California State Military Reserve
The California State Military Reserve is the one of three branches of the Active Militia of the State. The military reserve was formed to provide California a trained and organized military force in the event of a state security or natural disaster emergency to augment the California National Guard or when the National Guard is deployed, its current mission is articulated in CA Military & Veteran's Code § 550:"... as the Governor may deem necessary to defend and for the security of this State..." For the 2012–2013 fiscal year, the CSMR had 1400 volunteers and its expenditures were $620,000. The California State Military Reserve is authorized as a state defense force under the provisions of the Title 32, United States Code, Section 109 and the California State Military Reserve Act, it is one of five components of the California Military Department and has legal standing as part of California's Active Militia. The force consists of citizens or individuals who have begun their naturalization process, who possess a variety of skills, many members are veterans of other branches of the United States Armed Forces as well as former members of the California Army and Air National Guard.
All citizens over the age of 18 who are not felons and possess a high school diploma or GED are eligible to apply for membership, although military veterans and those with special skills which materially contribute to the CSMR's mission are preferred. Members are considered uncompensated State employees, although when called to Emergency State Active Duty, they become compensated employees at the same rate as National Guard members of the same rank. Reimbursement may be provided in limited circumstances for travel and meals when directly supporting a National Guard mission. Unlike the Civil Air Patrol or the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, the CSMR is a statutory military entity of the State with each CSMR member subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice per CMVC § 560. Prior service soldiers are to have a smooth transition into the CSMR. If the break in service is long, the soldier may need an adjustment period while going through IET to come up to speed with modern Army and National Guard practices.
Any MOS qualifications, medals, badges, or awards earned in federal or state national guard service transfer directly. Depending on the rank earned and length of time since separation, previously-held rank in those services transfers. CSMR Regulations require all soldiers to attend the Basic Orientation Course which consists of basic military customs and courtesies and a general overview of the CSMR; this is just a basic course spanning a few days at most. In addition to this, any soldier entering the CSMR in the southern region must attend an Initial Entry Training course through the 223d Training Support Regiment, Southern Detachment; this is a five-month course where soldiers report to a student chain of command that changes every month. They are given weekly homework and accountability tasks to strengthen unit cohesion and train soldiers on how to interact with the chain of command; every month roles are switched around and new soldiers are assigned as squad leaders while soldiers completing Echo track graduate and are released to their gaining units.
During this five-month course they report for UTA at the Training Company IEP. They are taught courtesies in depth and practice drill and ceremony; this is as physical. Soldiers are required to maintain Army height and weight standards, but, done on the soldier's own time. There is no CSMR equivalent to Advanced Individual Training: This is done on the unit level once the soldier arrives from IET. Other schools are available to soldiers; these include NCOA which has three levels of courses: BLC, ALC, SLC. These courses are broken into 5 live-in phases at Camp San Luis Obispo for 3 days each. On the officer's side is OCS, an intense, year-long course meeting 6 times at Camp San Luis Obispo for live-in phases of 4 days each. In both courses, work is done on-site and during the interim. While prior service soldiers retain any MOSq obtained non-prior-service soldiers have no MOS qualification; when Army Knowledge Online accounts were available, CSMR soldiers could take courses and become MOSq in select MOS's however at the moment there is no AKO replacement for non-prior soldiers to obtain an MOS.
Most of the time the soldier has civilian qualifications that meet or exceed Army standard for a particular MOS and they are used as Subject Matter Experts to train their national guard counterparts. An example of this is the Small Arms Training Team, responsible for small arms training for the California National Guard; as of 1 AUG 2016, the California State Military Reserve has been reorganized. Most units have now been directly embedded with and placed under the operational control of National Guard units throughout the state; the current organization is as follows: Headquarters, California State Military Reserve Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment J1 J3 J4 J5 J6 J9 Provost Marshal Recruiting Trial Defense Band 40th Support Command 79th Support Brigade 100th Support Command 224th Support Brigade Special Operations Support Detach
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in Southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west, separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south from Santa Clara River Valley to the north and Santa Clarita Valley to the northeast; the Oxnard Plain is to the west of Santa Susana Mountains. The Newhall Pass separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains to the east. Newhall Pass is the major north-south connection between the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Clarita Valley, Interstate 5 and a railroad line share Newhall Pass; the Santa Susana Pass connects the Simi and San Fernando valleys, separates the Santa Susana Mountains from Simi Hills to the south. Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, is located in the Simi Hills, just south of the Santa Susana Pass, at the northwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley; the Santa Susana Mountains are not as high as the San Gabriel Mountains. The western half of the range lies in Ventura County, the eastern half lies in Los Angeles County.
The southeastern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains are part of the City of Los Angeles, housing subdivisions, including Porter Ranch, have been built on the lower slopes of the range. The city of Simi Valley lies to the southwest. North of the range is the fast-growing city of Santa Clarita, several large subdivisions in unincorporated Los Angeles County, including Lyons Ranch and Newhall Ranch, have been approved for development; the Sunshine Canyon Landfill is at the mountains' eastern end, several canyons in the northwest corner of the range have been proposed for more landfills. The mountains have a mild climate, with cool, wet winters. Snow melts quickly. Annual Precipitation totals vary between 18 and 25 inches, depending on exposure to the rain-bearing winds. Most of the rain falls between March; because of the summer drought, wildfires sometimes occur in summer and fall before the rains start during hot, dry "Santa Ana" wind events. The highest peaks in the range are Oat Mountain, Mission Point, Rocky Peak, Sand Rock Peak.
The summit of Rocky Peak lies directly atop the line separating Ventura and Los Angeles counties and is indicated by a battered marker imbedded into the sandstone boulder summit. The first discovery of oil in California was in Pico Canyon, on the north side of the mountains, The California Star Oil Works Chevron, succeeded with Pico Well No. 4. It became famous not only as the first well in California, but as the longest-producing well in the world, having been capped in September, 1990 after 114 years. Well No. 4 has the distinction of being the first site in Los Angeles County to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in 1966. The surrounding town, Mentryville, is maintained as the oil "ghost town" Mentryville Historical Park, within Pico Canyon Park. Many active oil and gas fields remain in the area, with some of the larger operators including Vintage Production, Freeport McMoRan, the Southern California Gas Company; the largest of SoCalGas's four underground storage natural gas facilities is within the Aliso Canyon Oil Field north of Porter Ranch.
The mountains are within the acquisition area for the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, which operates several parks, including Santa Clarita Woodlands Park, Rocky Peak Park, Joughin Open Space Preserve, Happy Camp Canyon Park, other Santa Susana parks in the Santa Susana Mountains through the Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority. The City of Los Angeles maintains O'Melveny Park at the eastern end of the mountains. Note: the Santa Susana Field Laboratory, once operated by and still owned by Rocketdyne until toxics are cleaned up, is in the Simi Hills, which are adjacent to the south of the Santa Susana Mountains; the south-facing slopes are covered in Chaparral shrubland and oak savanna. The north-facing slopes are home to magnificent oak woodlands and conifer woodlands, some of which have been protected in the Santa Clarita Woodlands Park and other large open space preserves; the mountains are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. The oaks, include the evergreen coast live oak, the deciduous valley oak, the coastal scrub oak all can be found in the area.
Spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Mariposa lily, canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the native plant habitat community. Various ferns are found in moister and tree-shaded areas. Many bird species thrive in the Santa Susana Mountains; the most common raptors observed soaring over the brushy, boulder-strewn landscape are turkey vultures, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels. In oak woodlands it is not uncommon to see red-shouldered hawks flying from limb to limb. Through the cover of dense, trailside chaparral you might glimpse the California towhee or the colorful spotted towhee, birds who make their presence known by rustling up leaf litter on the ground. California quail, greater roadrunner, common raven are residents of the range; the eerie and enchanting call of the common poorwill can be heard after dark while quick eyes might observe the silent flight of great horned owls and phantom-like barn owls. A handful of fascinating amphibians live in the area.
Streams and creeks support populations of Pacific tree frog, the small amphibian whose signature chorus adds an aura of mystery and inexplicable be
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
San Gabriel Valley
The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, lying to the east of the city of Los Angeles. Surrounding features include: San Gabriel Mountains on the north, San Rafael Hills to the west, with Los Angeles Basin beyond; the valley derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows southward through the center of the valley, which itself was named for the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel built in the Whittier Narrows in 1771. At one time predominantly agricultural, the San Gabriel Valley is today entirely urbanized and is an integral part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area, it is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the country. About 200 square miles in size, the valley includes thirty-one cities and five unincorporated communities. In 1886, Pasadena was the first independent incorporated city still located in Los Angeles County; the San Gabriel Valley is in Los Angeles County. The incorporated cities and unincorporated neighborhoods of the San Gabriel Valley include: Whittier, like Montebello, is considered both a San Gabriel Valley city and part of the Gateway Cities region.
An unincorporated portion of Whittier, Rose Hills, sits below the Puente Hills. Although these hills are small compared to the San Gabriel Mountains, the fact that most of the city sits around them makes Whittier a San Gabriel Valley city; this is similar to Montebello, a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments, despite geographically being part of the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont, Diamond Bar, La Verne, San Dimas and Walnut are adjacent to the San Gabriel Valley, although are properly considered part of the Pomona Valley, they are commonly considered part of the San Gabriel Valley; the 57 Freeway is considered the dividing line between the Pomona and San Gabriel valleys. However, for statistical and economic development purposes, the County of Los Angeles includes these six cities as part of the San Gabriel Valley; the community of El Sereno, in the city of Los Angeles, is situated at the westernmost edge of the Valley. Unofficial estimates place the combined population of the San Gabriel Valley at around 2 million—roughly a fifth of the population of Los Angeles County.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the land along the Rio Hondo River, a branch of the San Gabriel River, was populated by the Tongva part of the Uto-Aztecan family Native Americans. The Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the islands of Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. In the northern part of the valley were the Hahanog-na Indian tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation who lived in villages scattered along the Arroyo Seco and the canyons from the mountains down to the South Pasadena area. In 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo arrived off the shores of San Pedro and Santa Catalina; the Tongva were the people. The language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring Indian tribes and it was called Gabrielino by the Spanish; the Tongva provide the origin of many current names. The Gabrielinos lived in dome-like structures with thatched exteriors. Both sexes tattooed their bodies. During warm weather the men wore little clothing, but the women would wear minimal skirts made of animal hides.
During the cold weather they would wear animal skin capes. European diseases killed many of the Tongva and by 1870 the area had few remaining native inhabitants. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area; the first Europeans to see inland areas of California were the members of the 1769 Portolà expedition, which traveled north by land after establishing the first Spanish settlement in today's state of California at San Diego. On July 30, the expedition crossed the San Gabriel River and continued north toward what is now the city of Los Angeles. To cross the river, the expedition built a rough bridge, which gave the name La Puente to today's San Gabriel Valley city, hills to the south are called the Puente Hills. A few years a mission was established near the river crossing. Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded by Franciscan Father Junipero Serra, first head of the Spanish missions in California, on September 8, 1771, its original location was near where San Gabriel Boulevard now crosses the Rio Hondo, near the present day Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe.
Angel Somera and Pedro Cambon were the first missionary priests at the new mission, which marked the beginning of the Los Angeles region's settlement by Spaniards. The San Gabriel mission was the third of twenty-one missions that would be established along California's El Camino Real; the San Gabriel mission did well in establishing cattle ranching and farming, but six years after its founding a destructive flood led the mission fathers to relocate the establishment to its current location farther north in present-day city of San Gabriel. The original mission site is now marked by a California Historical Landmark. During the early years of the mission, the region operated under a Rancho system; the lands which now compose the city of Montebello were parts of Rancho San Antonio, Rancho La Merced, Rancho Paso de Bartolo. The Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe, built in 1844, remains standin
Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeast portion of Kern County and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert. It is situated between the San Gabriel Mountains; the valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s by hunting, or resettled in other areas. The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Lancaster; the Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains and southeast of the Tehachapis, this desert ecosystem spans 2,200 square miles. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge; the Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers.
Poppy season depends on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months. The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope half of the species for which it was named. Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death; the remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley. Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct.
Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, causing land subsidence. While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta: "Over decades, competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta’s ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem." The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey: "A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."
The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk and Tataviam. Europeans first entered during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776; the Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out into missions. Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. A better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933. In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area. Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall; the Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites make up 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by Asian Americans.
Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building, used as a filming location for Kill Bill; the code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats. Edwards Air Force Base lie
Pepperdine University is a private research university affiliated with the Churches of Christ and located near Malibu, California. It is the location for Seaver College, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education and Psychology, the Graziadio Business School, the School of Public Policy. Courses are taught at the main campus, six graduate campuses in southern California, a center in Washington, DC, at international campuses in Germany, Italy, China and Argentina; the Ed. D. program in Organizational leadership, has held international courses in China, Chile, Costa Rica, India. In February 1937, against the backdrop of the Great Depression, George Pepperdine founded the university as a Christian liberal arts college in the city of Los Angeles. On September 21, 1937, 167 new students from 22 different states and two other countries entered classes on a newly built campus on 34 acres at West 79th Street and South Vermont Avenue in the Vermont Knolls neighborhood of South Central Los Angeles, referred to as the Vermont Avenue campus.
By April 6, 1938, George Pepperdine College was accredited by the Northwest Association. Pepperdine had built a fortune founding and developing the Western Auto Supply Company, which he started with a $5 investment, but his prosperity led to his greater ambition to discover "how humanity can be helped most with the means entrusted to care. Considered it wrong to build up a great fortune and use it selfishly." Pepperdine voiced his twofold objective for the college that bore his name, "First, we want to provide first-class accredited academic training in the liberal arts... Secondly, we are dedicated to a greater goal—that of building in the student a Christ-like life, a love for the church, a passion for the souls of mankind." By the 1960s, the young college faced serious problems. The area around the Vermont Avenue campus developed issues with urban decay; the situation exploded in the 1965 Watts Riots. In 1969 activists in the Watts area threatened to burn down the campus. In addition, the Vermont Avenue campus was running out of room to expand.
In 1967, the school began planning to move the undergraduate campus and a committee was formed to look at alternative locations, including sites in Valencia, Orange County, Ventura County and Westlake Village. Pepperdine favored the Westlake Village location until the Adamson-Rindge family, who owned hundreds of acres near Malibu, offered 138 acres of land. Despite concerns over building costs on the mountainous site, the school decided to move forward based on its prime location and potential for raising donations. Construction began on April 13, 1971 and the new campus opened for student enrollment in September 1972; the campus and many of its buildings were planned by Los Angeles-based architect and urban planner William Pereira. The old campus was sold to Crenshaw Christian Center, whose minister, Frederick K. C. Price oversaw construction of the "FaithDome," the largest domed-church in the United States, seating over 10,000. Pepperdine gained university status in 1971 when the school of law was added and the business and education departments became separate schools.
In the 1980s, Pepperdine rose to prominence as one of the United States' leading centers of conservative politics, attracting many conservative-leaning professors from nearby UCLA and USC. Prominent conservatives on the Pepperdine faculty have included Bruce Herschensohn, Ben Stein, Kenneth Starr, Arthur Laffer, Douglas Kmiec, Daniel Pipes. In 1985, 1993, 1996, massive brushfires threatened the campus with destruction, but firefighters protected all structures. On October 21, 2007, fast-moving wildfires forced campus residents to relocate and shelter in the Firestone Field house and Cafeteria, plus evacuations of local homes and businesses. Another November 2007 fire in Corral Canyon, accidentally set off by a group of Los Angeles youths, caused an evacuation of the Drescher Campus. However, most students were off-campus for the Thanksgiving holiday; the campus was again threatened by the Woolsey Fire in November 2018. Batsell Baxter Hugh M. Tiner M. Norvel Young William S. Banowsky Howard A. White David Davenport Andrew K. Benton The main campus is located among several ridges that overlook the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California.
It is considered one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world in terms of scenery and architecture, has been described as "a place that looks more like a beach resort than a private university." The main campus entrance road ascends a steep, well-groomed grassy slope past a huge stylized cross known as the Phillips Theme Tower, symbolizing the university's dedication to its original Christian mission. Most buildings were constructed in a reinterpretation of Mediterranean Revival Style architecture; the majority of the construction on the main campus was completed in 1973. There are views of the Pacific Ocean, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Long Beach and the westside of Los Angeles from numerous points. Alumni Park is located on the campus, it is a 30-acre expanse of lawns, hills and coral trees overlooking Pacific Coast Highway and the Pacific Ocean. Landscape architects Armstrong and Scharfman were responsible for the campus green space plann