Stapleton, Staten Island
Stapleton is a neighborhood in northeastern Staten Island in New York City in the United States. It is located along the waterfront of Upper New York Bay bounded on the north by Tompkinsville at Grant Street, on the south by Clifton at Vanderbilt Avenue, on the west by St. Paul's Avenue and Van Duzer Street, which form the border with the community of Grymes Hill. Stapleton is one of the older waterfront neighborhoods of the borough, built in the 1830s on land once owned by the Vanderbilt family, it was a long-time commercial center of the island, but has struggled to revive after several decades of neglect following the 1964 construction of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, which shifted the commercial development of the island to its interior. Stapleton is part of Staten Island Community District 1 and its ZIP Codes are 10304 and 10301. Stapleton is patrolled by the 120th Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the neighborhood was the site of the farm where Cornelius Vanderbilt grew up, at the location of the present-day Paramount Theater building on Bay Street.
In the early 19th century it became the commercial center of Southfield Township. In 1832 William J. Staples, a merchant from Manhattan for whom the neighborhood is named, as well as Minthorne Tompkins, the son of Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins, acquired land from the Vanderbilts and laid out the streets. Staples and Tompkins started a ferry service from the neighborhood waterfront to Manhattan and began advertising their new village in 1836. Seaman's Retreat, a hospital for sailors entering New York Harbor, opened in 1832 and became Bayley Seton Hospital, the largest employer in the neighborhood until the Sisters of Charity, an order of Roman Catholic nuns which operated the facility, closed it in 2004, it was for many years the site of a United States Public Health Service hospital. The neighborhood was the location of several springs which led to the establishment of several German-American breweries in the middle 19th century; the last brewery closed in 1963. In 1801, the local Union American Methodist Episcopal church was founded in the neighborhood.
It still stands at 43 Tompkins Avenue and has a active congregation, most of whom are descendants of former slaves on the Island. The church is the oldest African-American church on the Island, one of four which predate the 20th century. In 1884, Stapleton was incorporated as the village of Edgewater; the old Village Hall still stands. Edgewater Village Hall and Tappen Park was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. In 1884, the Staten Island Railway extended its track from the neighborhood northward to St. George. Direct ferry service from the neighborhood to Manhattan was halted two years in 1886; the Staten Island Railway still has a stop in Stapleton. Between 1929 and 1931, Stapleton had the Staten Island Stapletons. In 1963, I. S.49, which sits across from the Stapleton Houses, opened. The Houses, a housing project sponsored by the State of New York, had opened two years earlier. In addition to the Edgewater Village Hall and Tappen Park, the Boardman–Mitchell House, Houses at 364 and 390 Van Duzer Street, St. Paul's Memorial Church and Rectory are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The city built piers in 1920, but they were never exploited. From 1937 to 1942 several of the piers were used as the first Foreign Trade Zone in the United States. From 1942 to 1945, they became the Staten Island Terminal facility of the Army's New York Port of Embarkation. After World War II, the piers once again became a foreign trade zone, but their use declined and most of the piers were demolished by the 1970s; the last, used for fishing, was removed when the U. S. Navy proposed to build a base in Stapleton in the 1980s. In 1983, Secretary of the Navy John Lehman selected Stapleton to be the homeport for a naval unit headed by the battleship USS Iowa, as part of the dispersal of the navy during a military build up ordered by President Ronald Reagan; this proposal became controversial throughout Staten Island when analysis of the proposal showed a net loss of civilian jobs on Staten Island. It was controversial because of the belief that the Tomahawk cruise missiles aboard the Iowa and an accompanying Aegis cruiser would, in at least some cases, be carrying nuclear warheads.
Following years of debate, which slowed development of the base, the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a major cutback in military spending, the still incomplete base was cancelled in 1993. Shortly thereafter, a plan was floated to build a race-track on the site, to be used by NASCAR; the plan was forgotten. Headquartered at the site is one of three fireboats, FDNY Marine company 9; the site is now used as part of the annual Fleet Week in New York City. After sitting empty for a couple of years, the base site was used by a bagel manufacturer briefly. A proposal was made to have a movie studio occupy a 6-acre portion of the site. For never-explained reasons the city administration opposed this, some of the civil courts took over a small part of the site, leaving most unused while various proposals were made for housing, an educational complex, among others. On October 26, 2006, the New York City Council approved a ma
New York's 13th congressional district
New York's 13th Congressional District is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in New York City, represented by Adriano Espaillat. The district is the smallest Congressional district by area in the U. S; the 13th district comprises a small portion of the western Bronx. The district includes the neighborhoods of Harlem, Marble Hill, Spanish Harlem, Washington Heights, portions of Morningside Heights and the Upper West Side; the Apollo Theater and Grant's Tomb are located within this district. From 2003 to 2013, the district included all of Staten Island and the neighborhoods of Bay Ridge, Dyker Heights, Gravesend in Brooklyn. Various New York districts have been numbered "13" over the years, including areas in New York City and various parts of upstate New York. 1803-1809: Montgomery1847-1849: Albany1913-1945: Parts of Manhattan1945-1993: Parts of Brooklyn1993–2013: All of Staten Island Parts of Brooklyn2013–present: Parts of Manhattan, The Bronx In New York State electoral politics there are numerous minor parties at various points on the political spectrum.
Certain parties will invariably endorse either the Republican or Democratic candidate for every office, hence the state electoral results contain both the party votes, the final candidate votes. List of United States congressional districts New York's congressional districts United States congressional delegations from New York Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 1996 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 1998 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2000 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2002 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2004 House election data Clerk of the House of Representatives 2006 New York Election Results The New York Times 2008 New York Rep.in Congress Returns, New York State Board of Elections Election Results 2010 The New York Times
John Sidney McCain III was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama. McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and received a commission in the United States Navy, he flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he died in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down injured, captured by the North Vietnamese, he was a prisoner of war until 1973. He refused an out-of-sequence early release. During the war, he sustained wounds, he moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms, he entered the U. S. Senate in 1987 and won reelection five times.
While adhering to conservative principles, McCain had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His supportive stances on LGBT rights, gun regulations, campaign finance reform were more liberal than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five, he was known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain opposed pork barrel spending, he belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations. McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas, he lost the general election. McCain subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and opposed actions of the Obama administration with regard to foreign policy matters. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. While McCain opposed the Affordable Care Act, he cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017. After being diagnosed with brain cancer in 2017, McCain reduced his role in the Senate in order to focus on treatment, he died on August 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday. Following his death, McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol rotunda and in the United States Capitol rotunda, his funeral was televised from the Washington National Cathedral, with former U. S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama giving eulogies. John Sidney McCain III was born on August 29, 1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He had a younger brother Joe. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control. McCain's family tree includes English ancestors, his father and his paternal grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. were Naval Academy graduates and both became four-star admirals in the United States Navy.
The McCain family followed his father to various naval postings in the United States and the Pacific. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools. In 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria, he excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954. He referred to himself as an Episcopalian as as June 2007 after which date he said he came to identify as a Baptist. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying, he fought as a lightweight boxer. McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics, he came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank, despite a high IQ. McCain graduated in 1958.
McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. While there, he earned a reputation as a man, he became a naval pilot of ground-attack aircraft. McCain began as a sub-par flier, at times careless and reckless, his aviation skills improved over time, he was seen as a good pilot, albeit one who tended to "push the envelope" in his flying. On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp, who had worked as a runway model and secretary. McCain adopted her two young children Andrew, he and Carol had a daughter named Sidney. McCain requested a combat assignment and was assigned
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act shortened to the Affordable Care Act or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 amendment, it represents the U. S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The ACA's major provisions came into force in 2014. By 2016, the uninsured share of the population had halved, with estimates ranging from 20 to 24 million additional people covered during 2016; the increased coverage was due equally, to an expansion of Medicaid eligibility and to major changes to individual insurance markets. Both involved new spending, funded through a combination of new taxes and cuts to Medicare provider rates and Medicare Advantage. Several Congressional Budget Office reports said that overall these provisions reduced the budget deficit, that repealing the ACA would increase the deficit, that the law reduced income inequality by taxing the top 1% to fund $600 in benefits on average to families in the bottom 40% of the income distribution.
The law enacted a host of delivery system reforms intended to constrain healthcare costs and improve quality. After the law went into effect, increases in overall healthcare spending slowed, including premiums for employer-based insurance plans; the act retains the existing structure of Medicare and the employer market, but individual markets were radically overhauled around a three-legged scheme. Insurers in these markets are made to accept all applicants and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex. To combat resultant adverse selection, the act mandates that individuals buy insurance and insurers cover a list of "essential health benefits". However, a repeal of the individual tax mandate, passed as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, became effective on January 1, 2019. To help households between 100–400% of the Federal Poverty Line afford these compulsory policies, the law provides insurance premium subsidies. Other individual market changes include health marketplaces and risk adjustment programs.
Since being signed into law in 2010, the PPACA has faced strong political opposition, calls for repeal and numerous legal challenges. In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court ruled that states could choose not to participate in the ACA's Medicaid expansion, although it upheld the law as a whole; the federal health exchange, HealthCare.gov, faced major technical problems at the beginning of its rollout in 2013. In 2017, a unified Republican government attempted but failed to pass several different partial repeals of the ACA; the law spent several years opposed by a slim plurality of Americans polled, although its provisions were more popular than the law as a whole, the law gained majority support by 2017. The ACA includes provisions to take effect from 2010 to 2020, although most took effect on January 1, 2014, it amended the Public Health Service Act of 1944 and inserted new provisions on affordable care into Title 42 of the United States Code. Few areas of the US health care system were left untouched, making it the most sweeping health care reform since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.
However, some areas were more affected than others. The individual insurance market was radically overhauled, many of the law's regulations applied to this market, while the structure of Medicare and the employer market were retained. Most of the coverage gains were made through the expansion of Medicaid, the biggest cost savings were made in Medicare; some regulations applied to the employer market, the law made delivery system changes that affected most of the health care system. Not all provisions took full effect; some were made discretionary, some were deferred, others were repealed before implementation. Guaranteed issue prohibits insurers from denying coverage to individuals due to pre-existing conditions. States were required to ensure the availability of insurance for individual children who did not have coverage via their families. Premiums must be regardless of preexisting conditions. Premiums are allowed to vary by enrollee age, but those for the oldest enrollees can only be three times as large as those for adults 18–24.
Essential health benefits must be provided. The National Academy of Medicine defines the law's "essential health benefits" as "ambulatory patient services. S. Preventive Services Task Force. In determining what would qualify as an essential benefit, the law required that standard benefits should offer at least that of a "typical employer plan". States may require additional services. Additional preventive screenings for women; the guidelines issued by the Health Resources and Services Administration to implement this provision mandate "ll Food and Drug Administration approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, patient education and counseling for all women with reproductive capacity". This
New York Law School
New York Law School is a private law school in New York City. NYLS has a full-time day program, a part-time evening program, a two-year accelerated J. D. honors program. New York Law School's faculty includes 54 full-time and 59 adjunct professors. Notable faculty members include Edward A. Purcell Jr. an authority on the history of the United States Supreme Court, Nadine Strossen, constitutional law expert and president of the American Civil Liberties Union from 1991 to 2008. Prominent NYLS alumni include Maurice R. Greenberg, former Chairman and CEO of American International Group Inc. and current Chairman and CEO of C. V. Starr and Co. Inc.. Other past graduates include United States Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan II and Wallace Stevens, the Pulitzer Prize-winning poet. According to ABA-required disclosures, 88.2% of the NYLS class of 2015 had obtained employment 10 months after graduation, 69% of the 2015 class had obtained long-term, full-time JD-required or JD-Advantage employment.
During the winter of 1890, a dispute arose at Columbia Law School over an attempt to introduce the Case Method of study. The Case Method had been pioneered at Harvard Law School by Christopher Columbus Langdell; the dean and founder of Columbia Law School, Theodore Dwight, opposed this method, preferring the traditional method of having students read treatises rather than court decisions. Because of this disagreement, Dwight and a number of other faculty and students of Columbia Law School left and founded their own law school in Lower Manhattan the following year. On June 11, 1891, New York Law School was chartered by the State of New York, the school began operation shortly thereafter. By this time, Theodore Dwight was in poor health, was not able to be involved with the law school, so the position of dean went to one of the other professors from Columbia Law School, George Chase. New York Law School held its first classes on October 1, 1891, in the Equitable Building at 120 Broadway, in Lower Manhattan's Financial District.
In 1892, after only a year in operation, it was the second-largest law school in the United States. Steady increases in enrollment caused the law school to acquire new facilities in 1899, at 35 Nassau Street, only blocks away from the law school's previous location. Continuous growth led the law school to acquire a building of its own in 1908, at 172 Fulton Street, in the Financial District. New York Law School would remain at this site until 1918, when it closed for World War I; when New York Law School reopened in 1919, it was located in another building at 215 West 23rd Street, in Midtown. However, George Chase contracted an illness that resulted in him running New York Law School for the last three years of his life from his bed. New York Law School continued without Chase, seeing its enrollment peak in the mid-1920s, but it saw a steady decline after that. At the onset of the Great Depression, the law school began seeing a serious decline in enrollment, which forced the law school to accept a much lower quality of students than they had accepted.
With much fewer and poorer performing students, the law school moved to smaller facilities at 253 Broadway, just opposite City Hall. In 1936, the law school moved to another location at 63 Park Row, on the opposite side of City Hall Park. However, as enrollment was still declining, both because of the Great Depression and because of the military draft started in 1940, the school closed in 1941; the remaining students that were still enrolled finished their studies at St. John's University School of Law, in Brooklyn. After reopening in 1947, the law school started a new program, influenced by a committee of alumni headed by New York State Supreme Court Justice Albert Cohn; the law school resumed operations in a building at 244 William Street. In 1954, New York Law School was accredited by the American Bar Association, in 1962, moved to facilities at 57 Worth Street, in Tribeca. In 1973, E. Donald Shapiro became the dean of the law school, reformed the curriculum, expanding it to include many more classes to train students for more than passing the Bar Examination.
These reforms, combined with the addition of new Joint Degree Programs with City College of New York in 1975 and Manhattanville College in 1978, helped the law school to recruit new students. Dean Shapiro's reform of the curriculum was behind New York Law School gaining membership to the Association of American Law Schools in 1974; that year, the New York State Department of Education changed its view of the law school, which in 1973 it had criticized in a report as the worst school in the state, proclaiming that the law school had started to undergo a "renaissance."The buildings of the law school underwent renovation during the leadership of Dean James F. Simon, from 1983 to 1992. Under Simon's successor, Dean Harry H. Wellington, who served in that position until 2000, the curriculum was revised to put greater emphasis on the practical skills of a professional attorney. In late June 2006, under the leadership of Dean Richard A. Matasar, New York Law School sold its Bernard H. Mendik building at 240 Church Street.
This sale enabled the school to move forward with the sale of $135 million in insured bonds, which were issued through the New York City Industrial Development Agency. The school's securities were given an A3 credit rating by Moody's and an A-minus rating by S&P, both reflective of the school's stable market position and solid financial condition; the proceeds
2015 New York's 11th congressional district special election
A special election for New York's 11th congressional district was held on May 5, 2015, to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Michael Grimm. Grimm, a member of the Republican Party, announced on December 30, 2014, that he would resign from the House effective January 5, 2015, not take his seat for a third term following his guilty plea for tax evasion. On May 5, 2015, Republican candidate Dan Donovan defeated his Democratic challenger Vincent Gentile in the election and filled the vacant seat. In April 2014, Grimm was indicted on twenty felony charges, including mail and wire fraud, obstruction of justice, employing illegal immigrants, conspiring to defraud the United States after it was found that he under-reported revenues and employee wages relating to a restaurant he owned, he was released on $400,000 bail. Vowing his innocence, Grimm continued his campaign for reelection, defeated Domenic Recchia, the Democratic Party nominee, by 53%, Grimm's highest margin in his congressional career.
On December 23, 2014, Grimm pleaded guilty to one charge of felony tax evasion. All other charges were dropped as part of the plea bargain. Grimm indicated. However, on December 30, Grimm announced that he would resign from Congress on January 5, 2015, rather than be sworn in for his elected term. According to the U. S. Constitution, Governor Andrew Cuomo is required to call a special election to fill the seat, which under the terms of the New York Constitution is to be held within 70 to 80 days of his announcement. On February 2, who had given no indication of when he would call the special election for, said that he was "looking at it now" but didn't have a timeframe for setting a date. Staten Island Attorney Ronald Castorina, Jr. filed a lawsuit on behalf of 8 Plaintiffs from Brooklyn and Staten Island, Democrats and Non-Enrolled parties, to force Cuomo to call a special election and on February 17, Judge Jack B. Weinstein of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York ordered Cuomo to either schedule the election or explain why he was delaying, or he would schedule the election himself.
Cuomo's office replied that he would "announce the date" for the special election "shortly". On February 20, Cuomo announced that the election would be held on May 5. Due to the nature of the election, local party leaders in Brooklyn and Staten Island selected their nominees, replacing a primary. Dan Donovan, Staten Island District Attorney and nominee for New York Attorney General in 2010 Vito Fossella, former U. S. Representative Nicole Malliotakis, state assemblywoman Vincent J. Gentile, New York City Councilman Amber Adler, community advocate Lorie Honor, businesswoman Arne Mattsson, nominee for the 13th congressional district in 2002 Carlo Scissura, president of the Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce John Sollazzo, vice chairman of the Staten Island Democratic Committee William Colton, state assemblyman Michael Cusick, state assemblyman Robert Holst and middle class advocate Michael McMahon, former U. S. Representative Besides the Democratic and Republican parties, the Conservative, Independence, Women's Equality and Working Families parties are qualified New York parties.
Under the terms of electoral fusion, a candidate may be nominated by multiple parties. Dan Donovan, Staten Island District Attorney and Republican nominee for New York Attorney General in 2010 Nicole Malliotakis, state assemblywoman James Molinaro, former Staten Island Borough President James Lane, Internet media professional and nominee for New York City Public Advocate in 2013 He is a member of the Adoptee Rights, Black Lives Matter and Stop Mass Incarceration movements, his current titles include: director of analytics & implementation, GroupM and editor-in-chief, Hot Indie News Dan Donovan, Staten Island District Attorney and Republican nominee for New York Attorney General in 2010 Robert McKenna, retired New York City Police Lieutenant Nicole Malliotakis, state assemblywoman No nominee. Presumptive nominee Dan Donovan refused the line after pressure from the Conservative Party. Vincent J. Gentile, New York City Councilman List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives Vincent Gentle for Congress Dan Donovan for Congress
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of