Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho
The Canada goose is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, a brown body. Native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, its migration reaches northern Europe, it has been introduced to the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. Like most geese, the Canada goose is herbivorous and migratory. Successful at living in human-altered areas, Canada geese have proven able to establish breeding colonies in urban and cultivated areas, which provide food and few natural predators; the success of this common park species has led to its being considered a pest species because of their depredation of crops and their noise, aggressive territorial behavior, habit of begging for food. The Canada goose was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae, it belongs to the Branta genus of geese, which contains species with black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey species of the genus Anser.
Branta is a Latinised form of Old Norse Brandgás, "burnt goose" and the specific epithet canadensis is a New Latin word meaning "from Canada". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first citation for the'Canada goose' dates back to 1772; the Canada goose is colloquially referred to as the "Canadian goose". The cackling goose was considered to be the same species or a subspecies of the Canada goose, but in July 2004, the American Ornithologists' Union's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature split them into two species, making the cackling goose into a full species with the scientific name Branta hutchinsii; the British Ornithologists' Union followed suit in June 2005. The AOU has divided the many subspecies between the two species; the subspecies of the Canada goose were listed as: Atlantic Canada goose, B. c. canadensis Interior Canada goose, B. c. interior Giant Canada goose, B. c. maxima Delacour, 1951 Moffitt's Canada goose, B. c. moffitti Aldrich, 1946 Vancouver Canada goose, B. c. fulva Dusky Canada goose, B. c. occidentalis Lesser Canada goose, B. c. parvipes The distinctions between the two geese have led to confusion and debate among ornithologists.
This has been aggravated by the overlap between the small types of Canada goose and larger types of cackling goose. The old "lesser Canada geese" were believed to be a hybrid population, with the birds named B. c. taverneri considered a mixture of B. c. minima, B. c. occidentalis, B. c. parvipes. The holotype specimen of taverneri is a straightforward large pale cackling goose however, hence the taxon is still valid today and was renamed "Taverner's cackling goose". In addition, the barnacle goose was determined to be a derivative of the cackling goose lineage, whereas the Hawaiian goose originated from ancestral Canada geese. Thus, the species' distinctness is well evidenced, A recent proposed revision by Harold C. Hanson suggests splitting Canada and cackling goose into six species and 200 subspecies; the radical nature of this proposal has provoked surprise in some quarters. The black head and neck with a white "chinstrap" distinguish the Canada goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the cackling goose and barnacle goose.
The seven subspecies of this bird vary in size and plumage details, but all are recognizable as Canada geese. Some of the smaller races can be hard to distinguish from the cackling goose, which overlap in mass. However, most subspecies of the cackling goose are smaller; the smallest cackling goose, B. h. minima, is scarcely larger than a mallard. In addition to the size difference, cackling geese have a shorter neck and smaller bill, which can be useful when small Canada geese comingle with large cackling geese. Of the "true geese", the Canada goose is on average the largest living species, although some other species that are geese in name, if not of close relation to these genera, are on average heavier such as the spur-winged goose and Cape Barren goose. Canada geese have a 127 -- 185 cm wingspan. Among standard measurements, the wing chord can range from 39 to 55 cm, the tarsus can range from 6.9 to 10.6 cm and the bill can range from 4.1 to 6.8 cm. The largest subspecies is the B. c. maxima, or the giant Canada goose, the smallest is B. c. parvipes, or the lesser Canada goose.
An exceptionally large male of race B. c. maxima, which exceed 8 kg, weighed 10.9 kg and had a wingspan of 2.24 m. This specimen is the largest wild goose recorded of any species; the male Canada goose weighs 2.6–6.5 kg, averaging amongst all subspecies 3.9 kg. The female looks identical, but is lighter at 2.4–5.5 kg, averaging amongst all subspecies 3.6 kg, 10% smaller in linear dimensions than the male counterparts. The female possesses a different, less sonorous, honk than the male; this species is native to North America. It breeds in the northern United States in a wide range of habitats; the Great Lakes region maintains a large population of Canada geese
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Toronto Eaton Centre
The Toronto Eaton Centre is a shopping mall and office complex in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is managed by Cadillac Fairview, it was named after the Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it before the chain became defunct in the late 1990s. The Toronto Eaton Centre attracts the most visitors of any of Toronto's tourist attractions, it is North America's busiest shopping mall, due to extensive transit access, its downtown location and tourist traffic. With 48,969,858 visitors in 2015 alone, the centre sees more annual visitors than either of the two busiest malls in the United States, or Central Park in New York City; the number of visitors to the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2015 exceeds the total 2015 passenger counts at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's largest and busiest airport. The main portion of the Toronto Eaton Centre complex is bounded by Yonge Street on the east, Queen Street West on the south, Dundas Street West on the north, to the west by James Street and Trinity Square.
The flagship location of the Hudson's Bay department store chain, part of the complex since Cadillac Fairview's purchase of the building in 2014, is connected to the rest of the complex by a skywalk over Queen Street West, itself is bounded by Yonge Street to the east, Queen Street West to the north, Richmond Street West to the south, Bay Street to the west. The main retail mall in the centre is organized around a long arcade, running parallel to Yonge Street; the Toronto Eaton Centre's interior passages form part of Toronto's PATH underground pedestrian network, the centre is served by two subway stations: Dundas and Queen on Line 1 Yonge–University. The complex contains four office buildings and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Additionally, the Eaton Centre is linked to a 17-storey Marriott hotel; the Sears Canada headquarters were inside an eight-storey Sears location within the Toronto Eaton Centre. The headquarters moved there from 222 Jarvis Street; the lower four floors of the Eaton Centre location housed a retail store while the upper four floors housed the headquarters.
Timothy Eaton founded a dry goods store on Yonge Street in the 19th century that revolutionized retailing in Canada, became the largest department store chain in the country. By the 20th century, the Eaton's chain owned most of the land bounded by Yonge, Queen and Dundas streets, with the notable exceptions of Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity; the Eaton's land, once the site of Timothy Eaton's first store, was occupied by Eaton's large Main Store, the Eaton's Annex and a number of related mail order and factory buildings. As the chain's warehouse and support operations were shifting to cheaper suburban locales in the 1960s, Eaton's wanted to make better use of its valuable downtown landholdings. In particular, the chain wanted to build a massive new flagship store to replace the aging Main Store at Yonge and Queen and the Eaton's College Street store a few blocks to the north. In the mid-1960s, Eaton's announced plans for a massive office and shopping complex that would occupy several city blocks.
Eaton's sought to demolish the Church of the Holy Trinity. The plan required the closing of a number of small city streets within the block: Albert Street, Louisa Street, Terauley Street, James Street, Albert Lane, Downey's Lane and Trinity Square. At one point the Old City Hall clock tower was to be demolished. After a fierce local debate over the fate of the city hall and church buildings, Eaton's put its plans on hiatus in 1967; the Eaton Centre plans were resuscitated in 1971, although these plans allowed for the preservation of Old City Hall. Controversy erupted anew, however, as the congregation of the Church of the Holy Trinity exhibited an increased willingness to fight the demolition plans for its church; the Eaton Centre plans were revised to save Old City Hall and the church, revised further when Holy Trinity's parishioners fought to ensure that the new complex would not block all sunlight to the church. These amendments to the plans resulted in three significant changes to the proposed centre from the 1960s concept.
First, the new Eaton's store was shifted north to Dundas Street, as the new store would be too large to be accommodated in its existing location on Queen Street as a result of the preservation of Old City Hall. This resulted in the mall being constructed with Eaton's and Simpson's acting as anchors at either end; the second significant change was the reduction in the size of the office component, so that the Eaton Centre project no longer represented an attempt to extend the City's financial district north of Queen Street, as the Eaton family had contemplated in the 1960s. The bulk of the centre was shifted east to the Yonge Street frontage, the complex was designed so that it no longer had any frontage along Bay Street. Old City Hall and the church were thus saved, as was the Salvation Army headquarters building by virtue of its location between the two other preserved buildings. At the time of the centre's opening in 1977, the complex was markete
How Will I Know
"How Will I Know" is a song recorded by American recording artist Whitney Houston for her eponymous debut album, released in February 1985. The song was released by Arista Records in November that year. Composed by George Merrill and Shannon Rubicam, the song was intended for Janet Jackson, but she passed on it. Houston recorded the song with altered lyrics and production from Narada Michael Walden; the lyrics speak about the protagonist trying to discern if a boy she likes will like her back. "How Will I Know" received positive reviews. The song became Houston's second number one single on the United States Billboard Hot 100, it spent two weeks atop the chart and became Houston's first chart topper on the Canadian RPM Singles Chart. Its success was worldwide: it reached the top 10 in Sweden, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the top 20 in the Netherlands, New Zealand, Switzerland; the song's music video features scenes of Houston dancing in a setting of video screens and colored partitions. The music video gave Houston exposure to the teens and MTV.
It received nominations at the 1986 MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Female Video and Best New Artist in a Video, winning the former category. The song was performed on many of her tours including Greatest Love Tour and her Nothing but Love World Tour. "How Will I Know" is featured as a remix on Houston's compilation album Whitney: The Greatest Hits, whereas the original version is featured on The Ultimate Collection and I Will Always Love You: The Best of Whitney Houston. Songwriters George Merrill and Shannon Rubicam had written the song's demo in 1984 for Janet Jackson, employed by A&M Records executive, John McClain. However, after hearing the song, Jackson's management passed on the song, feeling it was too weak in comparison to her other material. In an interview with Fred Bronson, Merrill expressed his feelings after learning of Jackson's decision. "We were pretty upset. We had written it with her in mind." During this period, Brenda Andrews, at Almo-Irving Music and Rubicam's publisher, played the song for Gerry Griffith, the director for R&B music at A&M and Arista Records.
Griffith, compiling material for Houston's debut at the time, felt the song matched her sound. He soon contacted Andrews and the song's two writers and implored that they should relinquish the song to him for Houston's debut album. Griffith described his discovery of the song, what he and Clive Davis thought of it: "We had a lot of R&B-based tunes, we had a few ballads, but we didn't have a pop crossover song. So when I heard'How Will I Know,' I said'this is perfect.' I played it for Clive he fell in love with it. I wasn't familiar with her family background. After getting permission to use the song from Merrill, Griffith turned to Narada Michael Walden, producing for Aretha Franklin, material for her album Who's Zoomin' Who?, at the time. After getting in touch with Walden, Griffith frantically implored him to produce the song, describing how important the song would be for Houston's future album. After hearing the song's demo, Walden agreed California to arrange it, he was not much impressed with the demo and requested permission to change some of the song's lyrics and chord progression.
Flustered by his request and Rubicam denied him the right to their song. After a lot of back-and-forth with Griffith, they compromised and allowed Walden to de-construct the song and change the key and tempo. After completing the song, Houston came into the studio to record her vocals in late 1984. Cissy Houston, the singer's mother, joined her daughter to perform the song's background vocals. Griffith explained: "I asked Whitney to sing on the background session, she was reluctant. I sing,' so she did; the background sounded incredible... Clive Davis heard the mix and gave it a 10, outrageous for him, because he doesn't like anything!" The tenor saxophone is played by Premik Russell Tubbs. "How Will I Know" is composed in a 1980s dance beat. Rolling Stone described the song as "perky synth-funk". According to Kyle Anderson of MTV, the song found Houston hitting an "incredible groove", it is written in the key of G flat major. The beat is set the time signature of common time and moves at a fast tempo of 120 beats per minute.
The song has the sequence of G♭-B♭m7-G♭/C♭-D♭-E♭m-D♭ as its chord progression. Houston's vocals in the song span from the note of D♭4 to the high note of G5. Lyrically, the song speaks about the protagonist trying to discern whether a boy she likes will like her back, she is hesitant, because her friends tell her "love can be deceiving", she is so shy that she cannot phone him. She feels that it might be a dream, but realizes that "there's no mistaking", that what she feels is love; the song garnered positive reviews from critics, with some noting it as a standout on the album. Don Shewey of Rolling Stone commented "Although it's awfully reminiscent of the Pointer Sisters"He's So Shy','How Will I Know' is still irresistibly danceable." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic wrote "...what impresses some 20-plus years on are the lighter tracks the breakthrough single'How Will I Know'." While listing Houston's top five songs of the 1980s, Steve Peake of About.com gave the song a positive review, writing, "Houston's boppy, peppy numbers tend to suffer from a
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou shortened to Centre Pompidou and known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini, it houses a vast public library. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg, it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, was opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum; the sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile, 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a western proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power.
In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex; the Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury.
It was the first time in France. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics." It was the first major example of an'inside-out' building in architectural history, with its structural system, mechanical systems, circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. All of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, circulation elements and devices for safety are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness."
But two decades while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems; the Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city." The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs; the nearby Stravinsky Fountain, on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle.
The fountain opened in 1983. Video footage of the fountain appeared throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action; the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, skateboarding competitions. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, a complex administrative structure; when Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions, made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou; the Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decade