Edgewood High School of the Sacred Heart is a private, college preparatory school located in Madison, Wisconsin. Edgewood has been sponsored since its inception by the Dominican Sisters of Wisconsin. Edgewood's mission is to educate the whole student for a life of learning and personal responsibility through a rigorous academic curriculum embracing the Sinsinawa Dominican values of Truth, Justice and Partnership. In the 2017-2018 school year, it enrolled 487 students, 73.3% of whom lived in a different zip code from where the school is based. On the Edgewood campus are Edgewood College and Edgewood Campus School, an elementary and middle school. Edgewood has history dating back to Samuel Mazzuchelli; the school began in 1871 as Saint Regina Academy, an all-girls boarding school on West Washington Avenue in Madison. In 1881, Governor Cadwallader Washburn donated his official residence on Lake Wingra, "Edgewood Villa," after losing a bid for re-election. Saint Regina Academy continued to operate until a fire in 1893 destroyed the original building and a new building under construction.
Less than a year after the fire, the school/convent was rebuilt and re-opened as Sacred Heart Academy. In 1927, the current high school’s original building was completed according to the design of Philadelphia architect Albert Kelsey, son-in-law of Governor Cadwallader Washburn, under the name Edgewood High School of the Sacred Heart. An additional wing was completed in 1937 and a second addition with new classrooms, swimming pool and Commons was completed in 1967. In the 1990s the school added another gym and shared in the construction of the Sonderegger Science Center, used cooperatively by the three Edgewood schools on the campus; the Edgewood curriculum encompasses 132 credit-eligible courses across twelve departments. The school teaches 12 AP courses, including English, Calculus, 2nd Year Calculus Honors, Chemistry, Environmental Science, European History, U. S. History, French & Latin; the school's student literary magazine, musical productions, remote environmental science field course and Latin oratory are all award-winning programs.
About 1/3 of juniors and 1/2 of seniors take at least one AP course. Edgewood has programs for students with minor learning disabilities and challenges, which serve about 1/4 of its students. Graduation requirements, including four credits of English, three credits each of Math and Social Studies, help ensure students have a college preparatory background. Edgewood has Public Speaking as a required course in addition to requirements in Religious Studies, Physical Education, Fine Arts and Computer Literacy, offers Aviation as a unique elective. More than 95% of Edgewood's graduates go on to college, including having applied to and received acceptance to 85 of the Top 100. Besides having strong curricular offerings, Edgewood provides students options for expanding their academic pursuits. A robotics team, math team, Science Olympiad, National Honor Society, environmental club, honor societies for Spanish and Latin students, book club, strategy games club, political/current events club, multicultural club and other groups organize activities and competitive opportunities.
Key Club, STAR, Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Class/Executive Council, Dominican Preaching Team, LINK Crew and Leadership Corps all provide opportunities to learn skills, exercise leadership and engage in personal growth activities. Music, art and creative writing have been part of the Edgewood curriculum since its founding. An annual Fine Arts Festival brings professional guest artists and musicians to the school, offers a student talent showcase, includes a student/faculty hosted film festival with commentary, exhibits a juried selection of two- and three-dimensional art. Edgewood’s student literary and art magazine has three times earned the National Council of Teachers of English "Highest Award" for writing and visual art. Students may enter a school-wide writing contest juried by outside professionals; the Drama Department stages two productions per year, involving more than 100 students in each, either on stage or on technical crews. Since the inception of the Overture Center for the Arts Tommy Awards in 2009-2010, Edgewood High School musicals have earned "Outstanding Musical" honors for Anything Goes, West Side Story and Dolls and Mary Poppins.
Set construction for shows have earned second place awards from Sceno Graphics. Extra-curriculars include an improv comedy troupe, Laughing Stock, one-act play competitions. Edgewood participates in the Young Playwrights program as part of a course in which students write their own one-act plays, which are entered into competition against other participating schools. Students may choose from instrumental ensembles, including concert bands, jazz ensembles, chamber music ensembles, pep band, pit orchestra and handbells. Group and individual piano classes are offered. Vocal ensembles include the Edgewood chorus, concert choir, Crusader Singers show choir. Students may join the Edgetones a cappella group. Edgewood music students learn from guest clinicians, student exchanges with other area schools, the school’s collaboration in a consortium of high schools that annually commission a work from a composer who works with students in presenting the composition. Students may attend state juried festivals.
Visual/studio arts range from photography, drawing and commercial design to jewelry and ceramics. Th
Eaves Housing for Women was a charitable company based in London. It provided support to vulnerable women, including female victims of domestic violence, sex trafficking or domestic servitude, campaigned against prostitution; the organisation conducted research and lobbying. Eaves was the umbrella organisation for a number of projects including: "The Poppy Project", "The Scarlet Centre", "The Serafina Project" and "The Lilith Project"; the charity closed in October 2015. Eaves was founded in 1977 as "Homeless Action and Accommodation". Eaves had three main objectives, to provide accommodation and advice to women and children fleeing domestic violence, domestic servitude and sexual violence. Secondly, the charity responded to relevant government papers, it conducted research into prostitution and domestic violence. In the longer term the aim of the organisation "is to be recognised as one of the leading agencies on violence against women issues in the country". In 2003 Eaves received government funding for a service to assist women trafficked for sex and domestic servitude, it was called the POPPY Project and based in London.
It was the only UK Government-funded dedicated service for trafficked women. The POPPY Project provided accommodation and support services such as legal advice for the women it housed, outreach services for others. In its first six years it housed 215 women and helped a further 208; the project was committed to ending all prostitution on the grounds that it "helps to construct and maintain gender inequality". In April 2011 it was announced that Eaves had lost its central government funding for the POPPY project, with the contract for helping victims of trafficking going to the Salvation Army instead; the reason given by government for the change of service provider was that the Salvation Army was able to offer "victims a more diverse range of services". Former Labour Party MP Vera Baird criticised the decision suggesting women would not seek help from "uniformed male Christians". Eaves' subsidiary "The Lilith Project" campaigned to stop violence against women, studying issues such a lap dancing.
A 2003 study of lap dancing and striptease in the London Borough of Camden by the organisation linked the opening of new lap dancing venues with an increase in reported rapes and stated reported rapes near to lap dancing venues were three times the national average. The study and its conclusions were quoted by opponents of lap dancing venues. Other researchers including Dr Brooke Magnanti asserted that the Lilith study was "flawed" and Magnati published a study that concluded there is no "causal relationship" between such venues and an increase in sex attacks. Eaves Housing for Women received funding from a variety of sources including the Home Office, London Councils and a number of local authorities In 2010 it had an income of over £5 million. Eaves Charity Commission. Eaves Housing for Women, registered charity no. 275048
Agatha de LaVigne Biddle was a woman of Odawa and French heritage, who identified with her Odawa kin. She resided on Mackinac Island after, she acted as a partner with her husband in running their fur trade business, Biddle was known as a shrewd businesswoman and her kinship connections were an integral part of the Biddle business. She was pivotal in the negotiations of the 1855 Treaty of Detroit where she used her relationships with local Indigenous peoples and settlers to negotiate on behalf of the Odawa peoples. Biddle was renowned for her charity, the aid she provided to her community, including needy children; the home she shared with her husband, independent fur trader Edward Biddle, known as Biddle House, still stands on Mackinac Island and was the site of many local gatherings. Agatha Biddle will be inducted into the Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame on October 18, 2018. Biddle was born Agatha de LaVigne, her mother was Marie Lefevre de La Vigne and her father was Kougowma called La Vigne of the Odawa people.
After the death of Agatha's father, her mother married Joseph Bailly, a fur trader of French descent from Nova Scotia who came to some prominence. They lived in the Mackinac area and Agatha continued to have a close relationship with her mother after her marriage. Edward Biddle arrived on Mackinac Island shortly after the conclusion of the War of 1812 and it is after this date that Agatha and Edward married. By marrying Agatha, Biddle made a connection to the prominent Bailly fur trading family. Details of their wedding were recorded, guests included many prominent members of Mackinac society, including Madeline La Framboise. Agatha and her mother were recorded by contemporary Elisabeth Baird as wearing the traditional dress of the Métis women of the area at the wedding; this included layers of broadcloth, moccasins and beads, all elaborately embroidered. Biddle continued to wear traditional clothing through her life. Fleming notes the marriage of Agatha was not unusual for the time. However, while it was typical for Métis women to marry outside their home community, Edward Biddle was an English-speaking, Protestant American in a community, Indigenous and French Canadian.
Together Agatha and Edward Biddle had seven children: Sophia, John and Mary and together they built their business. Their youngest daughter Mary died at the age of eight after falling through the ice while travelling between Mackinac Island and St. Ignace and her grave is the oldest in the St. Ann cemetery. During the early period of the fur trade the Mackinac and surrounded area were inhabited by First Nations people, but by the middle of the nineteenth century their numbers were reduced due to war, including the War of 1812, treaties which saw many of the local Odawa and Anishinaabe people relocated to tiny parcels of land. Biddle was made chief of the Mackinac band in the mid 1800s. Biddle took on a number of community roles, including taking in sick or orphaned Anishnaabe children and offering food and other charity, she is recorded as serving as undertaker on the island. She carried out burial services. Biddle is cited as an example of the way Metis women used their connections between local First Nations communities as well as settler communities to advantage in the fur trade society of the Great Lakes.
The exploding wire method or EWM is a way to generate plasma that consists in sending a strong enough pulse of electric current through a thin wire of some electrically conductive material. The resistive heating vaporizes the wire, an electric arc through that vapor creates an explosive shockwave. Exploding wires are used as detonators for explosives, as momentary high intensity light sources, in the production of metal nanoparticles. One of the first documented cases of using electricity to melt a metal occurred in the late 1700s and is credited to Martin van Marum who melted 70 feet of metal wire with 64 Leyden Jars as a capacitor. Van Marum's generator was built in 1784, is now located in the Teylers Museum in the Netherlands. Years Benjamin Franklin vaporized thin gold leaf to burn images onto paper. While neither Marum nor Franklin incited the exploding wire phenomenon, they were both important steps towards its discovery. Edward Nairne was the first to note the existence of the exploding wire method in 1774 with silver and copper wire.
Subsequently, Michael Faraday used EWM to deposit thin gold films through the solidification of vaporized metal on adjacent surfaces. Vapor deposits of metal gas as a result of EWM were studied by August Toepler during the 1800s. Spectrography investigation of the process, led by J. A. Anderson, became widespread in the 1900s; the spectrography experiments enabled a better understanding and subsequently the first glimpses of practical application. The mid 20th century saw experiments with EWM as a light source and for the production of nanoparticles in aluminum and plutonium wires. Congruently, Luis Álvarez and Lawrence H. Johnston of the Manhattan Project found use for EWM in the development of nuclear detonators. Current day research focuses on utilizing EWM to produce nanoparticles as well as better understanding specifics of the mechanism such as the effects of the system environment on the process; the basic components needed for the exploding wire method are a thin conductive wire and a capacitor.
The wire is gold, iron or platinum, is less than 0.5 mm in diameter. The capacitor has an energy consumption of about 25 kWh/kg and discharges a pulse of current density 104 - 106 A/mm2, leading to temperatures up to 100,000 K; the phenomenon occurs over a time period of only 10−8 - 10−5 seconds. The process is as follows: A rising current, supplied by the capacitor, is carried across the wire; the current heats up the wire through ohmic heating. The metal melts to form a broken series of imperfect spheres called unduloids; the current rises so fast. The unduloids vaporize; the metal vapor creates a lower resistance path, allowing an higher current to flow. An electric arc is formed. A bright flash of light is produced; the plasma is allowed to expand creating a shock wave. Electromagnetic radiation is released in tandem with the shock wave; the shock wave pushes liquid and plasmatic metal outwards, breaking the circuit and ending the process. EWM research has suggested possible applications in the excitation of optical masers, high intensity light sources for communications, spacecraft propulsion, joining difficult materials such as quartz, generation of high power radio-frequency pulses.
The most promising applications of EWM are as a detonator, light source, for the production of nanoparticles. EWM has found its most common use as a detonator, named the exploding-bridgewire detonator, for nuclear bombs. Bridgewire detonators are advantageous over chemical fuses as the explosion is consistent and occurs only a few microseconds after the current is applied, with variation of only a few tens of nanoseconds from detonator to detonator. EWM is an effective mechanism by; the peak intensity for copper wire, for example, is 9.6·108 candle power/cm2. J. A. Anderson wrote in his initial spectrography studies that the light was comparable to a black body at 20,000 K; the advantage of a flash produced in this way is that it is reproducible with little variation in intensity. The linear nature of the wire allows for shaped and angled light flashes and different types of wires can be used to produce different colors of light; the light source can be used in interferometry, flash photolysis, quantitative spectroscopy, high-speed photography.
Nanoparticles are created by EWM when the ambient gas of the system cools the produced vaporous metal. EWM can be used to cheaply and efficiently produce nanoparticles at a rate of 50 – 300 grams per hour and at a purity of above 99 %; the process requires a low energy consumption as little energy is lost in an electric to thermal energy conversion. Environmental effects are minimal due to the process taking place in a closed system; the Particles can be as small as 10 nm but are most below 100 nm in diameter. Physical attributes of the nanopowder can be altered depending on the parameters of the explosion. For example, as the voltage of the capacitor is raised, the particle diameter decreases; the pressure of the gas environment can change the dispersiveness of the nanoparticles. Through such manipulations the functionality of the nanopowder may be altered; when EWM is performed in a standard atmosphere containing oxygen, metal oxides are formed. Pure metal nanoparticles can be produced with EWM in an inert environment argon gas or distilled water.
Pure metal nanopowders must be kept in their inert environment because they ignite when exposed to oxygen in air. The metal vapor is contained by operating the mechanism within a steel box or similar container. Nano
Merrill Skolnik, is a respected researcher in the area of radar systems and the author or editor of a number of standard texts in the field. He is best known for his introductory text "Introduction to Radar Systems" and for editing the "Radar Handbook". In 1986, he was elected to the prestigious National Academy of Engineering. From 1965 to his retirement in 1996, he worked for the Naval Research Laboratory in the US. Earlier in his career, he worked with the Institute for Defense Analyses, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Johns Hopkins Radiation Laboratory, among other organizations, he is a Fellow of the IEEE and was editor of the Proceedings of the IEEE. In 2000, he was the first recipient of the IEEE Dennis J. Picard Medal for Radar Technologies and Applications. Further Reading Geselowitz, Michael. "Oral-History:Merrill Skolnik." IEEE Global History Network. IEEE, 22 Feb. 2000. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Oral-History%3AMerrill_Skolnik>. NRL. "Dr. Skolnik Receives Picard Medal."
U. S. Naval Research Laboratory. NRL, 15 June 2000. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2000/dr-skolnik-receives-picard-medal>. Perry, Tekla S. "Famous First Jobs: Seven Leading Engineers Tell about Their First Professional Jobs, Their Reasons for Choosing Them, How Those Choices Affected Their Careers." IEEE Spectrum 24.7: 44-51. Includes a section on Dr. Merrill I Skolnik, when in 1987 he was head of the Radar Division, Naval Research Lab. Provides his early history. Skolnik, Merrill I. Introduction to Radar Systems. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Skolnik, Merrill I. Radar Handbook. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008. Skolnik, Merrill I. "Radar." Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2002. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/488278/radar>