Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Olivia Jane Cockburn, known professionally as Olivia Wilde, is an American actress, producer and activist. She is known for her role as Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley on the medical-drama television series House, her roles in the films Conversations with Other Women, Alpha Dog, Tron: Legacy, Cowboys & Aliens, Drinking Buddies, The Incredible Burt Wonderstone, Rush,The Lazarus Effect, Love the Coopers, Meadowland. In 2017, Wilde made her Broadway debut, playing the role of Julia in 1984, her first film as director, Booksmart, is scheduled for release on May 24, 2019. Wilde was born in New York City and grew up in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. while spending summers at Ardmore in County Waterford, Ireland. Her parents were prominent in the Washington, D. C. social scene, hosting dinner parties. She attended private school at Georgetown Day School, in Washington, D. C. and boarding school at Phillips Academy, in Andover, graduating in 2002. Wilde, who holds dual American and Irish citizenship, derived her stage name from Irish author Oscar Wilde.
She changed her surname while in high school, to honor the writers in her family, many of whom used pen names. Wilde was accepted to Bard College, but deferred her enrollment three times in order to pursue acting, she studied at the Gaiety School of Acting in Dublin. Her mother, Leslie Cockburn, is an American-born 60 Minutes journalist, her father, Andrew Cockburn a journalist, was born in London to a British family and raised in Ireland. For a short time Wilde's family had a house in Guilford, Vermont. Wilde has a sister a brother nine years younger. Wilde has said that as a result of her parents' occupations, she has a "strong journalistic streak" and is "really critical and analytical." Wilde's uncles and Patrick Cockburn worked as journalists. Writer Christopher Hitchens served as her babysitter. Wilde's ancestry includes English, German and Scottish. Wilde's paternal Scottish ancestors were upper-class and lived in many locations at the height of the British Empire, including Peking, Bombay and Tasmania.
A great-great-grandfather, Henry Arthur Blake, was governor of Hong Kong. Her other paternal ancestors include Anglican minister James Ramsay. Through her father's family, Wilde is related to Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, responsible for burning down Washington, DC in the War of 1812. Wilde appeared as "Jewel Goldman" on Skin, she became known for her recurring role as Alex Kelly on the teen-drama television series, The O. C.. She was in the films, The Girl Next Door, Conversations with Other Women, Bickford Shmeckler's Cool Ideas and Alpha Dog. In 2007, she appeared in the off-Broadway theatre production of Beauty on the Vine, a political thriller, playing three different characters, she was in The Death and Life of Bobby Z and the short-lived NBC drama television series, The Black Donnellys. In September 2007, Wilde joined the cast of House, she played the character of Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley, a secretive and bisexual young internist with Huntington's disease, handpicked by House out of a number of applicants to join his medical team.
Her first appearance was in the episode, "The Right Stuff." Wilde appeared in the comedy film Year One as Princess Inanna, alongside Jack Black and Michael Cera. She starred in Disney's Tron: Legacy as Quorra, the trusted friend and protector of Kevin Flynn played by Jeff Bridges. In August 2011, it was announced. Wilde starred in Cowboys & Aliens as Ella Swensen, who works with Jake Lonergan and Woodrow Dolarhyde to save the Earth from evil aliens, starred alongside Ryan Reynolds and Jason Bateman in the comedy The Change-Up, she was in the films, In Time, On the Inside and Butter. In 2011, Wilde became a global brand ambassador for the cosmetic company, which featured her in their commercials. Wilde made her directing and screenwriting debut with the film Free Hugs for Glamour Magazine's short film series, screened at various festivals. In May 2012, Wilde's character, Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley, returned for the series finale of House for two episodes, "Holding On" and "Everybody Dies." She starred alongside Chris Pine in the film People Like Us, Third Person, The Words and as Liza in Deadfall, a thriller about two siblings who decide to fend for themselves in the wake of a botched casino heist, their unlikely reunion during another family's Thanksgiving celebration.
She had a supporting role as a blind date in the Spike Jonze drama/romance/sci-fi film Her. In 2013, Wilde wrote an article called the, "Do's and Don'ts of Turning 30,", published in Glamour Magazine, she starred in and executive produced Drinking Buddies, which co-starred Jake Johnson
Second inauguration of Barack Obama
The second inauguration of Barack Obama as President of the United States, marked the commencement of the second term of Barack Obama as President and Joe Biden as Vice President. A private swearing-in ceremony took place on Sunday, January 20, 2013 in the Blue Room of the White House. A public inauguration ceremony took place on Monday, January 21, 2013, at the United States Capitol building; the inauguration theme was "Faith in America's Future", a phrase that draws upon the 150th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and the completion of the Capitol dome in 1863. The theme stressed the "perseverance and unity" of the United States and echoed the "Forward" theme used in the closing months of Obama's reelection campaign; the inaugural events held in Washington, D. C. from January 19 to 21, 2013 included concerts, a national day of community service on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, the swearing-in ceremony and parade, inaugural balls, the interfaith inaugural prayer service.
The presidential oath was administered to Obama during his swearing-in ceremony on January 20 and 21, 2013 by Chief Justice of the United States John G. Roberts. In his second inauguration address, Obama proclaimed that "while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by His people here on Earth", he called for laws to combat enactment of immigration reform and gun control. Obama stated that more progress was needed on civil rights, he vowed to promote democracy abroad and stated that the United States must "be a source of hope to the poor, the sick, the marginalized, the victims of prejudice" around the world. Additionally, the president vowed to keep existing alliances strong, emphasized the economic recovery and the end of wars, stated that "no one has a greater stake in a peaceful world than its most powerful nation". During the speech, Obama linked the Seneca Falls Convention, Selma to Montgomery marches and Stonewall riots. One million people attended the inauguration, millions more watched from around the world.
The inauguration was planned by two committees: the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the 2013 Presidential Inaugural Committee. The committee began construction of the inaugural platform on September 20, 2012; the swearing-in ceremony and the inaugural luncheon for President Obama and Vice President Biden were planned by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, a committee composed of United States Senators Charles Schumer of New York, committee chair, Lamar Alexander of Tennessee and Harry Reid of Nevada, United States Representatives John Boehner of Ohio, Eric Cantor of Virginia and Nancy Pelosi of California. The committee is overseen by the U. S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Military support to the 57th inauguration was coordinated by Joint Task Force National Capital Region, providing musical military units, marching bands, color guards, firing details, salute batteries. On January 7, 2013, Louie Giglio was selected to deliver the benediction at the ceremony.
Giglio at first accepted, but withdrew in response to a controversy over a mid-1990s sermon "in which he called on Christians to fight the "aggressive agenda" of the gay-rights movement". The substitution of Rev. Luis Leon, pastor of Saint John's Church near the White House, was announced on January 15. Myrlie Evers-Williams, widow of civil rights activist Medgar Evers delivered the invocation. On January 8, 2013, Richard Blanco was named the inaugural poet for Barack Obama's second inauguration, the fifth person to play that role, he is the first immigrant, first Latino, first gay person, the youngest to be inaugural poet. The 2013 Presidential Inaugural Committee organized several other inauguration-related events at the direction of the President and Vice President of the United States, such as the concerts, parade and prayer service; the co-chairs of the committee were former Presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, along with Ambassador Matthew Barzun, Eva Longoria, Jane Stetson and Frank White.
Other positions were held by Jim Messina, who oversaw the Inaugural parade, Stephanie Cutter, Jennifer O'Malley Dillon, Julianna Smoot, Rufus Gifford and Patrick Gaspard. On the evening of January 19, 2013, Michelle Obama and Jill Biden hosted the "Kids' Inaugural: Our Children. Our Future." Event at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, D. C. Katy Perry and members of the cast of Glee honored military families in concert. Other celebrity participants included Mindless Behavior, Far East Movement, Nick Cannon, who served as emcee for the event. In keeping with the service theme of the day, Michelle Obama issued a call for children to become engaged in public service by volunteering in homeless shelters, visiting seniors, or writing letters to U. S. troops. Since 1937, the 4-year term of the President and Vice President have ended and begun at noon on January 20, as prescribed by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution; because January 20, 2013, fell on a Sunday, both Obama and Biden were sworn in and again the following day in a public ceremony.
This was the seventh time since the start of James Monroe's second term in office, in 1821, that the oath of office was administered in a Sunday private ceremony. Chief Justice John Roberts administered the oath of office to the President on January 20 in the Blue Room at the White House. Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor administered the oath to the Vice President on the same date at Number One Observatory Circle, the official residence of the Vice President. While reciting his oath, Biden's hand rested upon a Bible, i
Bergdorf Goodman Inc. is a luxury department store based on Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. The company was founded in 1899 by Herman Bergdorf and was owned and managed by Edwin Goodman, his son Andrew Goodman. Today, Bergdorf Goodman operates from two stores situated across the street from each other at Fifth Avenue between 57th and 58th streets; the main store, which opened at its current location in 1928, is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue. A separate men's store, established in 1990, is located on the east side of Fifth Avenue, directly across the street. Bergdorf Goodman is a subsidiary of Neiman Marcus, owned by the private equity firm Ares Management; the company traces its origins to 1899 when Herman Bergdorf, an immigrant from Alsace, opened a tailor shop just above Union Square in downtown Manhattan. Edwin Goodman, a 23-year-old merchant, based in Lockport, New York, moved to New York City to work as an apprentice for Bergdorf. Within two years, Goodman had raised enough money to purchase an interest in the business, renamed Bergdorf Goodman in 1901.
In 1906, Bergdorf Goodman moved to a new location on 32nd Street, just west of Fifth Avenue and "Ladies' Mile". While Bergdorf preferred the less expensive side street location, Goodman prevailed with the new location and bought Bergdorf's interest in the company. Bergdorf would retire to Paris. Although Goodman had developed a good business as a ladies' tailor on 32nd Street, he decided to move uptown in 1914. Goodman constructed a five-story building at 616 Fifth Avenue, on the site of what is today Rockefeller Center. In 1914, Goodman became the first couturier to introduce ready-to-wear, making Bergdorf Goodman a destination for American and French fashion; the store moved to its present location at 5th Avenue and 58th Street in 1928, building its Beaux-Arts style store on the site of the Cornelius Vanderbilt II mansion. He was unsure of the success of the new store's location, as he was uncertain whether customers would follow the store uptown. So, Goodman designed the new store so that it could be subdivided into sections with storefronts that could be rented out if needed.
Early tenants included the Grande Maison de Blanc and Dobbs the Hatter. During the Great Depression, Goodman thrived, buying the entire building. Throughout the 1930s, Goodman purchased the mortgages of the surrounding businesses acquiring the entire block. During this period, Bergdorf Goodman was successful enough to have merited an expansion beyond the single store. However, Goodman preferred to operate in a single location where he would be able to maintain the quality of the merchandise and service. Goodman's son, assumed the role of president in 1951 and succeeded as head of the company in 1953, following the death of his father. Andrew was responsible for enhancing Bergdorf's reputation and expanding its range of merchandise and services. During Andrew's tenure as chairman, Bergdorf opened a fur salon, developed the successful Bergdorf Goodman Number Nine perfume, created Miss Bergdorf, a ready-to-wear line for younger customers; the store began a $1 million expansion in 1959 into two adjacent buildings.
The Boys and Girls gift shop expanded into a whole floor, the beauty salon and bridal and men's departments expanded. Eight years a $2.5 million expansion in 1967 nearly doubled the store's area, to 120,000 square feet. In 1972, Andrew Goodman sold Bergdorf Goodman to Broadway-Hale Stores, which would become Carter Hawley Hale Stores for $12.5 million. CHH had acquired Neiman Marcus, a three-unit operation at the time, in 1969. By the time of the sale, Bergdorf Goodman was the only large high-quality specialty store in the U. S. that remained independently owned. However, its decision not to build suburban branches left it with a modest profit margin. Goodman remained the landlord of the store and kept a penthouse apartment on the building's top floor. At first, CHH considered building branch locations only constructing one location, in nearby White Plains, New York, in 1972; this location became a Neiman Marcus branch in 1981. To combat its image difficulties, the company hired Dawn Mello in 1975 as vice president of fashion.
She was successful in reinvigorating the conservative store and became president in 1984. She left her post in 1989 to work for the floundering Italian fashion house Gucci, though she returned to her post as president in 1994. Bergdorf Goodman's parent company became the object of takeover bids in the 1980s; as a way to maintain its independence, Carter Hawley completed a major financial restructuring. In 1987, Bergdorf Goodman was spun-off, together with Neiman Marcus and Contempo Casuals, to form Neiman Marcus Group; the new company was headquartered in Dallas, where the larger Neiman Marcus had been based for 80 years. Chairman and CEO Ira Neimark expanded the women's store three times in the 1990s, he moved the men's store across the street to the former FAO Schwarz space at 745 Fifth Avenue in 1990. This move allowed more space for women's fashions. In 1997, the former Goodman family apartment on the building's ninth floor became the John Barrett Salon and Susan Ciminelli Day Spa. In 1999, the Beauty Level opened directly below the main floor, offering a luxury spa and Goodman's Café, serving lunch and afternoon tea.
In 2002, Bergdorf Goodman underwent a major renovation, during which artisans and craftspeople began a dramatic restoration of the main floor of the women's store. In 2003, the store introduced new boutiques for Chanel, Giorgio Armani, Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent; the Bergdorf Goodman Men's store features exclusive brands such as Loro Pi
The Contender (2000 film)
The Contender is a 2000 political drama film written and directed by Rod Lurie. It stars Joan Allen, Jeff Bridges and Christian Slater; the film focuses on a fictional United States President and the events surrounding his appointment of a new Vice President. The film serves as a response to the Lewinsky scandal involving President Bill Clinton, it became the subject of controversy regarding alterations that displeased Oldman, who co-produced. Joan Allen was nominated for Best Actress and Jeff Bridges for Best Supporting Actor at the Academy Awards. Second-term Democratic U. S. President Jackson Evans must select a new Vice President following the sudden death of his Vice President, Troy Ellard; the obvious choice seems to be Virginia Governor Jack Hathaway, hailed as a hero after he dove into a lake in a failed attempt to save a drowning girl. The President instead decides that his "swan song" will be helping to break the glass ceiling by nominating Laine Hanson, a talented Democratic senator from Ohio.
In accordance with the 25th Amendment to the Constitution, approval from both houses of Congress is required. Standing in her way is Republican Congressman Sheldon Runyon of Illinois, who believes she is unqualified for the position, backs Hathaway for the nod, his investigation into her background turns up an incident where she was photographed participating in a drunken orgy as part of a sorority initiation. He is joined in his opposition by Democratic Representative Reginald Webster; the confirmation hearings begin in Washington, D. C. and Runyon, who chairs the committee addresses Hanson's alleged sexual imbroglio. Hanson refuses to address the incident, neither confirming nor denying anything, tries to turn the discussion towards political issues. Anticipating that Hanson would deem her personal past "none of anyone's business", Runyon starts rumors in the media saying that the sexual escapade in college was done in exchange for money and favors, making it prostitution. Hanson meets with Evans and offers to withdraw her name, to save his administration more embarrassment.
Despite the wishes of the administration, she refuses to fight back or address Runyon's charges, arguing that to answer the questions dignifies them being asked in the first place—something she does not believe. Evans meets with Runyon, informing him he will not choose Hanson as Vice President. Runyon casually brings forward Hathaway as a replacement, they make an agreement that Runyon will back down on his attacks if Evans chooses Hathaway as Vice President. However, Evans requests Runyon to make a public statement defending Hathaway. Hanson and Runyon are all invited to the White House. Evans shocks them by showing an FBI report that proves Hathaway paid the woman to drive off the bridge into the lake and get saved by him as part of a plan to become Vice President. Hathaway is arrested and Runyon is disgraced because he vouched for Hathaway's integrity just hours earlier. Evans meets with Hanson, she tells what happened that night in college, she said that she did indeed arrive at a fraternity house to have sex with two men as part of an initiation, but changed her mind before any sex occurred.
However, she did not prove her innocence, citing that by doing so will further the idea that it was acceptable to ask the questions in the first place. Evans addresses Congress, where he chastises all Democrats and Republicans who blocked Hanson's confirmation, he explicitly calls out Runyon. Although he declares that Hanson had asked for her nomination to be withdrawn so he could finish his presidency with triumph over controversy, he remains adamant and calls for an immediate confirmation vote. Congress applauds. Director Rod Lurie said he wrote the screenplay because he wished to make a film starring Joan Allen, wrote the part of Laine Hanson with her in mind. Having a fascination with politics, inspired by his daughter, he wished to make a feminist film that would differ from Allen's frequent role as troubled wife. At the time, the Lewinsky scandal was in the news, actor Jeff Bridges acknowledged the story was a response to it. In writing the screenplay, Lurie considered a number of possible endings, including one in which Laine is assassinated.
However, he wanted to give a message of hope to his daughter and audiences. Actor Gary Oldman decided to produce the film, attracted to the screenplay which he felt was reminiscent of All the President's Men, he did not see Sheldon Runyon as a villain, Lurie claimed he was not written to be one. Oldman's manager Douglas Urbanski noted they independently produced the film before DreamWorks became involved. Before approaching Jeff Bridges for the part of President Evans, Lurie submitted the screenplay to Paul Newman, reflecting how the character was envisioned to be older than he is in the final film. Newman turned down the role. Bridges sings the song featured in the beginning of the film. Lurie wanted Sam Elliott for the part of Kermit, despite skepticism that he was best known for playing cowboys. Christian Slater joined the cast, saying he was interested in the screenplay's discussion of principles; the scene where Laine is interviewed by Larry King was shot before principal photography. False gravestones were made for a set recreating Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia, with many of the markers having the same name, while The Washington Post gave permission for shooting in their office for one scene.
A number of scenes were filmed during rain, but this precipitation does not appear in the film because a severe amount is needed to be visible. In one such scene, before Laine is announced as vice presidential nominee, a typhoon was forecast
Carmen Kass is an Estonian model and former political candidate. Considered a supermodel by the fashion industry, she has worked as the face of Versace, Yves Saint Laurent, Valentino, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Dior, Céline, and, for ten consecutive years, Michael Kors. In the year 2002, she was estimated to have been the second-highest-paid model in the world. Outside of modeling, Kass ran for the European Parliament in 2004 and was the president of the Estonian Chess Federation from 2004 to 2011. Kass grew up in the village of Mäo, near Paide, Järva County. Kass, her elder sister Victoria and elder brother Kutty were raised by Koidu Põder, her father, Viktor Kass, is a chess teacher in Põlva. When Kass was 14 years-old, she was discovered in a supermarket by a model scout from Milan, her first venture into the modeling world was unsuccessful, Kass left Milan after a short time. Kass moved to Paris at the age of eighteen, she soon received exposure by appearing on the covers of American, French and Italian Vogue, Australian Elle, UK Image, Madame Figaro, French Numéro.
Kass's first Vogue cover was French Vogue in November 1997. Her career was launched by Anna Wintour, by 1999, Kass was walking the runway for numerous and diverse top designers, such as Marc Jacobs, Michael Kors, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Donna Karan, Dolce & Gabbana, she appeared in a Gap denim advertising campaign, was a spokesperson for Revlon cosmetics and the Christian Dior perfume, J'adore. In 2007 alone, Kass booked ten campaigns with notable designers for Spring/Summer collections. From 2007 onwards, she became the spokesperson for Max Factor. Kass was the muse of Michael Kors, the face of the brand for 10 consecutive years. Kass has been the spokesperson of the Narciso Rodriguez For Her perfume and its various editions for 14 consecutive years to date. Kass was named "Model of the Year" at the 2000 VH1/Vogue Fashion Awards, she is well known for her distinctive runway walk in the fashion industry. Despite her height, her feet are small, she opened and closed the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show in 1999, walked for the brand in 2000, 2002, 2003, 2008.
She is considered to be one of the models who ended the heroin chic era alongside with Gisele Bündchen. While living in New York, she attended the Lee Strasberg Institute. In 2004, Kass played, she had a cameo appearance in the film Zoolander, where she played herself opening the Derelicte fashion show. In February 2004, she joined Estonia's ruling Res Publica Party. Kass ran for the European Parliament after her homeland joined the European Union in May 2004, she was not elected to the European Parliament. Kass is a keen chess player, she was elected president of the Estonian Chess Federation for 8 consecutive years and serves as a councillor. She ran a campaign for Tallinn to host the 2008 Chess Olympics, she is part owner of Baltic Models. In Estonia, Kass owns some private companies, including two real estate companies. From 2004 until 2014, Kass was in a relationship with a German chess grandmaster. Kass speaks fluent Estonian and English, is conversational in Russian and Italian. Carmen Kass has a nephew Antonio Sebastian Kass, a model and a musician.
Carmen Kass on IMDb Carmen Kass at FMD
A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.
However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950s were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.
It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.
With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies b