in Italy, it was a twin-boom biplane with three 67 kW Gnome rotary engines and first flew in October 1914. Test flights revealed power to be insufficient and the engine layout unworkable, Caproni soon adopted a more conventional approach installing three 81 kW Fiat A.10s.
The improved design was bought by the Italian Army and it was delivered in quantity from August 1915. While used as a trainer, Avro 504s were briefly used as bombers at the start of the First World War by the Royal Naval Air Service when they were used for raids on the German airship sheds. Bombing raids and interdiction operations were carried out by French and British forces during the War as the German air arm was forced to concentrate its resources on a defensive strategy. Notably, bombing campaigns formed a part of the British offensive at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in 1915, with Royal Flying Corps squadrons attacking German railway stations in an attempt to hinder the logistical supply of the German army; the early, improvised attempts at bombing that characterized the early part of the war gave way to a more organized and systematic approach to strategic and tactical bombing, pioneered by various air power strategists of the Entente Major Hugh Trenchard.
East Kirkby is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 7 miles south-east from Horncastle, on the A155 road. East Kirkby 13th century Grade II * listed; the church tower and nave arcades are of Decorated style, the chancel screen, Perpendicular. In the south aisle is a 14th-century slab to Sir Robert Sylkestone, founder of the chantry. A Wesleyan chapel was established in 1862. East Kirkby was the birthplace of Goodricke. Goderich was Bishop of Ely and Lord High Chancellor of England from 1551. East Kirkby has a disused 1820 Grade II listed tower mill; the village's public house is the Red Lion on Fen Lane. The Prime Meridian passes just to the east of East Kirkby through the former RAF East Kirkby airfield, which has a meridian marker; the airfield was a Second World War Royal Air Force station, part of which now houses the Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre. Media related to East Kirkby at Wikimedia Commons Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre East Kirkby Mill
Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom)
The Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board. The post was created in 1918 with Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard as the first incumbent; the current and 29th Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, who succeeded Sir Andrew Pulford in July 2016. The post of Chief of the Air Staff was established in January 1918, just prior to the official formation of the Royal Air Force, its first occupant was Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard. Following Trenchard's resignation in March 1918 after disagreements with the first air minister, Lord Rothermere, his rival Major General Sir Frederick Sykes was appointed. For political reasons Trenchard's resignation did not take effect until late April in order that he would be CAS when the RAF was formed. With Winston Churchill's post-war appointment as Secretary of State for War and Air, Sykes was moved sideways to head up the nascent Civil Aviation ministry and Trenchard returned as CAS.
In the early 1920s, Trenchard had to fight to keep the RAF from being divided and absorbed back into the Royal Navy and the British Army. After Lord Trenchard retired in 1930 there were still suggestions that the RAF should be broken up, but Trenchard's foundations proved solid. By the time the Second World War broke out in 1939, the occupant of the post, Air Chief Marshal Sir Cyril Newall, had a service, undergoing the most rapid of expansions during the British rearmament programs of the late 1930s. Newall gave way in 1940 to Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, who led the service for the rest of the war. Portal was a tireless defender of the RAF and capable in administration and strategy. Postwar the RAF was reoriented to perform the dual roles of defending the shrinking British Empire and fighting against the Soviet Union in a Warsaw Pact verses NATO war over Germany and the United Kingdom; the Chiefs of the Air Staff of the day had to fight a constant battle to keep the British aircraft industry alive.
In the end only minimal success was achieved, with only a rump aviation industrial base left by the 1970s. The first eight Chiefs of the Air Staff were commissioned in the British Army, with four coming from the infantry, two from the artillery and one each from the cavalry and the engineers. Of these both Lord Trenchard and Sir John Salmond each held the post over two separate periods. By the early mid-1950s sufficient time had elapsed for officers commissioned in the British air services of the First World War to have risen through the ranks to RAF's senior post. In 1956 Sir Dermot Boyle became the first CAS to have been commissioned in the RAF; the following list gives details of the chiefs of the air staff from 1918 to the present: ^ The ranks and titles shown are the highest that the officer in question attained during his tour as Chief of the Air Staff. However, in the case where the officer was promoted on the day before he was posted or retired the lower rank is shown. Air Marshal Mike Wigston will be promoted air chief marshal and succeed Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier as Chief of the Air Staff in 2019.
Chief of the Defence Staff First Sea Lord / Chief of the Naval Staff Chief of the General Staff Chief of Air Force Chief of the Air Staff CAS Air Power Workshop
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Royal Air Force Khormaksar or more RAF Khormaksar is a former Royal Air Force station in Aden, Yemen. Its motto was "Into the Remote Places". During the 1960s, it was the base for nine squadrons and became the RAF's busiest-ever station as well as the biggest staging post for the RAF between the United Kingdom and Singapore, it became Aden International Airport. Established in 1917, RAF Khormaksar was enlarged in 1945 as the British spread their influence deeper into the Arabian Peninsula. In 1958, a state of emergency was declared in Aden as Yemeni forces occupied nearby Jebel Jehaf and RAF squadrons were involved in action in support of the British Army. In the 1960s, during operations around Rhadfan, the station reached a peak of activity, becoming overcrowded and attracting ground attacks by rebels. In 1966, the newly elected Labour government in the United Kingdom announced that all forces would be withdrawn by 1968. Khormaksar played a role in the evacuation of British families from Aden in the summer of 1967.
The station closed on 29 November 1967. No. 8 Squadron RAF were based there on eight different occasions: 1927-1945 operating the Fairey IIIF, Vickers Vincent, Hawker Demon, Bristol Blenheim, Martin Maryland, Fairey Swordfish, Lockheed Hudson and Vickers Wellington 1946-1950 operating the de Havilland Mosquito, Hawker Tempest and Bristol Brigand 1950-1951 operating the Bristol Brigand, Avro Anson and Auster AOP6 1951-1952 as before 1952-1953 operating the Bristol Brigand and de Havilland Vampire 1953-1956 operating the de Havilland Vampire and de Havilland Venom 1956-1961 operating the de Havilland Venom, Gloster Meteor and Hawker Hunter 1960-1967 operating the Hawker Hunter FGA.9 and T.7 1960-1963 operating the Hawker Hunter FR.10No. 84 Squadron RAF were based between 1956 and 1967 and operated the Vickers Valetta, Bristol Sycamore, Percival Pembroke, Blackburn Beverley and Hawker Siddeley Andover. British Forces Aden Air Forces Middle East Crest Badge and Information of RAF Khormaksar Personal histories and photos from RAF Khormaksar in the 1960s Photos from RAF Khormaksar in the mid 1960s Aircraft stationed and visiting RAF Khormaksar
Flight Lieutenant is a junior commissioned air force rank that originated in the Royal Naval Air Service and is still used in the Royal Air Force and many other countries in the Commonwealth. It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in non-English-speaking countries those with an air force-specific rank structure. Flight lieutenant ranks below squadron leader; the name of the rank is the complete phrase. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-2, is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and a captain in the British Army and the Royal Marines; the equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, Women's Royal Air Force and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service was flight officer. On 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenants and Royal Flying Corps captains becoming captains in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own rank titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navy's officer ranks, with the word "air" inserted before the naval rank title.
For example, the current rank of flight lieutenant would have been "air lieutenant". Although the Admiralty objected to this simple modification of their rank titles, it was agreed that the RAF might base many of its officer rank titles on navy officer ranks with differing pre-modifying terms, it was suggested that RAF captains might be entitled flight-leaders. However, the rank title flight lieutenant was chosen as flights were commanded by RAF captains and the term flight lieutenant had been used in the Royal Naval Air Service; the rank of flight lieutenant has been used continuously since 1 August 1919. Although in the early years of the RAF a flight lieutenant commanded an aircraft flight, with the increasing combat power of aircraft and therefore squadrons and control has shifted up the rank structure; the RAF's promotion system is automatic up until Flight Lieutenant. Every officer will attain the rank provided they complete their professional training and do not leave early. For Aircrew, Flight Lieutenant is reached 2.5 years after commissioning, BEng/MEng qualified engineers 2.5 and 1.5 years and for all ground branch officers, 3.5 years.
Aircrew are appointed to an Early Departure Payment Commission upon reaching their Operational Conversion Unit, a commission for 20 years or age 40, whichever is later. Promotion to Squadron Leader thereafter is upon merit. Resigning a commission is dependent on the needs of the Service, although an officer who has completed their Return of Service could leave after as little as four years. For aircrew, given the large expense required for training, this Return of Service is the length of their initial commission anyway, unless they re-role to a different branch having failed an element of flying training. Most aircrew reach their squadrons as Flight Lieutenants due to the length of training time required; the majority of squadron line pilots are flight lieutenants, with some squadron executives or Career Commission aircrew reaching Squadron Leader. Aside from aircrew, whose work does not require active leadership for units of airmen, ground branch officers can expect to operate units that can range in size from a few specialist non-commissioned personnel to 50 or more personnel for engineering or other manpower intensive roles.
The role of a Flight Lieutenant involves management of a team of specialists Non-Commissioned Officers and airmen, within their specific branch. In the RAF Regiment, a Flight Lieutenant has the same role and responsibility as a Captain in the British Army, in charge of a Regiment Flight of 30 men, could be second-in-command of a Squadron of up to 120 men. Flight Lieutenant is the most common rank in the RAF. In RAF informal usage, a flight lieutenant is sometimes referred to as a "flight lieuy". A Flight Lieutenant's starting salary is £39,236.40 as of 2015. In the Air Training Corps, a flight lieutenant is the officer commanding of a squadron. Retired flight lieutenants are the first rank that may continue to use their rank after they have left active service; the rank insignia consists of two narrow blue bands on wider black bands. This is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulders of the flight suit or the casual uniform; the rank insignia on the mess uniform is similar to the naval pattern, being two band of gold running around each cuff but without the Royal Navy's loop.
Unlike senior RAF officers, flight lieutenants are not entitled to fly a command flag under any circumstances. The rank of flight lieutenant is used in a number of the air forces in the Commonwealth, including the Bangladesh Air Force, Ghana Air Force, Indian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force, it is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman, Royal Thai Air Force and the Air Force of Zimbabwe. The Royal Can
Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force defended the United Kingdom against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought by air forces; the British recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as The Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz; the primary objective of the German forces was to compel Britain to agree to a negotiated peace settlement. In July 1940, the air and sea blockade began, with the Luftwaffe targeting coastal-shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth. On 1 August, the Luftwaffe was directed to achieve air superiority over the RAF with the aim of incapacitating RAF Fighter Command.
As the battle progressed, the Luftwaffe targeted factories involved in aircraft production and strategic infrastructure. It employed terror bombing on areas of political significance and on civilians; the Germans had overwhelmed France and the Low Countries, leaving Britain to face the threat of invasion by sea. The German high command knew the difficulties of a seaborne attack and its impracticality while the Royal Navy controlled the English Channel and the North Sea. On 16 July, Adolf Hitler ordered the preparation of Operation Sea Lion as a potential amphibious and airborne assault on Britain, to follow once the Luftwaffe had air superiority over the UK. In September, RAF Bomber Command night raids disrupted the German preparation of converted barges, the Luftwaffe's failure to overwhelm the RAF forced Hitler to postpone and cancel Operation Sea Lion. Germany proved unable to sustain daylight raids, but their continued night-bombing operations on Britain became known as the Blitz. Historian Stephen Bungay cited Germany's failure to destroy Britain's air defences to force an armistice as the first major German defeat in World War II and a crucial turning point in the conflict.
The Battle of Britain takes its name from a speech given by Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on 18 June: "What General Weygand called the'Battle of France' is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin." Strategic bombing during World War I introduced air attacks intended to panic civilian targets and led in 1918 to the amalgamation of British army and navy air services into the Royal Air Force. Its first Chief of the Air Staff Hugh Trenchard was among the military strategists in the 1920s like Giulio Douhet who saw air warfare as a new way to overcome the stalemate of trench warfare. Interception was nearly impossible with fighter planes no faster than bombers, their view was that the bomber will always get through, the only defence was a deterrent bomber force capable of matching retaliation. Predictions were made that a bomber offensive would cause thousands of deaths and civilian hysteria leading to capitulation, but widespread pacifism contributed to a reluctance to provide resources.
Germany was forbidden a military air force by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, therefore air crew were trained by means of civilian and sport flying. Following a 1923 memorandum, the Deutsche Luft Hansa airline developed designs for aircraft such as the Junkers Ju 52, which could carry passengers and freight, but be adapted into bombers. In 1926, the secret Lipetsk fighter-pilot school began operating. Erhard Milch organised rapid expansion, following the 1933 Nazi seizure of power, his subordinate Robert Knauss formulated a deterrence theory incorporating Douhet's ideas and Tirpitz's "risk theory", which proposed a fleet of heavy bombers to deter a preventive attack by France and Poland before Germany could rearm. A 1933–34 war game indicated a need for fighters and anti-aircraft protection as well as bombers. On 1 March 1935, the Luftwaffe was formally announced, with Walther Wever as Chief of Staff; the 1935 Luftwaffe doctrine for "Conduct of the Air War" set air power within the overall military strategy, with critical tasks of attaining air superiority and providing battlefield support for army and naval forces.
Strategic bombing of industries and transport could be decisive longer term options, dependent on opportunity or preparations by the army and navy, to overcome a stalemate or used when only destruction of the enemy's economy would be conclusive. The list excluded bombing civilians to destroy homes or undermine morale, as, considered a waste of strategic effort, but the doctrine allowed revenge attacks if German civilians were bombed. A revised edition was issued in 1940, the continuing central principle of Luftwaffe doctrine was that destruction of enemy armed forces was of primary importance; the RAF responded to Luftwaffe developments with its 1934 Expansion Plan A rearmament scheme, in 1936 it was restructured into Bomber Command, Coastal Command, Training Command and Fighter Command. The latter was under Hugh Dowding, who opposed the doctrine that bombers were unstoppable: the invention of radar at that time could allow early detection, prototype monoplane fighters were faster. Priorities were disputed, but in December 1937 the Minister in charge of defence coordination Sir Thomas Inskip decided in Dowding's favour, that "The role of our air force is not an early k