Battle of GrudziÄ…dz

Battle of Grudziądz was a military engagement between German and Polish forces during the early days of the Invasion of Poland in September 1939. It ended with a German victory on 4 September. German historiography has dealt with the fighting in the larger context of the Battle of Tuchola Forest; the Polish border city of Grudziądz contained headquarters of the 16th Infantry Division, as well as the military Center of Cavalry Training. Moreover, it played a crucial role as a strongpoint in order to defend the Vistula River Line and secure the route of retreat of Polish divisions of the Pomorze Army under General Władysław Bortnowski, engaged on the left, western bank of the river. Among units stationed in the Polish Corridor were the 9th, the 15th, the 27th I. D.'s, together with the Pomeranian Cavalry Brigade from Bydgoszcz. Since Polish headquarters had planned an armed intervention in the Free City of Danzig, the 27th I. D. and the Pomeranian Cavalry had been transferred northwards in mid-August 1939, to the area of Chojnice and Starogard Gdański.

On 1 September 1939, at the moment of the invasion, both units remained in the Corridor, vulnerable to a German attack. East of the Vistula, along the line stretching from Grudziądz to Lidzbark stood the German 4th Army, under General Günther von Kluge. Grudziądz itself was defended by the Operational Group East, under Gen. Mikołaj Bołtuć; the group consisted of the 4th from Toruń, the local 16th Infantry Division, both part of the Pomorze Army. The area of Grudziądz was assaulted by the German XXI Corps on 1 September, when the German 21st and 218th Infantry Divisions pushed back the Polish lines behind the small river Osa, east of Grudziądz; the main German attack was concentrated on the left Polish wing, defended by the 16th I. D. In the area of Łasin, German units were halted, but another attack, near Dąbrówka Królewska, was successful. After crossing the Osa, the Germans captured a bridgehead near Bielawki. On 1 September, in the afternoon, after receiving reinforcements, the Germans continued their attack, halted by the Poles at app. 7 p.m.

During the night of 1-2 September, General Bołtuć led the 4th Infantry Division in a counterattack the German 218th Infantry Division, in order to push the invaders back behind the Osa. Although Polish forces gained some ground, the attack was repulsed. On 2 September, at 8 a.m. the Germans began an assault, aiming to push further back the 16th I. D. After an artillery barrage, German infantry moved into the action, managing to expand the bridgehead; the situation of Polish troops was difficult in the western wing of their line of defence, as a result, the 66th and the 64th infantry regiments had to retreat towards the Grudziądz - Jabłonowo Pomorskie railroad. To save the situation, General Bortnowski ordered 142nd squadron of the Polish Air Force to bomb German positions; the bombing did not bring any significant gains for the Poles, in the afternoon of that day, the Poles began to retreat. Panic broke out in some Polish units, as the Wehrmacht, supported by the local Fifth Column, attacked the 208th reserve infantry regiment.

General Bołtuć ordered Colonel Lubicz-Niezabitowski's 4th I. D. to counterattack, in order to help the 16th I. D., under heavy German pressure. The 4th I. D. attacked from Radzyń Chełmiński towards Mełno, the assault began at 8 p.m. Initially, the Germans retreated towards Annowo and Gruta, recaptured by the Poles at midnight. Furthermore, Polish 65th infantry regiment recaptured Nicwałd, but the Poles were halted before they reached their original defensive positions along the Osa. On that night General Bołtuć dismissed Colonel Stanisław Świtalski, unable to control his men, replaced him with Colonel Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko. Sunday 3 September 1939 began with a massive German assault on Polish positions. At the same time Bołtuć received news that the Polish divisions on the western bank of the Vistula were facing defeat and the German forces had crossed the Vistula in the south; this forced him to pull back his units. The Polish defenders destroyed the bridges over the Vistula and retreated to the south-east, towards the Drwęca river, where they took new defensive positions.

Grudziądz itself was abandoned on Sunday in the early afternoon. After a few hours, elements of the German 45th Infantry Regiment entered the city, but main German forces did not capture all of Grudziądz until the morning of Monday 4 September. Eugeniusz Kozłowski: Wojna obronna Polski 1939, Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Nradowej, Warszawa 1979. ISBN 83-11-06314-1 Nikolaus von Vormann: Der Feldzug 1939 in Polen, Prinz-Eugen-Verlag, Weissenburg 1958. ASIN B0000BP152 Czesław Grzelak, Henryk Stańczyk Kampania polska 1939 roku, page 308. Oficyna Wydawnicza RYTM Warszawa, 2005. ISBN 83-7399-169-7

Emil Giurgiuca

Emil Giurgiuca was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian poet. Born in Diviciorii Mari, Cluj County, in the Transylvania region, his parents were Ioan Giurgiuca, a priest, his wife Pelaghia, he attended high school in Gherla from 1918 to 1923, followed by the literature and philosophy faculty of Bucharest University from 1925 to 1929. He taught high school at Aiud, Brad, Sighișoara and Bucharest. From 1933 to 1934, he headed Abecedar magazine in Brad, at first with George Boldea and with Teodor Murășanu, Pavel Dan, Mihai Beniuc and Grigore Popa, he worked as an adviser at Editura Miron Neagu in Sighișoara and from 1965 to 1970 was editor-in-chief of Colocvii magazine. Giurgiuca made his published debut in 1925, shortly after high school, with poems in the style of George Coșbuc, Ștefan Octavian Iosif and Octavian Goga that appeared in the Turnu Severin magazine Datina, his work appeared in Universul literar, the Aiud România literară, Țara noastră, Gândirea, Gând românesc, Gazeta literară and România Literară.

His first book was the 1938 Anotimpuri, followed by Dincolo de pădure in 1943. Distraught by Romania's loss of Northern Transylvania in 1940, he set down protests in verse, he was marginalized during the first phase of the Communist regime, did not publish for over two decades, either because he was not allowed to do so or because he had no wish to practice socialist realism. Poemele verii, Cântece de țară and Semne pe scurt were the final three volumes of a poet focused on the euphoria of the sun and elegiac contemplation. Poeme, an anthology that included a few unpublished verses, appeared in 1989, he put together two anthologies of other authors, Poeți tineri ardeleni and Transilvania în poezia românească. Giurgiuca translated numerous Hungarian authors, including Zsigmond Móricz, Kálmán Mikszáth, Géza Gárdonyi, István Örkény and József Darvas. A first monographic study about Giurgiuca appeared in 2006, the centenary of his birth, followed by a second in 2013. In addition, a centenary anthology appeared at Brad in 2006