African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Jax (Mortal Kombat)
Jackson "Jax" Briggs is a fictional character from the Mortal Kombat fighting game franchise by Midway Games. Since his playable debut in Mortal Kombat II as the physically-imposing United States Special Forces superior of Sonya Blade, he has become a mainstay in the series canon, appearing in nearly every subsequent series installment, in addition to being the protagonist of the action-adventure spinoff title Mortal Kombat: Special Forces, was one of the eleven characters representing the series in the crossover game Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe, his most distinctive features in the game are his metal bionic arms, which first appeared in Mortal Kombat 3. Jax has featured prominently in alternate Mortal Kombat media such as the two feature films, comic books, the 1996 animated series Mortal Kombat: Defenders of the Realm, the Mortal Kombat: Legacy web series, official series merchandise. General and critical reception to the character has been positive, but reactions to his Fatality finishing moves and other aspects of the character have ranged from negative to mixed.
Major Jackson Briggs, nicknamed "Jax," makes his first chronological appearance in the 2000 action-adventure game Mortal Kombat: Special Forces, in which he attempts to stop Kano and the Black Dragon crime organization from stealing an artifact capable of opening portals to other realms. His first in-game appearance came in Mortal Kombat II, where he was on a mission to find his Special Forces partner, Lieutenant Sonya Blade, who had gone missing in Outworld while attempting to apprehend Kano. Though he succeeds in rescuing Sonya, Kano manages to evade capture, when Shao Kahn invades Earthrealm in Mortal Kombat 3, Jax is among Raiden's chosen warriors whose soul was spared, he prepares for battle by fitting his arms with metallic bionic implants, after helping foil Kahn's attempt to permanently claim Earth as his own, he and Sonya found the Outerworld Investigation Agency, which specializes in exploring and mapping other realms, as well as the destruction of interdimensional portals that could lead to Earth.
In Mortal Kombat 4, he and Sonya have arrested another Black Dragon member, but they all end up joining forces along with the other Earthrealm heroes in stopping Shinnok and his Netherealm forces. Jax witnesses Sonya and Jarek confronting each other on a cliff edge as Sonya attempts to strong-arm Jarek into returning into custody of the Special Forces after Shinnok's death. After Jarek sends Sonya to her death over the edge, Jax attacks Jarek and dangles him over the cliff edge as he futilely pleads for his life, before Jax drops him. While returning to Earthrealm and Sonya find the malfunctioning Lin Kuei cyborg Cyrax stranded in a desert, bring him back to the OIA headquarters, where they restore his humanity and recruit him as an agent of the Special Forces. In Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance and Jax have added the blind swordsman Kenshi into their ranks, but the OIA's underground facility is destroyed by Hsu Hao, who reveals himself to be part of the evil Red Dragon clan, who are bitter rivals of the Black Dragon.
When Hsu Hao is sent by Red Dragon leader Mavado to kill Shang Tsung, Jax intercepts him en route to Shang Tsung's palace and kills him by ripping out his artificial heart implant. However, in battle against the Deadly Alliance and his allies—Sonya, Kung Lao, Johnny Cage—are killed and resurrected by the game's final boss, the Dragon King Onaga, for use as his slaves. Jax is not playable in Mortal Kombat: Deception, but plays a minor role in the storyline when Ermac and the spirit of Liu Kang break the mind control over Jax and his comrades. In Mortal Kombat: Armageddon, in which Jax is playable along with the entire Mortal Kombat roster, Sonya sends Jax to lead a unit in search of survivors after destroying Sektor's Tekunin warship, but they vanish and are captured by the Tekunin, he is one of the eleven characters representing Mortal Kombat in the 2008 crossover fighter Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe, where he was given his own chapter in the game's story mode, but his biography retreaded his MK3 storyline of adding his metal arms for battle in the name of protecting Earthrealm and the formation of the OIA, his noncanonical ending has him further mechanizing his body to increase his power but at the cost of his humanity.
Jax is present at the start of the Shaolin Tournament in Mortal Kombat, the 2011 reboot of the first three games. He works with Sonya to bring down the Black Dragon and they succeed in seizing many of their weapons caches. However, after the Special Forces' key informant, was discovered to be a high-powered member of the organization and Sonya focus on Kano's capture following the deaths of many of their comrades in ambushes; this leads them to the Mortal Kombat tournament on Shang Tsung's uncharted island, where Jax is captured and imprisoned, forcing Sonya to participate in the tournament in order to spare his life. Raiden enables Sonya to free a badly-wounded Jax but Shang Tsung destroys their extraction transport, stranding them on the island. Raiden reappears to heal Jax's injuries, which makes Sonya and Jax aware of both his presence and their crucial role in defending Earthrealm alongside Raiden's other chosen warriors. After Liu Kang's final victory over Shang Tsung, Sonya herself is held captive in Outworld before being rescued by Jax, who does not take part in the second tournament after his arms are psychically obliterated in a confrontation with Ermac and he is transported back to Earthrealm for medical attention.
In the retold events of Mortal Kombat 3, Sonya and Jax—with newly outfitted cybernetic arms—reunite with the other Earth warriors as they assemble to fight Shao Kahn's takeo
Why Did I Get Married Too?
Tyler Perry's Why Did I Get Married Too? is a 2010 American comedy-drama film produced by Lionsgate and Tyler Perry Studios and stars Janet Jackson, Tyler Perry, Tasha Smith. It is the sequel to Why Did I Get Married?, The film shares the interactions of four couples who undertake a week-long retreat to improve their relationships. The four couples prepare for their next marriage retreat in the Bahamas. Sheila and her new husband, are the first to arrive, followed by Patricia and Gavin and Dianne, Angela and Marcus; the men and the women separate to talk about the bad about their marriages. In a surprising twist, Sheila's ex-husband, Mike and Angela starts a fight until he leaves the women alone to go see the guys; that night, he talks about Sheila's relationship, which angers Troy. Dianne accidentally calls Terry "Phil" in the course of conversation. Angela is insistent about getting the password to Marcus' cell phone because she distrusts him, but Marcus distracts her using sex. Dianne and Terry hear arguing and think it's Angela and Marcus, but it turns out to be Patricia and Gavin.
When Dianne goes to investigate, she can not get her to tell her what's wrong. The next morning, Sheila makes it clear that, though Mike says he misses her, she is over him. At the beach, the women meet an elderly couple who have accidentally thrown a friend's ashes on Angela. Sheila invites them to dinner and they accept. At the "Why Did I Get Married?" ceremony, Patricia announces to the group that she and Gavin are getting a divorce, causing a distraught and angered Gavin to walk away from her, because he did not know she was going to announce it to them. Back in Atlanta and his lawyer meet Patricia with her lawyer, Dianne. Patricia and Gavin have decided to split everything down the middle in the settlement, but Gavin reveals that Patricia has not offered up the account containing her $850,000 book revenue. Patricia refuses to give Gavin any of her book money, but as she leaves, Gavin advises Dianne to tell Patricia to "prepare for a fight", as he intends to get half of that account as well.
Meanwhile, Angela's neighbor tells her she's been hearing sexual noises from the house when Angela is not home. Angela believes Marcus is cheating and confronts him live on his television show, who gives her his cell phone and password. Gavin comes home drunk and confronts Patricia, he takes their son's baby photos and taunts her about her perceived lack of emotions about their divorce and their son's death, assaults her, douses her in vodka burns the photos. Elsewhere, at Sheila's request, Mike agrees to help find Troy a job. Angela lectures Sheila about how all men cheat. Patricia changes the locks and catches Gavin and Marcus moving Gavin's things out learns Gavin has taken all their money, including her book money. Angela comes home early to catch Marcus cheating and finds a couple in her bed, but after shooting up the room, she notices it was just the gardener and the maid having sex. Terry confronts Dianne about her infidelity. Marcus and Angela fight reconcile, but only to fight again after Angela discovers Marcus has another phone.
Troy arrives at Mike's apartment. After finding Sheila there, he angrily attacks Mike. Sheila tearfully confesses; the women go to Patricia's house to comfort her. The next day, himself, apologizes to Mike for the incident, who forgives him and invites Troy to have a drink with him and the guys, beginning a new friendship. Mike tells the men to fix their marriages; the following day, Gavin finds himself humiliated at his job and told off by an angry Patricia. While the others wait to hear the status of his condition, a tearful and regretful Patricia instructs the wives to fix their marriages, everyone makes up. Gavin's doctor informs them that he has died; the couples decided to have a memorial service for Gavin in the Bahamas. One year as Patricia exits a university building she is approached by a colleague, she tells Patricia that she knows someone who wants to meet her, a philanthropist, but Patricia refuses. The professor goes on to tell her because the university needs funds; the man tells her that her books invites her to have coffee.
The movie ends with Patricia smiling at him. Tyler Perry as Terry Brock Janet Jackson as Patricia Agnew Jill Scott as Sheila Jackson Sharon Leal as Dianne Brock Tasha Smith as Angela Williams Richard T. Jones as Mike Malik Yoba as Gavin Agnew Lamman Rucker as Troy Jackson Michael Jai White as Marcus Williams Louis Gossett, Jr. as Louis Jones Cicely Tyson as Ola Karrie Valarie Pettiford as Mom Dwayne Johnson as Daniel Franklin A June 5, 2009, report stated that Janet Jackson would reprise her role as Patricia, making her the third confirmed cast member to reprise her role. Due to Michael Jackson's sudden death, film production was halted for a short period of time, after which Jackson returned to continue with the project. On August 6, 2009, Jackson stated. On June 16, 2009, Tyler Perry confirmed that
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Spawn is a fictional superhero appears in a monthly comic book of the same name published by American company Image Comics. Created by Todd McFarlane, with Tom DeFalco contributing; the character first appeared in Spawn #1. Spawn was ranked 60th on Wizard magazine's list of the Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time, 50th on Empire magazine's list of The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters, 36th on IGN's 2011 Top 100 Comic Book Heroes; the series has spun off several other comics, including Angela, Curse of the Spawn, Sam & Twitch, the Japanese manga Shadows of Spawn. Spawn was adapted into a 1997 feature film and portrayed by Michael Jai White, an HBO animated series lasting from 1997 until 1999, a series of action figures whose high level of detail made McFarlane Toys known in the toy industry; the character appears in annual compilations, miniseries specials written by guest authors and artists, numerous crossover storylines in other comic books. Spawn enjoyed considerable popularity upon its initial release in the 1990s.
Comic book collecting was enjoying a marked upswing at the time, fueled by the speculator boom looking for the next hot book that would jump in value after its release. McFarlane had enjoyed superstar status among comic fans with his work on Spider-Man, which had featured McFarlane's name prominently as both writer and artist. McFarlane's subsequent break with Marvel and the formation of Image Comics was seen by many as a sea-change event, changing the way in which comics were produced. Wizard, in May 2008, rated "The Launch of Image Comics" as #1 in the list of events that rocked the Comic Industry from 1991 to 2008; the first issue of Spawn was popular with sales of 1.7 million copies. During Spawn's second year of publication, Wizard noted that "The top dog at Image is undoubtedly Todd McFarlane's Spawn, without the added marketing push of fancy covers, polybagged issues, or card inserts has become the best-selling comic on a consistent basis, being published." Sales slumped around the time of Spawn #25, but by Spawn #45 it was again a strong seller.
The popularity of the franchise peaked with the 1997 Spawn feature film, the pre-release publicity for which helped make Spawn the top selling comic book for May 1997. However, the film was only a mild commercial success and failed to start a film franchise based on the character. A 2008 issue, Spawn #174, ranked 99th best-selling comic of the month with retail orders of 22,667. In October 2008, issue #185, which marked both a new creative direction and Todd McFarlane's return to the book, sold out at the distribution level and received a second printing. By issue #191 in May 2009, with estimated sales of 19,803 copies, Spawn had dropped below Top 100 titles sold monthly to comic shops as reported by Diamond Comic Distributors; as of August 2010 Spawn no longer was ranked in the top 300 sales figures chart reported by Diamond Comic Distributors. On the day of its release in 2011, issue #200 sold out; this issue featured work by Greg Capullo, David Finch, Michael Golden, Jim Lee, Rob Liefeld, Marc Silvestri, Danny Miki, Ashley Wood.
A second printing was released the next month. It received a negative review from IGN. Albert Francis "Al" Simmons was a trained U. S. Marine Force Recon Lieutenant Colonel and government assassin who at his most successful point saves the U. S. President from an assassination attempt, he is promoted to a high security level and recruited to a classified unit within the CIA devoted to black ops. Once there, he began to question the morality of. Unit director Jason Wynn hires Simmons' friend and partner, to kill him. In a blazing inferno, Simmons is killed and his soul sent to Hell, because he has knowingly killed innocents while working for the CIA. Simmons makes a deal with an evil being known as Malebolgia: in exchange for his soul, he will get to see once again his wife, Wanda. However, when Simmons returns to the human world, five years have passed and he has been transformed into a demonic creature with little memory of his former life. After regaining his memories, he seeks out his wife, only to find she has moved on and is married to his best friend, Terry Fitzgerald, that they now have a daughter named Cyan.
After this event, the Violator appears, reveals to Simmons the purpose of his resurrection. They fight. In his early battles, Spawn faces street thugs and gangs, becoming a dark and brutal antihero, culminating in the brutal murder of a pedophile and child murderer named Billy Kincaid; as a result, he gains the attention of the detective duo of Twitch Williams. It is around this time that Spawn becomes "King of Rat City", a gathering of alleys where bums and the homeless live. There he meets the bum Cogliostro, who seems to know much more about Spawn than he first lets on, becomes his mentor. Spawn is hunted by the warrior angel, who hunts Hellspawns for sport, battles the cyborg mob enforcer Overt-Kill; this confrontation kills Spawn, but he is able to emerge victorious. He is again hunted by Angela and fights the angelic warrior, Anti-Spawn a.k.a. the Redeemer, who was, in fact, Jason Wynn. After a confrontation with the Redeemer, Spawn's suit became more advanced, its new cape and chains were able to shape shift into different things to confuse his opponents.
The cape now looked torn, the costume had lost its red glow, having evolved to what is now black and white. Spawn's boots and gloves had changed, having been replaced with spikes. Spawn used his new equipment to slash off the Redeemer's hand and defeat h
Wushu, or Chinese Kungfu, is a hard and soft and complete martial art, as well as a full-contact sport. It has a long history in reference to Chinese martial arts, it was developed in China after 1949 in an effort to standardize the practice of traditional Chinese martial arts, yet attempts to structure the various decentralized martial arts traditions date back earlier, when the Central Guoshu Institute was established at Nanking in 1928. "Wushu" is the Chinese term for "martial arts". In contemporary times, Wushu has become an international sport through the International Wushu Federation, which holds the World Wushu Championships every two years; the World Kungfu Championships are held every four years subset International Wushu Federation, as well. Competitive Wushu is composed of two disciplines: sanda, but it has other disciplines, like self defense, breaking hard objects, other related practices, that are not performed in competitions. Taolu involves martial art patterns, acrobatic movements and techniques for which competitors are judged and given points according to specific rules.
The forms comprise basic movements based on aggregate categories of traditional Chinese martial art styles, can be changed for competitions to highlight one's strengths. Competitive forms have time limits that can range from 1 minute, 20 seconds for some external styles, to over five minutes for internal styles. Sanda is a full contact sport. Sanda contains boxing and wrestling, it has all the combat aspects of wushu. Sanda appears much like Kickboxing, Boxing or Muay Thai, but includes many more grappling techniques. Sanda fighting competitions are held alongside taolu. In 1958, the government established the All-China Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training; the Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts. During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both university level.
This new system seeks to incorporate common elements from all styles and forms as well as the general ideas associated with Chinese martial arts. Stylistic concepts such as hard, internal, external, as well as classifications based on schools such as Shaolin, Taiji and others were all integrated into one system. Wushu became; the push for standardization continued leading to widespread adaptation. In 1979, the State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports created a special task force to teaching and practice of Wushu. In 1986, the Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in China. Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports in general lead to the closing of the State Sports Commission in 1998; this closure is viewed as an attempt to de-politicize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more market-driven approach. As a result of these changing sociological factors within China, both traditional styles and modern Wushu approaches are being promoted by the International Wushu Federation.
Wushu events are performed using individual routines in competition. Compulsory routines are those routines that have been created for the athlete, resulting in each athlete performing the same set. Individual routines are routines that an athlete creates with the aid of his/her coach, while following certain rules for difficulty. In addition to events for individual routines, some wushu competitions feature dual and group events; the dual event called duilian, is an event in which there is some form of sparring with weapons, or without weapons or using bare hands against weapons. The dual event is spectacular and actions are choreographed beforehand; the group event known as jiti, requires a group of people to perform together and smooth synchronization of actions are crucial. The group event allows instrumental music to accompany the choreography during the performance; the carpet used for the group event is larger than the one used for individual routines. International wushu competitions most used compulsory routines, while high-level competitions in China most used individual routines.
However, after the 2003 Wushu World Games in Macau it was decided to opt for individual routines in international competition with nandu integrating a maximum 2 point nandu score into the overall maximum score of 10. There is some controversy concerning the inclusion of nandu in wushu because many of the movements created for the specific events are not movements used in those styles. In addition the number of injuries which have resulted from the inclusion of these nandu have caused many people to question their inclusion; those who support the new difficulty requirements follow the assertion that they help to progress the sport and improve the overall physical quality of the athletes. Chángquán refers to long-range extended wushu styles like Chāquán, Huaquan and Shaolinquan, but this wushu form is a modernized style derived from movements of these and other traditional styles. Changquan is the most seen of the wus
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea