American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
My Big Fat Greek Wedding
My Big Fat Greek Wedding is a 2002 independent romantic comedy film directed by Joel Zwick and written by Nia Vardalos, who stars in the film as Fotoula "Toula" Portokalos, a middle class Greek American woman who falls in love with non-Greek upper middle class White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Ian Miller. The film received positive reviews from critics and, at the 75th Academy Awards, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. A sleeper hit, the film became the highest-grossing romantic comedy of all time, grossed $241.4 million in North America, despite never reaching number one at the box office during its release. It was the highest-grossing film to accomplish this feat for 14 years until the animated film Sing grossed $268 million in 2016; the film spawned a franchise, which inspired the short-lived 2003 TV series My Big Fat Greek Life and a film sequel titled My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2, was released on March 25, 2016. Fotoula "Toula" Portokalos is her family's black sheep.
Her staunchly proud Greek immigrant parents and Maria, raised their daughters to follow their cultural traditions of marriage and motherhood. Her older sister Athena met her family's expectations by marrying young to another Greek and becoming, in Toula's words, "a Greek baby-breeding machine". Toula, however, is 30 years old and still lives with her parents, she works at Dancing Zorba's, her family's restaurant in Chicago. She longs for an independent life away from her intrusive family. Frumpy and cynical, she fears. One day at the restaurant, Toula notices a handsome young customer—Ian Miller, a high school teacher, she tries to speak to him, only to embarrass herself with her social awkwardness. Ian is bewildered by her behavior, Toula figures she's lost her chance to get to know him. In a small step towards independence, Toula wants to take computer classes at a local community college; when Toula approaches her father Gus about the classes, he forbids it, thinking she wants to leave her family.
He insists she's "smart enough for a girl" and it is too dangerous for her to be out in the city alone. After some crafty persuasion by his wife, Gus reluctantly permits Toula to attend classes; as her classes progress, Toula gains self-confidence. She trades her thick glasses for contact lenses and her baggy, drab clothes for flattering, colorful outfits, she learns to apply makeup. With her new computer skills and polished image, Toula asks her mother and her Aunt Voula to convince Gus that Toula should work at Voula's travel agency instead of the restaurant. Toula thrives in her new job, one day she sees Ian walking by the travel agency, he notices Toula, not recognizing that she is the same woman who tried to talk to him at Dancing Zorba's. Despite Toula's lingering shyness, they begin dating; when Ian realizes Toula was the woman at the restaurant, Toula is sure. Instead, he loves her more for who she is, they become a couple; because Ian is not Greek, Toula keeps the relationship secret from her family, but her parents find out when a family friend sees them kissing in a parking lot.
As she feared, Gus is angry because Ian is not an ethnic Greek—referring to Ian as a "Xeno"—and both Gus and Maria tell Toula to end the relationship. Toula insists, her parents try to dissuade her by bringing various Greek bachelors home to meet her, all to no avail. When Ian proposes to Toula, she accepts, but Gus is upset that Ian did not ask him for permission to date Toula, let alone marry her. Ian tries to adapt to the family's Greek mannerisms. Ian and Toula cannot marry in the Greek Orthodox Church unless Ian converts, Toula is worried the wedding will be a fiasco, she suggests to Ian. He refuses, saying if it's that important to her family to marry in their religion he will be baptized Greek Orthodox. Ian's willingness to do this encourages Gus and Maria to accept Ian into the family; as Toula feared, her numerous well-meaning female relatives take over much of the wedding plans, while the men keep testing Ian. Her cousin Nikki selects tacky bridesmaids dresses without Toula's permission.
Other cousins trick Ian into saying inappropriate things in Greek. When Toula invites Ian's quiet, reserved parents to meet her parents at their home, she insists that it be a simple dinner with just the six of them. Toula and Ian arrive to find all of Toula's extended family at the dinner, where they dance and drink for hours. Ian's parents are shocked by the family's rambunctiousness. On the wedding day, Toula is nervous and surrounded by relatives, but the traditional Greek wedding goes perfectly. At the reception, Gus gives a speech his parents as family, he presents the newlyweds with a deed to a house. Both Ian and Toula are touched by Gus's generosity. Following the reception and Ian leave for a honeymoon in Greece, both appreciating the craziness of their Greek family. An epilogue shows the couple's life six years later. Toula got pregnant "a minute later" after their honeymoon with their daughter Paris; as Ian and Toula are walking Paris from their house to Greek school, Paris asks why she has to go to Greek school.
Toula replies that she had to go to Greek school as a child, so Paris will too. But she assures her; as they walk, it is revealed. My Big Fat Greek Wedding started as a one-woman play written by and starring Vardalos, performed for six weeks at the Hudson Backstage Theatre in L
Prancer is a 1989 American-Canadian children's fantasy drama film directed by John Hancock, written by Greg Taylor, starring Rebecca Harrell, Sam Elliott, Cloris Leachman, Abe Vigoda, Michael Constantine, Rutanya Alda, Ariana Richards. It is set in Three Oaks, where town exteriors were filmed. Filming occurred at the Old Republic House in New Carlisle, Indiana, La Porte, at Starved Rock State Park in Utica, Illinois; the film was followed by a direct-to-video sequel, Prancer Returns, released by USA Home Entertainment in 2001. 8-year-old Jessica Riggs is raised by her older brother and widowed father, John. Their apple farm has fallen on hard times. John is temporarily being helped by Sarah. While walking home after a school Christmas pageant, Jessica witnesses a plastic reindeer fall from a Christmas decoration being hung above the main street in town, she concludes that it was Prancer from the order given in the poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas". Afraid he will be unable to provide for Jessica, John discusses a plan for Sarah to take her in to raise temporarily.
She overhears this, but does not know the full details. She and her best friend, Carol, go sledding and knock down some flowers at a house owned by a reclusive widow, Mrs. McFarland. While walking home, Jessica encounters a live reindeer in the woods, it runs away. While walking home from school, she finds reindeer tracks and follows them into the woods once more, she hears a gunshot, continues to walk. John finds her, but hits the reindeer, now standing in the road. Noticing it is wounded, he grabs his rifle; as Jessica pleads for him not to do so, it disappears. While dreaming of Prancer, Jessica is startled awake by the scene of the plastic reindeer falling from earlier, she sees the window to the barn outside is open. Investigating, she finds. Afraid John will find him, she moves him to a shed. Certain that he is the "real" Prancer, she takes it upon herself to nurse him back to health, she calls a veterinarian who refuses, but comes over to find him. Jessica tells a mall Santa that she has Prancer, gives him a Polaroid picture along with a letter to give to the real Santa before Christmas Eve.
He takes them to the editor of the local newspaper. Jessica apologizes to Mrs. McFarland, asks her if she can have a job to help pay for oats for the reindeer. Mrs. McFarland agrees to pay her if she cleans a room in the house, they become friends; the newspaper editor, inspired by Jessica's faith, writes an article, read by the local pastor in the middle of his sermon, which makes Jessica find out that she has been outed to the entire town. She becomes mad at Carol, she terminates her friendship with Carol, finds the article in the paper. John, meanwhile, is reading the paper. Before he finds the article, he discovers. While he tries to round them up, Prancer wrecks it. Townspeople begin to converge on the farm, wanting to see him. John grabs his rifle, threatening to shoot him when a local butcher stops him, offering to buy Prancer. Jessica, runs away in the night determined to rescue him; the butcher keeps him as a sales tool for his Christmas tree lot. Steve runs after her, telling her that he loves her though they fight.
She falls, injuring her head. Jessica stays in her bedroom. John goes to her and she asks him to read a passage from "Yes, there is a Santa Claus", he tells her that times may continue to be hard for a long time but while he could bear losing the farm, he will not lose her. He changes his mind about sending her away, he suggests they take Prancer to Antler Ridge, which would be the perfect place for Santa to pick him up. The townspeople begin singing to cheer her up. Prancer is taken to Antler Ridge. Following his tracks and Jessica notice that they vanish at the edge of a cliff; the faint sound of sleigh bells can be heard, a streak of light is seen rising to meet Santa's sleigh. It flies across the full moon towards the farm—its first stop. Jessica bids Prancer farewell, to always remember her; the film received mixed to positive reviews from critics, as it holds a 67% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 24 reviews. The film's young lead actress, Rebecca Harrell, garnered a nomination for a Young Artist Award for Best Young Actress Starring in a Motion Picture for her performance.
Movie critic Roger Ebert highlighted Harrell's performance, saying: And what redeems the movie, taking it out of the category of kiddie picture and giving it a heart and gumption, is the performance by a young actress named Rebecca Harrell, as Jessica. She's something, she has a troublemaker's look in her eye, a round, pixie face that's filled with mischief. And she's smart -- a plucky schemer who figures out things for herself and isn't afraid to act on her convictions; the film was released on DVD by MGM Home Video with several re-packagings in 2003 and 2004, a newer release on October 7, 2014. Prancer on IMDb Prancer at the TCM Movie Database Prancer at Box Office Mojo Prancer at Rotten Tomatoes
The Fugitive (TV series)
The Fugitive is an American drama series created by Roy Huggins. It was produced by United Artists Television, it aired on ABC from September 1963 to August 1967. David Janssen starred as Dr. Richard Kimble, a physician, wrongfully convicted of his wife's murder and sentenced to receive the death penalty. En route to death row, Dr. Richard Kimble's train derails over a switch, allowing him to escape and begin a cross-country search for the real killer, a "one-armed man". At the same time, Dr. Kimble is hounded by the authorities, most notably by Police Lieutenant Philip Gerard; the Fugitive aired for four seasons, a total of 120 51-minute episodes were produced. The first three seasons were filmed in white, while the final season was filmed in color; the Fugitive was nominated for five Emmy Awards and won the Emmy for Outstanding Dramatic Series in 1966. In 2002, it was ranked No. 36 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. TV Guide named the one-armed man No. 5 in their 2013 list of The 60 Nastiest Villains of All Time.
The series premise was set up in the opening narration, but the full details about the crime were not offered in the pilot episode. While in transit, the train carrying Kimble derails, Kimble becomes the titular'fugitive' in an attempt to clear his name. In the series' first season, the premise was summarized in the opening title sequence of the pilot episode as follows: Name: Richard Kimble. Profession: Doctor of Medicine. Destination: Death Row, state prison. Richard Kimble has been convicted for the murder of his wife, but laws are made by men, carried out by men, men are imperfect. Richard Kimble is innocent. Proved guilty, what Richard Kimble could not prove was that moments before discovering his wife's body, he encountered a man running from the vicinity of his home. A man with one arm. A man who has not yet been found. Richard Kimble ponders his fate as he looks at the world for the last time, sees only darkness, but in that darkness, fate moves its huge hand. This title sequence was shortened for the remainder of the first season as follows: The name: Dr. Richard Kimble.
The destination: Death Row, state prison. The irony: Richard Kimble is innocent. Proved guilty, what Richard Kimble could not prove was that moments before discovering his murdered wife's body, he saw a one-armed man running from the vicinity of his home. Richard Kimble ponders his fate as he looks at the world for the last time, sees only darkness, but in that darkness, fate moves its huge hand. The main title narration, as read by William Conrad, was changed for the first episode of the second season on through the last episode of the series: The Fugitive, a QM Production...starring David Janssen as Dr. Richard Kimble, an innocent victim of blind justice. Falsely convicted for the murder of his wife...reprieved by fate when a train wreck freed him en route to the death house...freed him to hide in lonely desperation...to change his identity...to toil at many jobs...freed him to search for a one-armed man he saw leave the scene of the crime...freed him to run before the relentless pursuit of the police lieutenant obsessed with his capture.
It was not until episode 14, "The Girl from Little Egypt", that viewers were offered the full details of Richard Kimble's plight. A series of flashbacks reveals the fateful night of Helen Kimble's death, for the first time offers a glimpse of the "One-Armed Man"; the show's lead, the only character seen in all 120 episodes, was Dr. Richard David Kimble, based in part on the story of Sam Sheppard. Though Dr. Richard Kimble was a respected pediatrician in the fictional small town of Stafford, Indiana, it was known that he and his wife Helen had been having arguments prior to her death. Helen's pregnancy had ended in a stillborn birth of a son, surgery to save her life had rendered her infertile; the couple was devastated. On the night of Helen's murder, the Kimbles had been heard, earlier the same day, arguing heatedly over this topic by their neighbors. Richard went out for a drive to cool off. Richard found that Helen had been killed, but no one had seen or heard Richard go out for his drive, or seen him while he was out, so he was unjustly convicted of Helen's murder and sentenced to death in the electric chair.
After the train wreck and his escape from custody, Kimble moves from town to town, always trying to remain unobtrusive and unnoticed as he evades capture and hopes to find the one-armed man. He adopts many nondescript aliases, toils at low-paying menial jobs, has a romance with a damsel in distress, he puts his anonymity at risk by aiding a deserving person a woman or child. A frequent plot device is for someone to discover Kimble's true identity and use it to manipulate him, under the threat of turning him in to the police. Dr. Richard Kimble is smart and resourceful, he is able to perform well at any job he takes, he displays considerable prowess in hand-to-hand combat. In the episode "Nemesis", he distracts knocks out, a forest ranger quickly unloads the man's rifle to ensure he cannot shoot him if pursued. In the sixth episode, Kimble revealed. David J
Room 222 is an American comedy-drama television series produced by 20th Century Fox Television that aired on ABC for 112 episodes from September 17, 1969, until January 11, 1974. The show was broadcast on Wednesday evenings at 8:30 for its first two seasons before settling into its best-remembered time slot of Friday evenings at 9:00, following The Brady Bunch and The Partridge Family, preceding The Odd Couple and Love, American Style. In 1970, Room 222 earned the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding New Series, while Michael Constantine and Karen Valentine won for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series and Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series, respectively; the series focused on an American history class in Room 222 of the fictional Walt Whitman High School, an racially diverse school in Los Angeles, although it depicted other events at and outside the school, such as the home lives of students and faculty. The class is taught by an idealistic African-American school teacher.
Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre, Pete's girlfriend. Patsy Garrett played Miss Hogarth. In addition, many recurring students were featured from episode to episode. Pete Dixon delivers gentle lessons in understanding to his students, they admire his wisdom and easygoing manner. The themes of the episodes were sometimes topical, reflecting the contemporary political climate of the late 1960s and early to mid-1970s, such as the Vietnam War, women's rights, race relations, Watergate. However, most plots featured themes still common to modern-day teenagers. For example, the 1969 episode "Funny Boy" deals with a class clown, self-conscious about being overweight, the 1971 episode "What Is a Man?" Deals with a student, mistakenly the victim of anti-gay harassment and the 1974 episode "I Didn't Raise My Girl to Be a Soldier" with parent–teenager issues. Lloyd Haynes as Mr. Pete Dixon, the protagonist, an African-American who teaches 11th grade American History in room 222 of Walt Whitman High School Denise Nicholas as Miss Liz McIntyre, the African-American guidance counselor at Whitman, dating Pete Michael Constantine as Mr. Seymour Kaufman, the Caucasian principal of Whitman, preoccupied with his duties but dryly humorous Karen Valentine as Miss Alice Johnson, a Caucasian student teacher learning from Pete Ramon Bieri as Mr. Gil Casey, vice principal Howard Rice as Richie Lane, the "brainy" kid in the class Heshimu Cumbuka as Jason Allen, the "tough guy" of the class Eve McVeagh as Madge Morano, Mrs Cates, PTA Member Eric Laneuville as Larry Ta-Tanisha as Pamela, the "popular girl" of the class Judy Strangis as Helen Loomis, the "quiet kid" of the class David Jolliffe as Bernie, the school's sports star Bruno Kirby as Herbie Constadine Patsy Garrett as Miss Hogarth Ivor Francis as Mr. Kenneth Dragen Helen Kleeb as Miss TandyBernie Kopell, Cindy Williams, Teri Garr, Ed Begley Jr. Jamie Farr, Rob Reiner, Anthony Geary, Richard Dreyfuss, Chuck Norris, Kurt Russell, Bob Balaban, Donny Most, Mark Hamill all made guest appearances on the show.
The program was filmed at 20th Century Fox studios. Exterior shots of Los Angeles High School were shown behind the opening credits and for some outdoor scenes in the early seasons. Room 222's initial episodes garnered weak ratings, ABC was poised to cancel the program after one season. However, the show earned several nominations at the 1970 Emmy Awards, ABC relented. In the spring of 1970, Room 222 won Emmy Awards for Best New Series; the following year and Valentine were again nominated in the supporting acting awards category. After the shaky first season, Room 222 managed to receive respectable ratings during its next three years. Ratings peaked during the 1971 -- 72 season. By the start of the 1973–74 season, ratings had fallen drastically, ABC canceled the show at mid-season. After the series ended, the program entered syndication and was rerun on several television stations throughout the United States; the theme song was written by film composer Jerry Goldsmith, written in a 7/4 time signature.
His theme and two episode scores for the series were issued by Film Score Monthly on an album with his score for the film Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies. The show draws some comparisons to a theatrical movie which premiered during the show's first season, Halls of Anger. In that movie, a new, black teacher joins a southern California high school; the film and television show share actors. However, while Room 222 is a comedy-drama, milder in tone, Halls of Anger is purposefully aggressive, using deliberately controversial language and some forceful violence to highlight the real and dangerous potential of unresolved racial conflict. A series of novels based on characters and dialog of the series was written by William Johnston and published by Tempo Books in the early 1970s. Dell Comics published a comic book for four issues during 1970 and 1971. Shout! Factory has released the first two seasons of Room 222 on DVD in Region 1. White savior § Appearance in tel
The Reivers (film)
The Reivers is a 1969 Technicolor film in Panavision starring Steve McQueen and directed by Mark Rydell based on the William Faulkner novel The Reivers, a Reminiscence. The supporting cast includes Sharon Farrell, Rupert Crosse, Mitch Vogel, Burgess Meredith as the narrator. Set in 1905, the film follows the exploits of the likable but raffish Boon Hoggenbeck, who takes an interest in a new car, a new 1905 Winton Flyer, the property of a man named Boss, the patriarch of the McCaslin family, who live in the Mississippi area where Boon lives; when the taking of the car first by Boon and by Ned leads to a public brawl, the local magistrate lets them off by a bond that Boss pays on the condition both men stay out of trouble and far away from the car while he is away with family to attend a funeral. That is soon changed by Boon, who takes the car again to go up to Memphis to see his woman Corrie and talks his young friend Lucius into going for the ride. Ned stows away as well. Other characters include a horse that loves sardines and races for them, a friendly bordello madam and her amiable employees, a man with a horse who lives near an impassable sinkhole full of mud for which he charges expensive rates to get both carts and cars through.
1970 Oscar Nominations: Actor in a Supporting Role – Rupert Crosse making him the first African American to receive a nomination in this category. Music – John Williams The Reivers was released to DVD by Paramount Home Video on June 14, 2005 as a Region 1 widescreen DVD. List of American films of 1969 The Reivers on IMDb The Reivers at the TCM Movie Database The Reivers at AllMovie The Reivers at the American Film Institute Catalog
An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to