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Michael Moorcock

Michael John Moorcock is an English writer and musician of science fiction and fantasy, who has published literary novels. He is best known for his novels about the character Elric of Melniboné, a seminal influence on the field of fantasy since the 1960s and 70s; as editor of the British science fiction magazine New Worlds, from May 1964 until March 1971 and again from 1976 to 1996, Moorcock fostered the development of the science fiction "New Wave" in the UK and indirectly in the United States. His publication of Bug Jack Barron by Norman Spinrad as a serial novel was notorious, he is a successful recording musician, contributing to the bands Hawkwind, Blue Öyster Cult and his own project. In 2008, The Times named Moorcock in its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Michael Moorcock was born in London in December 1939, the landscape of London the area of Notting Hill Gate and Ladbroke Grove, is an important influence in some of his fiction. Moorcock has mentioned The Mastermind of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Apple Cart by George Bernard Shaw and The Constable of St. Nicholas by Edwin Lester Arnold as the first three non-juvenile books that he read before beginning primary school.

The first book he bought was a secondhand copy of The Pilgrim's Progress. Moorcock is the former husband of Hilary Bailey by whom he had three children: Sophie b.1963, Katherine b.1964, Max b. 1972. He is the former husband of Jill Riches, who married Robert Calvert, she illustrated some of Moorcock's books, including covers, including the Gloriana dustjacket. In 1983, Linda Steele became Moorcock's third wife, he was an original member of the Swordsmen and Sorcerers' Guild of America, a loose-knit group of eight heroic fantasy authors founded in the 1960s and led by Lin Carter, self-selected by fantasy credentials alone. Moorcock is the subject of a monograph and an interview, by Colin Greenland. In 1983, Greenland published The Entropy Exhibition: Michael Moorcock and the British'New Wave' in Science Fiction, he followed this with Michael Moorcock: Death is No Obstacle, a book-length interview about technique, in 1992.'Michael Moorcock: Law of Chaos' by Jeff Gardiner and'Michael Moorcock: Fiction and the World's Pain' by Mark Scroggins were published more recently.

In the 1990s, Moorcock moved to Texas in the United States. His wife Linda is American, he spends half of the year in the other half in Paris. Moorcock's works are noted for their political content. In one interview, he states, "I am a pragmatist. My moral/philosophical position is that of an anarchist." Further, in describing how his writing relates to his political philosophy, Moorcock says, "My books deal with aristocratic heroes, gods and so forth. All of them end on a note which states quite directly that one should serve neither gods nor masters but become one's own master."Besides using fiction to explore his politics, Moorcock engages in political activism. In order to "marginalize stuff that works to objectify women and suggests women enjoy being beaten", he has encouraged W H Smiths to move John Norman's Gor series novels to the top shelf. Moorcock began writing whilst he was still at school, contributing to a magazine he entitled Outlaw's Own from 1950 on. In 1957 at the age of 17, Moorcock became editor of Tarzan Adventures where he published at least a dozen of his own Sojan the Swordsman stories during that year and the next.

At age 18, he wrote the allegorical fantasy novel The Golden Barge. This remained unpublished until 1980, when it was issued by Savoy Books with an introduction by M. John Harrison. At 19 years of age he edited Sexton Blake Library and returned to late Victorian London for some of his books. Writing since, he has produced a huge volume of work, his first story in New Worlds was "Going Home". "The Sundered Worlds", a 57-page novella published in the November 1962 number of Science Fiction Adventures edited by John Carnell, with its sequel "The Blood Red Game" from the same magazine, the basis for his 190-page paperback debut novel three years The Sundered Worlds. Moorcock replaced Carnell as New Worlds editor from the May–June 1964 number. Under his leadership the magazine became central to "New Wave" science fiction; this movement promoted literary style and an existential view of technological change, in contrast to "hard science fiction", which extrapolated on technological change itself. Some "New Wave" stories were not recognisable as traditional science fiction, New Worlds remained controversial for as long as Moorcock edited it.

During that time, he wrote as "James Colvin", a "house pseudonym", used by other New Worlds critics. A spoof obituary of Colvin appeared in New Worlds #197, written by Charles Platt as "William Barclay". Moorcock makes much use of the initials "JC", they are the initials of various "Eternal Champion" Moorcock characters such as Jerry Cornelius, Jerry Cornell and Jherek Carnelian. In more recent years, Moorcock has taken to using "Warwick Colvin, Jr." as a pseudonym in his "Second Ether" fiction. Moorcock talks about much of his writing

Pope Celestine IV

Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days. Born in Milan, Goffredo or Godfrey is referred to as son of a sister of Pope Urban III, but this claim is without foundation. Nothing is known of his early life. Pope Gregory IX made him a cardinal on 18 September 1227 with the diocese and benefice of San Marco, in 1228–29 sent him as legate in Lombardy and Tuscany, where the cities and communes had remained true to the Hohenstaufen emperor, Frederick II, he was dispatched in an attempt to bring these territories around to the papal side, but without success. In 1238 he was made cardinal bishop of Sabina; the papal election of 1241 that elevated Celestine to the papal chair was held under stringent conditions that hastened his death. The papal curia was disunited over the violent struggle to bring the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II to heel. One group of cardinals favored the ambitious schemes of the Gregorian Reform and aimed to humble Frederick as a papal vassal.

Frederick, controlled as his unwilling guests in Tivoli two cardinals whom he had captured at sea, in Rome Cardinal Giovanni Colonna was his ally because the curia was in the hands of the Colonna archenemy, the senator Matteo Rosso Orsini. The latter held the consistory immured under his guards in the ramshackle palace of the Septizodium, where rains leaked through the roof of their chamber, mingled with the urine of Orsini's guards on the rooftiles. One of the cardinals died. One group of cardinals, which included Sinibaldo de' Fieschi backed a candidate from the inner circle of Pope Gregory IX expected to pursue the hard line with Frederick II. Another group advocated a moderated middle course, not allies of the Hohenstaufen, but keen to reach an end to the Italian war. Overtures to Frederick II, were met with the impossible demand that if they wished the cardinals in his hands to return to Rome, they must elect as Pope Otto of St. Nicholas, an amenable compromise figure. Matteo Orsini's candidate, Romano da Porto, who had persecuted scholars at the University of Paris, was considered unacceptable.

The cardinal bishop of Sabina was elected Pope Celestine IV by the required two-thirds majority, seven cardinals out of ten, only on 25 October 1241. He occupied the throne for only seventeen days, his only notable papal act being the timely excommunication of Matteo Rosso Orsini, he was buried in St Peter's. List of popes Reardon, Wendy J.. The Deaths of the Popes: Comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-1527-4. Abulafia, David. Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 352. ISBN 978-0-19-508040-7. Lexikon der Mittelalters, vol. iii, part 7. Bagliani, Agostino Pallavicini. Cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254. Italia Sacra vols 18–19. Padua, Italy: Antenore. OCLC 2205084. A standard account

Mir-22

In molecular biology mir-22 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs are an abundant class of molecules 22 nucleotides in length, which can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3' UTR of mRNAs expressed in a cell. Mir-22 was identified in HeLa cells, but was found to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues; the gene encoding miR-22 is found on the short arm of chromosome 17, in a minimal loss of heterozygosity region. It is conserved across many vertebrate species, including chimp, rat and horse; this level of conservation suggests functional importance. MiR-22 was identified as having a role in erythrocyte maturation; the deregulation of many miRNAs has been shown to have a role in oncogenesis. Mir-22 was found to be over-expressed in prostate cancer but down-regulated in breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mir-22 expression was associated with survival in multiple breast cancer datasets. MiR-22 can function as a tumour suppressor.

One known target is histone deacetylase 4, known to have a critical role in cancer development. Mir-22 targets Myc Binding Protein; this prevents transcription of c-Myc target genes by silencing c-MYCBP. However, c-Myc inhibits expression of miR-22 in a positive feedback loop; when this spirals out of control, it can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation. Expression of miR-22 can be induced by adding 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to HL-60 cells; the enforced expression causes the growth of cancer cells to slow down. This means. MicroRNA Li J, Liang S, Yu H, Zhang J, Ma D, Lu X. "An inhibitory effect of miR-22 on cell migration and invasion in ovarian cancer". Gynecol Oncol. 119: 543–8. Doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2010.08.034. PMID 20869762. Bar N, Dikstein R. Ulrich, Henning. "miR-22 forms a regulatory loop in PTEN/AKT pathway and modulates signaling kinetics". PLoS ONE. 5: e10859. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010859. PMC 2877705. PMID 20523723. Liu L, Jiang Y, Zhang H, Greenlee AR, Yu R, Yang Q. "miR-22 functions as a micro-oncogene in transformed human bronchial epithelial cells induced by anti-benzopyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide".

Toxicol in Vitro. 24: 1168–75. Doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2010.02.016. PMID 20170724. Pandey DP, Picard D. "miR-22 inhibits estrogen signaling by directly targeting the estrogen receptor alpha mRNA". Mol Cell Biol. 29: 3783–90. Doi:10.1128/MCB.01875-08. PMC 2698751. PMID 19414598. Page for mir-22 microRNA precursor family at Rfam