British Academy of Film and Television Arts
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts is an independent charity that supports and promotes the art forms of the moving image in the United Kingdom. In addition to its annual awards ceremonies, BAFTA has an international programme of learning events and initiatives offering access to talent through workshops, scholarships and mentoring schemes in the United Kingdom and the United States. BAFTA started out as the British Film Academy, was founded in 1947 by a group of directors David Lean, Alexander Korda, Roger Manvell, Laurence Olivier, Emeric Pressburger, Michael Powell, Michael Balcon, Carol Reed, other major figures of the British film industry. David Lean was the founding chairman of the academy; the first Film Awards ceremony took place in May 1949 and honouring the films The Best Years of Our Lives, Odd Man Out and The World Is Rich. The Guild of Television Producers and Directors was set up in 1953 with the first awards ceremony in October 1954, in 1958 merged with the British Film Academy to form the Society of Film and Television Arts, whose inaugural meeting was held at Buckingham Palace and presided over by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh.
In 1976, Queen Elizabeth, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Royal and The Earl Mountbatten of Burma opened the organisation's headquarters at 195 Piccadilly, in March the society became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. BAFTA is an independent charity with a mission to "support and promote the art forms of the moving image, by identifying and rewarding excellence, inspiring practitioners and benefiting the public", it is a membership organisation comprising 7,500 individuals worldwide who are creatives and professionals working in and making a contribution to the film and games industries in the UK. In 2005, it placed an overall cap on worldwide voting membership "which now stands at 6,500". BAFTA does not receive any funding from the government: it relies on income from membership subscriptions, individual donations, trusts and corporate partnerships to support its ongoing outreach work. BAFTA has offices in Scotland and Wales in the UK, in Los Angeles and New York in the United States and runs events in Hong Kong and mainland China.
Amanda Berry OBE has been chief executive of the organisation since December 2000. In addition to its high-profile awards ceremonies, BAFTA manages a year-round programme of educational events and initiatives including film screenings and Q&As, tribute evenings, interviews and debates with major industry figures. With over 250 events a year, BAFTA's stated aim is to inspire and inform the next generation of talent by providing a platform for some of the world's most talented practitioners to pass on their knowledge and experience. Many of these events are free to watch online via its official channel on YouTube. BAFTA runs a number of scholarship programmes across US and Asia. Launched in 2012, the UK programme enables talented British citizens who are in need of financial support to take an industry-recognised course in film, television or games in the UK; each BAFTA Scholar receives up to £12,000 towards their annual course fees, mentoring support from a BAFTA member and free access to BAFTA events around the UK.
Since 2013, three students every year have received one of the Prince William Scholarships in Film and Games, supported by BAFTA and Warner Bros. These scholarships are awarded in the name of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in his role as president of BAFTA. In the US, BAFTA Los Angeles offers financial support and mentorship to British graduate students studying in the US, as well as scholarships to provide financial aid to local LA students from the inner city. BAFTA New York's Media Studies Scholarship Program, set up in 2012, supports students pursuing media studies at undergraduate and graduate level institutions within the New York City area and includes financial aid and mentoring opportunities. Since 2015, BAFTA has been offering scholarships for British citizens to study in China, vice versa. BAFTA presents awards for film and games, including children's entertainment, at a number of annual ceremonies across the UK and in Los Angeles, USA; the BAFTA award trophy is a mask, designed by American sculptor Mitzi Cunliffe.
When the Guild merged with the British Film Academy to become the Society of Film and Television Arts the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the first'BAFTA award' was presented to Sir Charles Chaplin on his Academy Fellowship that year. Today's BAFTA award – including the bronze mask and marble base – weighs 3.7 kg and measures 27 cm x 14 cm x 8 cm. In 2017, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts introduced new entry rules for British Films Only starting from 2018 season. BAFTA's annual film awards ceremony is known as the British Academy Film Awards, or "the BAFTAs", reward the best work of any nationality seen on British cinema screens during the preceding year. In 1949 the British Film Academy, as it was known, presented the first awards for films made in 1947 and 1948. Since 2008 the ceremony has been held at the Royal Opera House in London's Covent Garden, it had been held in the Odeon cinema on Leicester Square since 2000. Since 2017, the BAFTA ceremony has been held at the Royal Albert Hall.
The ceremony had been performed during April or May of each year, but since 2002 it has been held in February to precede the academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Academy Awards, or Oscars. In order for a film to be considered for a BAFTA nomination its first public exhibition must be displayed in a cinema and it must have a
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers is a 1954 American musical film, photographed in Ansco Color in the CinemaScope format. The film was directed by Stanley Donen, with music by Saul Chaplin and Gene de Paul, lyrics by Johnny Mercer, choreography by Michael Kidd; the screenplay, by Albert Hackett, Frances Goodrich, Dorothy Kingsley, is based on the short story "The Sobbin' Women", by Stephen Vincent Benét, based in turn on the Ancient Roman legend of The Rape of the Sabine Women. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, set in Oregon in 1850, is known for Kidd's unusual choreography, which makes dance numbers out of such mundane frontier pursuits as chopping wood and raising a barn. Film critic Stephanie Zacharek has called the barn-raising sequence in Seven Brides "one of the most rousing dance numbers put on screen."Seven Brides for Seven Brothers won the Academy Award for Best Scoring of a Musical Picture and was nominated for four additional awards, including Best Picture. In 2006, American Film Institute named Seven Brides for Seven Brothers as one of the best American musical films made.
In 2004, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers was selected for preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." In 1850, backwoodsman Adam Pontipee comes to town in the Oregon Territory to shop and look for a bride. He comes upon the local tavern, where he sees Milly chopping wood. After being convinced of her worth by the quality of her cooking and her insistence on finishing her chores before she would leave with him, he proposes and she accepts despite knowing him for only a few hours. On the journey home, Milly talks about how she is excited to be cooking and taking care of only one man while Adam begins to look uncomfortable; when they arrive at his cabin in the mountains, Milly is surprised to learn that Adam is the eldest of seven brothers living under the same roof. The brothers have been given Bible names alphabetically: Adam, Caleb, Ephraim and Gideon. All of the brothers have red hair, all but Gideon are well over six feet tall.
Milly is shocked at how dirty their house is, along with how unkempt and uncouth Adam and his brothers are. That night, Milly is angry and tells Adam that he wanted a servant girl instead of a wife. Adam acknowledges. After he plans to spend the night sleeping in a tree outside their window so that he won't lose face with his brothers, she relents after explaining she was upset because she had had high hopes of marriage and love; the next morning, Milly decides to teach Adam and his brothers cleanliness and proper manners - at the table during meals. After the brothers wash and shave, Milly is shocked at how handsome they are, that none of them got married, it turns out that the brothers saw girls and never learned how to communicate with them. At first, the brothers have a hard time changing from their "mountain man" ways, but come to see their only chance to get brides of their own is to do things Milly's way, they try out their new manners at a social gathering in the town, where they meet six women they like – Dorcas, Martha, Liza and Alice.
The girls take a fancy to the brothers as well. However, all of them have suitors among the young men of the town, who taunt the brothers into fighting during the barn-raising. At first, the six brothers try to resist being drawn into a fight; the suitors go too far when they attack Adam, provoking Gideon into fighting back. A brawl ensues. Although the Pontipee brothers did not start the fight, they are kicked out of the town by the townspeople. Winter comes, the six younger brothers are pining for the girls they had fallen in love with. Milly asks Adam to talk to the brothers as she fears they will want to leave because of missing the girls. Adam reads his brothers the story of "The Sobbin' Women", from the book of Stories from Plutarch that Milly had brought to the homestead along with her Bible, he tells them. Aided by Adam, the brothers kidnap the six girls cause an avalanche in Echo Pass so the townspeople can't pursue them; the Pontipee homestead is cut off from the town. The only problem: the brothers forgot to bring the parson along to perform the marriages.
Milly is furious with Adam and his brothers for kidnapping the women, she kicks Adam and his brothers out of their house and sends them to the barn to "eat and sleep with the rest of the livestock," while the women stay in the house with her. Adam, angered by Milly's action, leaves for the trapping cabin further up the mountain to spend the winter by himself. Gideon tells Milly and begs her to tell Adam not to leave, but Milly refuses, saying: "He's gotta learn that he can't treat people this way." Winter passes, the women vent their frustrations by pulling pranks on the brothers, though there is clear attraction on both sides. After Milly announces that she's going to have a baby, the women and the brothers come together as a family. Milly gives birth in the spring; the daughter is named Hannah as a continuum to the names in alphabetical order, the last one being Gideon. Gideon rides to the cabin to inform Adam of his daughter's arrival and asks
Heat (1995 film)
Heat is a 1995 American crime film written and directed by Michael Mann, starring Al Pacino, Robert De Niro and Val Kilmer. De Niro plays Neil McCauley, a professional thief, while Pacino plays Lt. Vincent Hanna, an LAPD robbery-homicide detective tracking down McCauley's crew; the story is based on the former Chicago police officer Chuck Adamson's pursuit during the 1960s of a criminal named McCauley, after whom De Niro's character is named. Heat is a remake by Mann of an unproduced television series he had worked on, the pilot of, released as the TV movie L. A. Takedown in 1989. Heat was a critical and commercial success, grossing $67 million in the United States and a total $187 million worldwide against a $60 million budget. Neil McCauley, a skilled career criminal, his crew – Chris Shiherlis, Michael Cheritto, Trejo – hire Waingro to help them rob $1.6 million in bearer bonds from an armored car. During the heist, Waingro impulsively kills a guard, prompting another to reach for his concealed pistol, forcing the crew to kill him as well.
McCauley gives the order to kill the third guard so as not to leave an eyewitness, but is furious with Waingro for the unnecessary escalation. The crew attempts to kill Waingro. McCauley, despite a strict code against anything "in your life that you cannot walk out on in thirty seconds flat if you spot the heat around the corner," strikes up a relationship with Eady, his fence, suggests he sell the stolen bonds back to their original owner, money launderer Roger Van Zant, who could profit by claiming the insurance on the bonds. Van Zant instructs his men to ambush McCauley at the meeting. McCauley vows revenge against Van Zant. LAPD Major Crimes Unit Lieutenant Vincent Hanna is called in to investigate the robbery, along with Sergeant Drucker and Detectives Casals and Schwartz. An informant connects Cheritto to the robbery, Hanna's team surveils him, leading them to the rest of the crew; when Hanna's team discover the crew's next target, a precious metals depository, they set up a stakeout, but their presence is detected by McCauley and the crew abandons the job.
Hanna opts to let them go so that he can continue gathering evidence against the crew, rather than arrest them on a minor breaking and entering charge. Despite the increased police surveillance, McCauley's crew agrees to one last brazen bank robbery worth $12.2 million to secure their financial futures. Hanna invites him to coffee. Face-to-face, they talk about their commitment to their fields and limitations of their personal lives. Hanna says that his third marriage with Justine is near failure, McCauley confides that he is isolated. Despite their mutual respect, they both acknowledge; when he returns to his office, Hanna learns that McCauley's crew have all slipped their surveillance. Waingro, having made a deal with Van Zant to help eliminate McCauley's crew, tortures Trejo for information. Acting on a tip from Van Zant's bodyguard Hugh Benny, the LAPD intercept the crew as they are leaving the bank, resulting in a massive shootout in Downtown Los Angeles. Bosko is killed and many police officers are killed or wounded, while McCauley loses Cheritto and his alternate driver Donald Breeden, Shiherlis is wounded.
McCauley arrives at Trejo's house to find his wife dead. A dying Trejo reveals Waingro's betrayal. Eady realizes that McCauley is a criminal but agrees to flee the country with him. Shiherlis attempts to reconnect with his wife Charlene, helping the LAPD in a sting operation to capture him, she changes her mind and helps him escape, albeit without a way to keep their son Dominic in his life. Hanna finds his stepdaughter Lauren unresponsive in the bathtub after a suicide attempt and rushes her to the hospital, he and Justine comfort each other after learning. Meanwhile, McCauley drives to the airport with Eady to flee to New Zealand, but learns of Waingro's location and abandons his usual caution to seek revenge; the LAPD learns of McCauley's arrival at Waingro's hotel. McCauley kills Waingro, but before he can return to Eady and escape, he is spotted by Hanna and flees alone on foot. Hanna pursues McCauley onto the tarmac at LAX and mortally wounds him. Hanna takes his hand as McCauley succumbs to his injuries.
De Niro was the first cast member to get the film script, showing it to Pacino who wanted to be a part of the film. De Niro believed Heat was a "very good story, had a particular feel to it, a reality and authenticity." Xander Berkeley had played Waingro in L. A. Takedown, an earlier rendition of Mann's script for Heat, he was cast in a minor role in Heat. In 2016, Pacino revealed that his character was under the influence of cocaine throughout the whole film. In order to prepare the actors for the roles of McCauley's crew, Mann took Kilmer, Sizemore and De Niro to Folsom State Prison to interview actual career criminals. While researching her role, Ashley Judd met several former prostitutes. Heat is based on the true story of Neil McCauley, a calculating criminal and ex-Alcatraz inmate, tracked down by Detective Chuck Adamson in 1964. McCauley was raised in Wisconsin, where his father worked as steam fitter to provide his family with a middle-class life; the normalcy of Neil's youth faded following the adoption of another child and his father's death in 1928.
At 14, he quit school to find work to support five siblings. The McCauleys soon moved to Chicago. In Chicago, McCauley b
London Film School
London Film School is a not-for-profit film school in London and is situated in a converted brewery in Covent Garden, neighbouring Soho, a hub of the UK film industry. LFS was founded in 1956 by Gilmore Roberts as the London School of Film Technique. Based on Electric Avenue in Brixton, the school moved to its current premises on Shelton Street in 1966, after a brief parenthesis in Charlotte Street, changed its name to London Film School in 1969. From 1974 to 2000, it was known as the London International Film School, reverted to the name London Film School in 2001. LFS offers various degrees at postgraduate level: an MA in Filmmaking, an MA in Screenwriting, and, in partnership with the University of Exeter, an MA in International Film Business and a PhD in Film by Practice, it offers an expanding range of short and part-time professional development courses under the LFS Workshops banner. LFS recruits students from all over the world and is constituted as an international community. LFS is one of the ScreenSkills "Film Academy Centres of Excellence".
The school's current Director is Gísli Snær and its current chairman is Greg Dyke. In October 1956, the principal of the Heatherley School of Fine Art, Gilmore Roberts, set up a short course in filmmaking. Before applicants could enrol, he found out that the school had been sold from under him, he decided to continue the course independently, so he set up the London School of Film Technique in Brixton. The first filmmaking course started in April 1957; the school was the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Inspired by the emergence of film schools in Eastern Europe after World War II, it was set up around the belief that the future of the British film industry required properly designed formal training, rather than the apprenticeship basis which was, at the time, the only access into the field. At first, the school offered a 6-months diploma course which students could take over the day or evening classes, with an optional 6-months extension. Under the leadership of principal Robert Dunbar, the course was expanded to 33 weeks and 2 years, forming the basic structure for a curriculum, still in place today.
This caused a drastic increase in the student numbers, which made the original premises in Electric Avenue, unsuited. The school moved to the West End in 1963, first into a building in Charlotte Street and in 1966, in its current premises on Shelton Street. In 1969 it changed name to London Film School, to avoid being regarded as an institution that only offered narrow technical training. Notable alumni from the 1960s include directors such as Mike Leigh, Michael Mann, Don Boyd, Les Blair, cinematographers such as Tak Fujimoto and Roger Pratt, as well as producers like Iain Smith. In the early 1970s, a decrease of student numbers caused by various factors, including the establishment of the National Film School and the global impact of the oil crisis, brought the school into a financial crisis and into liquidation. Staff and students banded together to press for continuation of the school; the school was newly incorporated as nonprofit-making company limited by guarantee. All students automatically became members of the company upon enrolment, with the right to elect, together with the other members, a board of governors with the overall responsibility for the management of the school.
Manny Wynn was appointed Principal of the re-established LIFS until his sudden death six months when he was succeeded by John Fletcher. Notable filmmakers from all over the world studied at the LIFS in the 1970s and 1980s, including Mexican director Luis Mandoki, Hong Kong director Ann Hui, Swiss cinematographer Ueli Steiger and Argentinian director Miguel Pereira. After John Fletcher’s death, Martin Amstel was appointed principal in 1986. Ten years in 1996, the 40th anniversary of the school was celebrated with events and screening of graduates’ work in London, Los Angeles and Mexico City. After the appointment of principal Ben Gibson in 2000, the school returned to be known as London Film School. Under Ben Gibson, LFS transitioned from offering a diploma course to offering postgraduate MA programmes, first validated by the London Metropolitan University and by University of Warwick; the curriculum of the filmmaking course remained similar, with a continued focus on practical filmmaking. Adjustments where brought in place to reflect the technological developments in the film industry and the transition to digital.
The school started diversifying its courses: next to its traditional course in filmmaking, it started offering an MA course in screenwriting in 2005 and, from 2014, an MA in International Film Business in partnership with the University of Exeter. Ben Gibson was succeeded as the director of the school by Jane Roscoe, who held the post from 2014 to 2017. In 2018, Gísli Snær LFS Head of Studies since 2016 and former head of the Puttnam School of Film at the LASALLE College of the Arts in Singapore, was appointed as the new director. In recent years, films made at the school have featured and won awards in some of the world’s top film festivals, including Venice, Berlin, the BFI London Film Festival and Sundance. Recent alumni include Benjamin Cleary and Anu Menon; the main London Film School building in Shelton Street was a brewery and a banana warehouse. Additional facilities are present in an annex building in Long Acre. Facilities at LFS include two studios (Stage B a
Entertainment Weekly is an American magazine, published by Meredith Corporation, that covers film, music, Broadway theatre and popular culture. Different from celebrity-focused publications like Us Weekly, In Touch Weekly, EW concentrates on entertainment media news and critical reviews. However, unlike Variety and The Hollywood Reporter, which are aimed at industry insiders, EW targets a more general audience; the first issue was published on February 16, 1990. Created by Jeff Jarvis and founded by Michael Klingensmith, who served as publisher until October 1996, the magazine's original television advertising soliciting pre-publication subscribers portrayed it as a consumer guide to popular culture, including movies and book reviews, sometimes with video game and stage reviews, too.. In 1996, the magazine won the coveted National Magazine Award for General Excellence from the American Society of Magazine Editors. EW won the same award again in 2002. In September 2016, in collaboration with People, Entertainment Weekly launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network.
The network is "a free, ad-supported online-video network carries short- and long-form programming covering celebrities, pop culture and human-interest stories". It was rebranded as PeopleTV in September 2017; the magazine features celebrities on the cover and addresses topics such as television ratings, movie grosses, production costs, concert ticket sales, ad budgets, in-depth articles about scheduling, showrunners, etc. It publishes several "double issues" each year; the magazine numbers its issues sequentially, it counts each double issue as "two" issues so that it can fulfil its marketing claim of 52 issues per year for subscribers. Entertainment Weekly follows a typical magazine format by featuring a letters to the editor and table of contents in the first few pages, while featuring advertisements. While many advertisements are unrelated to the entertainment industry, the majority of ads are related to up-and-coming television, film or music events; these beginning articles open the magazine and as a rule focus on current events in pop culture.
The whole section runs eight to ten pages long, features short news articles, as well as several specific recurring sections: "Sound Bites" opens the magazine. It’s a collage of media personalities. "The Must List" is a two-page spread highlighting ten things. "First Look", subtitled "An early peek at some of Hollywood's coolest projects", is a two-page spread with behind-the-scenes or publicity stills of upcoming movies, television episodes or music events. "The Hit List", written each week by critic Scott Brown, highlights ten major events, with short comedic commentaries by Brown. There will be some continuity to the commentaries; this column was written by Jim Mullen and featured twenty events each week, Dalton Ross wrote an abbreviated version. "The Hollywood Insider" is a one-page section. It gives details, in the separate columns, on the most-current news in television and music. "The Style Report" is a one-page section devoted to celebrity style. Because its focus is on celebrity fashion or lifestyle, it is graphically rich in nature, featuring many photographs or other images.
The page converted to a new format: five pictures of celebrity fashions for the week, graded on the magazine's review "A"-to-"F" scale. A spin-off section, "Style Hunter", which finds reader-requested articles of clothing or accessories that have appeared in pop culture appears frequently. "The Monitor" is a two-page spread devoted to major events in celebrity lives with small paragraphs highlighting events such as weddings, arrests, court appearances, deaths. Deaths of major celebrities are detailed in a one-half- or full-page obituary titled "Legacy"; this feature is nearly identical to sister publication People's "Passages" feature. The "celebrity" column, the final section of "News and Notes", is devoted to a different column each week, written by two of the magazine's more-prominent writers: "The Final Cut" is written by former executive editor and author Mark Harris. Harris' column focuses on analyzing current popular-culture events, is the most serious of the columns. Harris has written among other topics.
"Binge Thinking" was written by screenwriter Diablo Cody. After several profiles of Cody in the months leading up to and following the release of her debut film, she was hired to write a column detailing her unique view of the entertainment business. If You Ask Me..." Libby Gelman-Waxer was brought in to write his former Premiere column for Entertainment Weekly in 2011. There are four to six major articles within the middle pages of the magazine; these articles are most interviews, but there are narrative articles as well as lists. Feature articles tend to focus on movies and television and less on books and the theatre. In the magazine's history, there have only been a few cover stories devoted to authors. There are seven sections of reviews in the back pages of each issue (together enc
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl