Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, originally named the Bat-Man, the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, and the Worlds Greatest Detective. Batmans secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy, after witnessing the murder of his parents Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime, Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City, with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Gordon, and vigilante allies such as Robin. A large assortment of villains make up Batmans rogues gallery, including his archenemy, Batman became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year.
As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged, the late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, the success of Warner Bros. live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the publics interest in the character. The character has intrigued psychiatrists, with trying to understand the characters psyche. In 2015, FanSided ranked Batman as number one on their list of 50 Greatest Super Heroes In Comic Book History. Kevin Conroy, Bruce Greenwood, Peter Weller, Anthony Ruivivar, Jason OMara, Batman has been portrayed in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, and Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles, in response, Bob Kane created the Bat-Man.
Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that Kane had an idea for a character called Batman, I went over to Kanes, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of. Reddish tights, I believe, with boots, with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign, the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired by Leonardo Da Vincis sketch of an ornithopter flying device as a child. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a domino mask, a cape instead of wings. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the secret identity, Bruce Waynes first name came from Robert Bruce. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry, I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism
Albert R. Broccoli
Albert Romolo Broccoli, nicknamed Cubby, was an American film producer who made more than 40 motion pictures throughout his career. Most of the films were made in the United Kingdom and often filmed at Pinewood Studios, co-founder of Danjaq, LLC and Eon Productions, Broccoli is most notable as the producer of many of the James Bond films. He and Harry Saltzman saw the films develop from relatively low-budget origins to large-budget, high-grossing extravaganzas, and Broccolis heirs continue to produce new Bond films. Albert R. Cubby Broccoli was born in the borough of Queens, New York City and he acquired his nickname after his cousin, mobster Pat DiCicco, began calling him Kabibble, eventually shortened to Kubbie and adopted by Broccoli as Cubby. The family bought a farm in Smithtown, New York, on Long Island, at the beginning of the 1950s, Broccoli moved once more, this time to London, where the British government provided subsidies to film productions made in the UK with British casts and crews.
Together with Irving Allen, Broccoli formed Warwick Films that made a prolific and Broccoli produced the first Bond movie, Dr. No, in 1962. Their second, From Russia with Love, was a success and from on the films grew in cost, action. With larger casts, more difficult stunts and special effects, and a dependence on exotic locations. Nonetheless, by the mid-1960s, Broccoli had put all of his energies into the Bond series. Saltzman and Broccoli had differences over Saltzmans outside commitments, but in the end it was Saltzman who withdrew from Danjaq, while Saltzmans departure brought the franchise a step closer to corporate control, Broccoli lost relatively little independence or prestige in the bargain. From until his death, the credits sequence to every EON Bond film would begin with the words Albert R. Broccoli Presents. In 1966, Albert was in Japan with other producers scouting locations to film the next James Bond film You Only Live Twice, Albert had a ticket booked on BOAC Flight 911. He cancelled his ticket on that day so he could see a ninja demonstration, Flight 911 crashed after clear air turbulence.
In 1940, at the age of 31, he married actress Gloria Blondell and they divorced amicably in 1945 without having had children. In 1951, he married Nedra Clark, widow of the singer Buddy Clark, and they adopted a son, Tony Broccoli, after which Nedra became pregnant. She died in 1958, soon giving birth to their daughter. In 1959, Broccoli married actress and novelist Dana Wilson and they had a daughter together, Barbara Broccoli, and Albert Broccoli became a mentor to Danas teenage son, Michael G. Wilson. Broccoli insisted on keeping his family close to him when possible, the children grew up around the Bond film sets, and his wifes influence on various production decisions is alluded to in many informal accounts
Tomorrow Never Dies
Tomorrow Never Dies is the eighteenth spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Filming locations included France, Germany and the United Kingdom, Tomorrow Never Dies performed well at the box office and earned a Golden Globe nomination despite mixed reviews. MI6 sends James Bond, agent 007, into the field to spy on a terrorist arms bazaar on the Russian border, despite Ms insistence to let 007 finish his reconnaissance, British Admiral Roebuck orders the frigate HMS Chester to launch a missile attack on the arms bazaar. Bond discovers two nuclear torpedoes mounted on an L-39 Albatros, and as the missile is too far along to be aborted,007 hijacks the L-39 and flies away seconds before the bazaar is destroyed. The British Minister of Defence orders Roebuck to deploy the British Fleet to recover the frigate, M sends Bond to investigate Carver after he releases news articles about the crisis hours before MI6 had learned of it.
Bond travels to Hamburg and seduces Carvers wife, who is Bonds ex-girlfriend and he knocks out three of Stampers men and cuts Carver off the air while he is giving a speech during the inaugural broadcast of his satellite network. After Bond steals back the GPS encoder, Carver orders Paris, Paris is murdered by Carvers personal assassin Dr. Kaufman, but Bond kills Kaufman and escapes, protecting the encoder. Bond learns that the encoder had been tampered with, and goes to the South China Sea to investigate the wreck. He and Wai Lin, a Chinese agent on the case, explore the sunken ship and discover one of its cruise missiles missing. They soon escape and decide to collaborate on the investigation and they find Carvers stealth ship, which had been built with stolen stealth material, in Ha Long Bay, and board it to prevent him from firing the stolen British cruise missile at Beijing. During the attempt, Wai Lin is captured, forcing Bond to devise a second plan, Bond captures Gupta to use as his own hostage, but Carver kills Gupta, claiming he has outlived his contract.
While Wai Lin disables the engines, and is captured by Stamper, after killing Carver with his own sea drill, Bond attempts to destroy the warhead with detonators, but Stamper appears and attacks him after sending Wai Lin into the waters to drown. Bond traps Stamper in the firing mechanism and dives to save Wai Lin as the missile explodes, destroying the ship. Later and Wai Lin share a romantic moment amidst the wreckage as the Bedford searches for them, Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, MI6 agent 007. Michelle Yeoh as Colonel Wai Lin, a skilled Chinese spy, Jonathan Pryce as Elliot Carver, a psychopathic media mogul who plans to provoke global war to boost sales and ratings of his news divisions. Teri Hatcher as Paris Carver, a girlfriend of Bond who is now Carvers trophy wife. Götz Otto as Richard Stamper, Carvers henchman, who is skilled in the art of Chakra torture, ricky Jay as Henry Gupta, an American Techno-terrorist in the employ of Carver. Bruce Feirstein said he named this character after a Gupta Bakery, joe Don Baker as Jack Wade, CIA liaison, reprising his role from GoldenEye
A View to a Kill
A View to a Kill is the fourteenth spy film of the James Bond series, and the seventh and last to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Although the title is adapted from Ian Flemings short story From a View to a Kill, in A View to a Kill, Bond is pitted against Max Zorin, who plans to destroy Californias Silicon Valley. The film was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Michael G. Wilson and it was the third James Bond film to be directed by John Glen, and the last to feature Lois Maxwell as Miss Moneypenny. Christopher Walken was praised for portraying a classic Bond villain, MI6 agent James Bond is sent to Siberia to locate the body of 003 and recover a microchip originating from the Soviet Union. Upon his return, Q analyses the microchip and establishes that it is a copy of one designed to withstand an electromagnetic pulse, Bond visits Ascot Racecourse to observe the companys owner, Max Zorin. Zorins horse wins a race but proves hard to control, Sir Godfrey Tibbett, a racehorse trainer and MI6 agent, believes that Zorins horse was drugged, although tests proved negative.
Through Tibbett, Bond meets with French private detective Achille Aubergine who informs Bond that Zorin is holding a horse in the month. During their dinner at the Eiffel Tower, Aubergine is assassinated by Zorins bodyguard May Day and Tibbett travel to Zorins estate for the horse sale. Bond is puzzled by a woman who rebuffs him and finds out that Zorin has written her a check for $5 million, at night and Tibbett break into Zorins laboratory and learn that he is implanting adrenaline-releasing devices in the horses. Zorin identifies Bond as an agent, has May Day assassinate Tibbett, General Gogol of the KGB confronts Zorin for killing Bond without permission and reveals that Zorin was initially trained and financed by the KGB but has now gone rogue. Later, Zorin unveils to a group of investors his plan to destroy Silicon Valley which will give him—and the potential investors—a monopoly over the microchip industry, Bond investigates a nearby oil rig owned by Zorin and while there finds KGB agent Pola Ivanova recording Zorins conversation.
Ivanovas partner Klolktoff is caputred and killed trying to place limpet mines on the rig. They go to her place where Bond is able to steal the recording, Bond tracks down the woman that Zorin attempted to pay off, State Geologist Stacey Sutton, and discovers that Zorin is trying to purchsae her familys oil business. The two travel to San Francisco City Hall to review Zorins submitted plan and Sutton survive the fire, but when the police prepare to arrest Bond for the murders of Howe and Chuck, he and Sutton escape in a fire truck. A larger bomb is in the mine to destroy a lock that prevents the two faults from moving at the same time. Once the bombs are in place and his security chief Scarpine flood the mines which kills the mine workers, Sutton escapes while Bond fights May Day. When May Day realizes that Zorin has abandoned her, she helps Bond remove the bomb by putting the device onto a handcar. The bomb explodes which kills May Day, who had escaped in his airship with Scarpine and Mortner, abducts Sutton as Bond grabs hold of the airships mooring rope
Octopussy is the thirteenth entry in the Eon Productions James Bond film series, and the sixth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The films title is taken from a story in Ian Flemings 1966 short story collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights. Bond is assigned the task of following a general who is stealing jewels and this leads him to a wealthy Afghan prince, Kamal Khan, and his associate, Octopussy. Bond uncovers a plot to force disarmament in Europe with the use of a nuclear weapon, Octopussy was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Michael G. Wilson, and was released in the same year as the non-Eon Bond film Never Say Never Again. The film was written by George MacDonald Fraser, Richard Maibaum, and Michael G. Wilson, British agent 009 is found dead at the British embassy in East Berlin, dressed as a circus clown and carrying a fake Fabergé egg. MI6 immediately suspects Soviet involvement and, after seeing the real egg appear at an auction in London, sends James Bond to investigate and find out the identity of the seller.
At the auction, Bond is able to swap the real egg with the fake and engages in a war with exiled Afghan prince Kamal Khan. Bond follows Khan back to his palace in Rajasthan, Bond escapes with his contact Vijay, foiling the attempts of Khans bodyguard Gobinda to kill the pair. Bond is seduced by one of Khans associates, Bond permits Magda to steal the real Fabergé egg fitted with listening and tracking devices by Q, while Gobinda captures and takes Bond to Khans palace. After escaping from Khans palace, Bond infiltrates a floating palace in Udaipur and there finds its owner, Octopussy, a business woman and smuggler. She leads the Octopus cult, of which Magda is a member, Orlov is planning to meet Khan at Karl-Marx-Stadt in East Germany, where the circus is scheduled to perform. After turning the tables on Gobindas henchmen, who killed Vijay, Bond infiltrates the circus and finds out that Orlov replaced the Soviet treasures with a nuclear warhead, primed to explode during the circus show at a US Air Force base in West Germany.
The explosion would trigger Europe into seeking disarmament in the belief that the bomb was a US one that detonated by accident, Bond takes Orlovs car, drives it along the train tracks and boards the moving circus train. Orlov gives chase, but is killed at the border by East German guards, Bond kills the twin knife-throwing assassins Mischka and Grischka to avenge the murder of 009, after falling from the train, commandeers a car to get to the airbase. Bond penetrates the base and disguises himself as a clown to evade the West German police and he attempts to convince Octopussy that Khan has betrayed her by showing her one of the treasures found in Orlovs car, which she was to smuggle for him. Octopussy realizes that she has been tricked and assists Bond in deactivating the warhead and Octopussy return to India and launch an assault on Khans palace. Khan and Gobinda flee the palace, capturing Octopussy in the process, Bond pursues them as they attempt to escape in their plane, clinging to the fuselage and disabling one of its engines.
Gobinda takes a deadly plummet off the roof of the plane and Bond rescues Octopussy from Khan, while M and General Gogol discuss the transport of the jewelery, Bond recuperates with Octopussy aboard her private boat in India
Daniel Wroughton Craig is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991 and his film debut was in the drama The Power of One. Cast as the fictional British secret agent James Bond in October 2005, his first film in the role, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006. Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the actor to play the role of Ian Flemings James Bond in the official film series. Quantum of Solace followed two years later, Craigs fourth Bond film, premiered in 2015. In 2006, he joined the Academy of Motion Picture Arts, Craig made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. As of 20 February 2017, Craig is the second longest serving James Bond, Craig was born in Chester, Cheshire. Craig has distant French Huguenot ancestry, Huguenot minister Daniel Chamier is among his ancestors, as is Sir William Burnaby, 1st Baronet.
Craigs middle name, comes from his great-great-grandmother, Grace Matilda Wroughton, raised on the Wirral Peninsula, Craig attended primary school in Frodsham and Hoylake, Merseyside. Later, he attended Hilbre High School in West Kirby, along with his older sister Lea, when his parents divorced and his sister lived with their mother, moving to Liverpool, Merseyside. Upon finishing his secondary school education at the age of 16. He played rugby union for Hoylake RFC, Craig began acting in school plays at the age of six, and was introduced to serious acting by attending the Everyman Theatre in nearby Liverpool City Centre with his mother. At the age of 16, Craig was accepted into the National Youth Theatre, leaving school and moving to London, in Craigs first screen role, he played an Afrikaner in The Power of One in 1992. He appeared as Joe in the Royal National Theatres production of Tony Kushners Angels in America in November 1993, in 1993, Craig was featured in an episode of Yorkshire Televisions Heartbeat, which aired 31 October 1993.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences extended an invitation to Craig in 2006. In 2005, Craig was contacted by Eon Productions to portray James Bond and he stated he was aware of the challenges of the Bond franchise which he considered a big machine that makes a lot of money. He aimed at bringing more depth to the character. Born in 1968, Craig is the first actor to portray James Bond to have been born after the Bond series started, and after the death of Ian Fleming, significant controversy followed the decision, as it was doubted if the producers had made the right choice
Stanford Law School
Stanford Law School is a professional graduate school of Stanford University, located in the Silicon Valley near Palo Alto, California. Stanford Law has consistently been regarded as one of the most prestigious law schools in the world, Stanford Law School employs more than 90 full-time and part-time faculty members and enrolls over 550 students who are working toward their Doctor of Jurisprudence degree. Stanford Law confers four advanced degrees, a Master of Laws, a Master of Studies in Law, a Master of the Science of Law. Each fall, Stanford Law enrolls a J. D. class of approximately 180 students, Stanford maintains eleven full-time legal clinics, including the nations first and most active Supreme Court litigation clinic, and offers 27 formal joint degree programs. Stanford first offered a curriculum in legal studies in 1893, when the university hired its first two law professors, former U. S. president Benjamin Harrison and Nathan Abbott, Abbott headed the new program and assembled a small faculty over the next few years.
In 1900, the department moved from its location in Encina Hall to the northeast side of the Inner Quadrangle. These larger facilities included Stanford’s first law library, beginning to focus more on professional training, the school implemented its first three-year curriculum and became one of 27 charter members of the Association of American Law Schools. In 1901, the school awarded its first professional degree, the Bachelor of Laws, eight years later, Frederic Campbell Woodward became the first dean of the law school, and in 1923, the law school received accreditation from the American Bar Association. In 1924, Stanfords law program officially transitioned into a professional school when it began requiring a bachelors degree for admission. The 1940s and 1950s brought considerable change to the law school, after World War II caused the law schools enrollment to drop to fewer than 30 students, the school quickly expanded once the war ended in 1945. The decision that Stanford should remain a law school with a very limited enrollment emerged during this period.
For the third time in its history, the law school relocated in the 1970s, in the 1960s and 1970s, the law school aimed to diversify its student body. Additionally, in 1966, the sought to academically diversify its student body by collaborating with the Stanford Business School to create its first joint-degree program. In 1968, Stanford appointed Thelton Henderson, future judge of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California, Henderson expanded minority enrollment from a single student to approximately a fifth of the student body. Stanford Laws commitment to diversity continues today, and The Princeton Review currently ranks Stanford Law as one of the ten best law schools for minority students, earning national recognition in the 1980s and 1990s, the law school embarked on innovating its curriculum. Stanford offered new courses focusing on law and technology, environmental law, intellectual property law, in 1984, the law school launched its first clinical program, the East Palo Alto Community Law Project.
By the 21st century, a new focus on interdisciplinary education emerged, in 2009, the law school transitioned from a semester system to a quarter system to align itself with Stanfords other graduate schools. Stanford Law School is known for its student-to-faculty ratio, one of the lowest in the country, the first-year class of approximately 180 students is divided into six smaller sections of 30 students each
The Spy Who Loved Me (film)
The Spy Who Loved Me is the tenth spy film in the James Bond series, and the third to star Roger Moore as the fictional secret agent James Bond. Curd Jürgens and Barbara Bach co-star and it was directed by Lewis Gilbert and the screenplay was written by Christopher Wood and Richard Maibaum. The film takes its title from Ian Flemings novel The Spy Who Loved Me, the storyline involves a reclusive megalomaniac named Karl Stromberg, who plans to destroy the world and create a new civilisation under the sea. Bond teams up with a Russian agent, Anya Amasova, to stop Stromberg, the Spy Who Loved Me was well-received by critics. The soundtrack composed by Marvin Hamlisch met with success, the film was nominated for three Academy Awards amid many other nominations and novelised in 1977 by Christopher Wood as James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me. British and Soviet ballistic-missile submarines are mysteriously disappearing, James Bond—MI6 agent 007—is summoned to investigate. On the way to his briefing, he escapes an ambush by Soviet agents in Austria, the plans for a highly advanced submarine tracking system are being offered in Egypt.
There, he encounters Major Anya Amasova—KGB agent Triple X—his rival to recover the microfilm plans and they travel across Egypt together, encountering Jaws – a tall assassin with steel teeth – along the way. Bond and Amasova reluctantly team up after a truce is agreed by their respective British and they identify the person responsible for the thefts as the shipping tycoon and anarchist Karl Stromberg. While travelling by train to Strombergs base in Sardinia, Bond saves Amasova from Jaws, posing as a marine biologist and his wife, they visit Strombergs base and discover that he had launched a mysterious new supertanker, the Liparus, nine months previously. Jaws escapes while Naomi is killed, Bond finds out that the Liparus has never visited any known port or harbour. Amasova discovers that Bond killed her lover in Austria, and she vows to kill Bond once their mission ends and Amasova examine Strombergs underwater Atlantis base from an American submarine, and confirm that he is operating the stolen tracking system.
Stromberg sets his plan in motion, the launching of nuclear missiles from British and Soviet submarines to destroy Moscow. This would trigger a nuclear war, which Stromberg would survive in Atlantis. He leaves for Atlantis with Amasova, Bond escapes and frees the captured British and American submariners and they battle the Liparuss crew. Bond reprograms the submarines to fire missiles at other, saving Moscow. The victorious submariners escape the sinking Liparus on the American submarine, the submarine is ordered to destroy Atlantis but Bond insists on rescuing Amasova first. He confronts and kills Stromberg but again encounters Jaws, whom he drops into a shark tank, Jaws fatally bites the shark and escapes
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Moonraker is the eleventh spy film in the James Bond series, and the fourth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The third and final film in the series to be directed by Lewis Gilbert, it co-stars Lois Chiles, Michael Lonsdale, Corinne Cléry, Bond investigates the theft of a space shuttle, leading him to Hugo Drax, the owner of the shuttles manufacturing firm. The films producers had intended to film For Your Eyes Only. Budgetary issues caused the film to be shot in France, with locations in Italy, Guatemala. The soundstages of Pinewood Studios in England, traditionally used for the series, were used by the special effects team. Moonraker was noted for its production cost of $34 million, almost twice as much money as predecessor The Spy Who Loved Me. A Drax Industries Moonraker STS-like space shuttle on loan to the United Kingdom is hijacked in mid-air, en route to England in a small charter plane, Bond is attacked by the crew and pushed out of the plane by the mercenary assassin Jaws.
He survives by stealing a parachute from the pilot, whilst Jaws lands on a circus tent, Bond proceeds to the Drax Industries shuttle-manufacturing complex in California where he meets the owner of the company, Hugo Drax, and his henchman Chang. Bond meets Dr. Holly Goodhead, an astronaut, Bond is aided by Draxs personal pilot, Corinne Dufour, as he finds blueprints for a glass vial made in Venice. Bond foils another attempt on his life, using a shotgun to shoot a sniper. Upon discovering that Dufour assisted Bonds investigations, Drax has her killed, Bond again encounters Goodhead in Venice where he is chased through the canals by Draxs henchmen. He discovers a secret laboratory, and by accidentally poisoning the scientists there, learns that the glass vials are to hold a nerve gas deadly to humans. Chang attacks Bond and is killed, but during the fight, rejoining Goodhead, he deduces that she is a CIA agent spying on Drax. They promise to work together, but quickly dispense with the truce, in Rio Bond meets his Brazilian contact Manuela.
Drax hires Jaws to finish Changs job of eliminating Bond, Bond meets Goodhead at the top of Sugarloaf Mountain, where they are attacked by Jaws on a cable car. After Jaws car crashes he is rescued from the rubble by Dolly and Goodhead are captured by henchmen, but Bond escapes and reports to an MI6 base in Brazil and learns that the toxin comes from a rare orchid indigenous to the Amazon jungle. Bond travels the Amazon River looking for Draxs research facility and again encounters Jaws and other henchmen, Bond escapes from his boat just before it hits the Iguazu Falls, and finds Draxs base. Captured by Jaws again, Bond is taken to Drax and witnesses four Moonrakers lifting off, Drax explains that he stole the loaned Moonraker because another in his fleet had developed a fault during assembly
The Living Daylights
The Living Daylights is the fifteenth entry in the James Bond film series and the first to star Timothy Dalton as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Directed by John Glen, the title is taken from Ian Flemings short story The Living Daylights. It was the last film to use the title of an Ian Fleming story until the 2006 instalment Casino Royale, the film was produced by Albert R. Broccoli, his stepson Michael G. Wilson, and his daughter, Barbara Broccoli. The Living Daylights was generally received by most critics and was a financial success. James Bond is assigned to aid the defection of a KGB officer, General Georgi Koskov, covering his escape from a hall in Bratislava. During the mission, Bond notices that the KGB sniper assigned to prevent Koskovs escape is a female cellist from the orchestra. Disobeying his orders to kill the sniper, he shoots the rifle from her hands, uses the Trans-Siberian Pipeline to smuggle Koskov across the border into Austria. In his post-defection debriefing, Koskov informs MI6 that the KGBs old policy of Smiert Spionam, meaning Death to Spies, has been revived by General Leonid Pushkin, Koskov is abducted from the safe-house and assumed to have been taken back to Moscow.
Bond is directed to track down Pushkin in Tangier and kill him to forestall further killings of agents, Bond agrees to carry out the mission when he learns that the assassin who killed 004 left a note bearing the same message, Smiert Spionam. Bond returns to Bratislava to track down the cellist, Kara Milovy and he determines that Koskovs entire defection was staged, and that Kara is actually Koskovs girlfriend. Bond convinces Kara that he is a friend of Koskovs and persuades her to him to Vienna. They escape Bratislava while being pursued by the KGB, crossing over the border into Austria, Pushkin meets with arms dealer Brad Whitaker in Tangier, informing him that the KGB is cancelling an arms deal previously arranged between Koskov and Whitaker. During his brief tryst with Milovy in Vienna, Bond visits the Prater to meet his MI6 ally, Saunders, as he leaves their meeting, Saunders is killed by Koskovs henchman Necros, who again leaves the message Smiert Spionam. Bond and Kara promptly leave for Tangier, where Bond confronts Pushkin, Pushkin disavows any knowledge of Smiert Spionam, and reveals that Koskov is evading arrest for embezzlement of government funds.
Bond and Pushkin join forces and Bond fakes Pushkins assassination, inducing Whitaker, Kara contacts Koskov, who tells her that Bond is actually a KGB agent and convinces her to drug him so he can be captured. Koskov, Necros and the captive Bond fly to a Soviet air base in Afghanistan, the pair escape and in doing so free a condemned prisoner, Kamran Shah, leader of the local Mujahideen. With the Mujahideens help, Bond plants a bomb aboard the plane carrying the opium. Meanwhile, the Mujahideen attack the air base on horseback and engage the Soviets in a gun battle, during the battle, Milovy drives a jeep into the back of the plane as Bond takes off, and Necros leaps aboard at the last second