Omsk is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, located in southwestern Siberia 2,236 kilometers from Moscow. With a population of 1,154,116, it is Russia's second-largest city east of the Ural Mountains after Novosibirsk, seventh by size nationally. Omsk acts as an essential transport node, serving as a train station for Trans-Siberian Railway and as a staging post for the Irtysh River. During the Imperial era, Omsk used to be the seat of the Governor General of Western Siberia and of the Governor General of the Steppes. For a brief period during the Russian Civil War in 1918–1920, it served as the capital of the anti-Bolshevik Russian State and held the imperial gold reserves. Omsk serves as the episcopal see of the bishop of Omsk and Tara, as well as the administrative seat of the Imam of Siberia; the mayor is Oksana Fadina. The wooden fort of Omsk was built in 1716 by a cossack unit led by Ivan Buchholz to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh rivers against the Kyrgyz and Dzungar nomads of the Steppes.
In 1768 Om fortress was relocated. The original Tobolsk and the restored Tara gates, along with the original German Lutheran Church and several public buildings are left from that time. Omsk was granted town status in 1782. In 1822 Omsk became an administrative capital of Western Siberia and in 1882 the center of the vast Steppes region and Akmolinsk Oblast, in particular acquiring several churches and cathedrals of various denominations, mosques, a synagogue, the governor-general's mansion, a military academy, but as the frontier receded and its military importance diminished, the town fell into lethargy. For that time Omsk became a major center of the Siberian exile. From 1850 to 1854 Fyodor Dostoyevsky served his sentence in an Omsk katorga prison. Development of the city was catalyzed with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s that affected significance of Omsk as a logistic hub. Many trade companies established stores and offices in Omsk defining the character of the city center.
British and German consulates were established at the same time in order to represent their commercial interests. The pinnacle of development for pre-revolutionary Omsk was the Siberian Exposition of Agriculture and Industry in 1910. Popularity of the World Fairs contributed to the image of Omsk as the "Chicago of Siberia". Soon after the October Revolution, anti-Bolshevik White forces seized control of Omsk; the "Provisional All-Russian Government" was established here in 1918, headed by the Arctic explorer and decorated war hero Admiral Kolchak. Omsk was proclaimed the capital of Russia, its central bank was tasked with safekeeping the former empire's gold reserves; these were guarded by a garrison of former Czechoslovakian POWs trapped in Siberia by the chaos of World War I and the subsequent Revolution. Omsk became a prime target for the Red Army leadership, which viewed it as a major target of their Siberian campaign and forced Kolchak and his government to abandon the city and retreat along the Trans-Siberian eastward to Irkutsk.
Bolshevik forces entered the city in 1919. The Soviet government preferred the young Novonikolayevsk as the administrative center of Western Siberia, prompting the mass transfer of administrative and educational functions from Omsk; this somewhat sparked a continuing rivalry between the two cities. Omsk received new life as a result of World War II; because it was both far from the fighting and had a well-developed infrastructure, Omsk provided a perfect haven for much of the industry evacuated away from the frontlines in 1941. Additionally, contingency plans were made to transfer the provisional Soviet capital to Omsk in the event of a German victory during the Battle of Moscow. At the end of the war, Omsk remained a major industrial center, subsequently becoming a leader in Soviet military production. Military industries which moved to Omsk included part of the OKMO tank-design bureau in 1941, S. M. Kirov Factory no. 185 from Chelyabinsk, in 1962. The Kirov Factory and Omsk Transmash design bureau produced T-80 tanks from the 1970s, were responsible for the BTR-T, TOS-1, the prototype Black Eagle tank.
Omsk Transmash declared bankruptcy in 2002. In the 1950s, following the development of the oil and natural-gas field in Siberia, an oil-refining complex was built, along with an entire "town of oil workers", expanding Omsk northward along the Irtysh, it is the largest such complex in Russia. Gazprom Neft, the parent company, is the largest employer in the city, wielding its tax rates as leverage in negotiations with municipal and regional authorities. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Omsk experienced a period of economic instability and political stagnation. Most of the city's large businesses, state owned, were fought over by members of the former party elite, the emerging nouveau riche, fast growing criminal syndicates; the most notorious cases involved the privatization of Sibneft, a major oil company, which dragged on for several years. Until the end of the 1990s, political life in Omsk was defined by an ongoing feud between the oblast and city authorities; the resulting conflict made at least two points of view available to the public and served as the impetus for some improvements to the city's infrastructure and cultural life.
These included the construction of new leisure parks and the renovation of the city's historic center, the establishment of the annual Siberian International Marathon, of the annual City Days Festival. Despite this, internal political comp
The Survivors of the Chancellor
The Survivors of the Chancellor: Diary of J. R. Kazallon, Passenger is an 1875 novel written by Jules Verne about the final voyage of a British sailing ship, the Chancellor, told from the perspective of one of its passengers. At the beginning of its voyage, the Chancellor carried twenty crew members. By the end, only eleven people remained alive. J. R. Kazallon, the narrator and one of the survivors. Mr. Kear, an American from Buffalo, is a wealthy and conceited man of about 50 years of age whose fortunes lie in the petroleum industry. Leaving behind his feverish wife, he escapes the Chancellor in a whaleboat on the night of December 5 and is not seen again. Mrs. Kear Miss Herbey, one of the survivors. M. Letourneur, one of the survivors. Andre Letourneur, one of the survivors. William Falsten, a 45-year-old English engineer from Manchester who passes much of his time aboard the Chancellor engrossed in mechanical calculations, he is one of the eleven survivors. John Ruby, a Welsh merchant of Cardiff whose sole goal in life seems to be the pursuit of profit.
He loses his sanity after learning of the fire burning in the ship's hold and realizing that it could detonate the thirty pounds of potassium picrate he had brought on board the ship. He dies on October 29, burned to death after jumping into the burning cargo hold. John Silas Huntly, an 50-year-old Scotsman of Dundee, is the captain of the Chancellor until he resigns his post to his first mate on October 23, he is not seen again. Robert Curtis, the first mate on the Chancellor. John Silas Huntly passes over his post as captain to him on October 23 and he acts as a leader of sorts throughout the story, he survives the events. Lt. Walter The boatswain Hobart was the steward on the ship. Kazallon describes him as being in the best health during the raft trip, it is revealed that he was hoarding bacon. On this day, January 18, he commits suicide and several sailors cannibalize his remains. Kazallon, Miss Herbey, M. Letourneur, Andre do not partake and it is unknown if Curtis does, his remains are thrown overboard on January 19 by Andre.
Jynxstrop The crew and passengers of the Chancellor are at sea for four months, from September 27, 1869 to January 27, 1870. Note: This timeline omits any events for which the date cannot be determined. September 27: At three o'clock in the afternoon, the Chancellor departs Charleston, South Carolina with eight passengers, 20 crew, 1,700 bales of cotton. October 7: The Chancellor arrives at latitude 32°20' N and longitude 64°50' W, not far off the coast of Bermuda. October 11: The Chancellor enters the Sargasso Sea. October 14: In early morning, the crew discovers a fire in the cargo hold; the Chancellor arrives at latitude 21° 33' N and longitude 50° 17' W. October 21: J. R. Kazallon, William Falsten, Robert Curtis learn that John Ruby had smuggled thirty pounds of potassium picrate into the ship's hold. All passengers become aware of the fire burning inside the ship after Ruby's outburst of"Fire on board! Fire! Fire!". October 23: Captain John Silas Huntly resigns his post. October 29: Flames from the fire shoot through the deck.
Shortly before midnight, the Chancellor runs aground on a reef. John Ruby dies after plunging into the burning hold through an open hatchway. October 30: The ocean waves flood the ship's hold and begin to extinguish the fire. October 31: Andre Letourneur proposes to name the newly discovered reef"Ham Rock". November 6: The fire in the Chancellor's cargo hold is extinguished. November 8: In a combined effort, the crew and passengers commence unloading the cotton into the ocean. November 20: Repairs to the Chancellor are completed. November 24: The Chancellor departs"Ham Rock". November 30: At about two o'clock in the morning, a sailor discovers two feet of water in the hold; the water rises to three feet by daybreak. December 1: The water inside the hold is at five feet. December 3: The water inside the hold is at six feet. December 4: Curtis, the captain, decides to abandon ship. Construction on a raft commences; the Chancellor stops sinking with the deck now two feet underwater. Near eleven o'clock at night, the ropes holding the uncompleted raft snap and it goes adrift.
December 5: The Chancellor is now at latitude 16° N. The hull is three-fourths submerged. December 6: Near eight o'clock in the morning, the boatswain discovers that the whaleboat is missing, along with Mr. Kear, John Silas Huntly, three sailors, they escaped their exact fate remains unknown. At five o'clock, Mrs. Kear dies after experiencing drowsiness and fever. December 7: The construction of the second raft is completed. After eight o'clock in the morning, the Chancellor sinks after more than 70 days at sea. At seven o'clock in the morning, two sailors and an apprentice drown after jumping overboard as the newly completed raft begins drifting away from the foundering ship. December 7: The position of the raft is calculated as about latitude 15° 07' N and longitude 49° 35' W 650 miles northeast of Paramaribo in Dutch Guiana. December 17: Sharks begin following the drifting raft. December 22: A powerful storm ravages the occupants of the raft washing overboard two sailors as well as all of their meat and fish
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, more in Northern Gaul, its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French has supplanted. French was influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both French. French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple different continents, most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French, it is spoken as a first language in France, Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick as well as other Francophone regions, western Switzerland, parts of the United States in Luxembourg and in northern Italy, by various communities elsewhere.
In 2015 40% of the francophone population lived in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas, 1% in Asia and Oceania. French is the fourth most spoken mother tongue in the European Union, Of Europeans who speak other languages natively one-fifth are able to speak French as a second language. French is the second most taught foreign language in the EU. French is the 18th most natively spoken language in the world, 6th most spoken language by total number of speakers and the second most studied language worldwide; as a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 16th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas and Asia. Most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Morocco, Mauritius and Ivory Coast. French is estimated to have about 76 million native speakers and about 235 million daily, fluent speakers and another 77 to 110 million secondary speakers who speak it as a second language to varying degrees of proficiency in Africa.
According to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie 300 million people worldwide are "able to speak the language", without specifying the criteria for this estimation or whom it encompasses. According to a demographic projection led by the Université Laval and the Réseau Démographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, the total number of French speakers will reach 500 million in 2025 and 650 million by 2050. OIF estimates 700 million by 2050, 80 % of. French has a long history as an international language of literature and scientific standards and is a primary or second language of many international organisations including the United Nations, the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee, the International Committee of the Red Cross. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Spoken by 12% of the European Union's population, French is the fourth most spoken mother tongue in the EU after German and Italian.
Under the Constitution of France, French has been the official language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases and legal contracts. In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population as their primary language. French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland, called Romandy, of which Geneva is the largest city; the language divisions in Switzerland do not coincide with political subdivisions, some cantons have bilingual status: for example, cities such as Biel/Bienne and cantons such as Valais and Berne. French is the native language of about 23% of the Swiss population, is spoken by 50% of the population. French is an official language of Monaco and Luxembourg, as well as in the Aosta Valley region of Italy, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands.
It is spoken in Andorra and is main communication language after Catalan in El Pas de la Casa. The language is taught as the primary second language in the German land of Saarland, with French being taught from pre-school and over 43% of citizens being able to speak French; the m
The Soldier and the Lady
The Soldier and the Lady is the 1937 American adventure film version of the oft-produced Jules Verne novel, Michel Strogoff. Produced by Pandro S. Berman, he hired as Joseph Ermolieff. Ermolieff had produced two earlier versions of the film, Michel Strogoff in France, The Czar's Courier in Germany, both released in 1936. Both the earlier films had starred the German actor Adolf Wohlbrück. Berman imported Wohlbrück, changing his name to Anton Walbrook to have him star in the American version. Other stars of the film were Elizabeth Allan, Margot Grahame, Akim Tamiroff, Fay Bainter and Eric Blore. RKO Radio Pictures had purchased the rights to the French version of the movie, used footage from that film in the American production; the film was released on April 9, 1937. The Tsar sends courier Michael Strogoff to deliver vital information to Grand Duke Vladimir far away in Siberia; the Tartars, aided by renegade Ogareff, have risen up against the Russian Empire. Anton Walbrook as Michael Strogoff Elizabeth Allan as Nadia Akim Tamiroff as Ogareff Margot Grahame as Zangarra Fay Bainter as Strogoff's Mother Eric Blore as Blount Edward Brophy as Packer Paul Guilfoyle as Vasiley William Stack as Grand Duke Paul Harvey as Tsar Michael Visaroff as Innkeeper The Soldier and the Lady on IMDb
Michel Strogoff (1956 film)
Michel Strogoff is a 1956 French-Italian adventure film based on the 1876 novel by Jules Verne, directed by Carmine Gallone and starring Curd Jürgens. Curd Jürgens: Michel Strogoff Geneviève Page: Nadia Jacques Dacqmine: Grand-duc Sylva Koscina: Zingara Gérard Buhr: Blond Jean Parédès: Jolivet Valery Inkijinoff: Feofar Khan Françoise Fabian: Natko Henri Nassiet: Ivan Ogareff Sylvie: Marfa Strogoff Louis Arbessier: Tsar Michel Etcheverry: General Krisloff It was the most popular movie of the year in France. Michael Strogoff on IMDb
Adolf Anton Wilhelm Wohlbrück was an Austrian actor who settled in the United Kingdom under the name Anton Walbrook. Walbrook was born in Austria, as Adolf Wohlbrück, he was the son of Adolf Ferdinand Bernhard Hermann Wohlbrück. He was descended from ten generations of actors, though his father broke with tradition and was a circus clown. Walbrook studied with the director Max Reinhardt and built up a career in Austrian theatre and cinema. In 1936, he went to Hollywood to reshoot dialogue for the multinational The Soldier and the Lady and in the process changed his name from Adolf to Anton. Instead of returning to Austria, gay and classified under the Nuremberg Laws as "half-Jewish", settled in England and continued working as a film actor, making a speciality of playing continental Europeans, he played Otto in the first London production of Design for Living at the Haymarket Theatre in January 1939, running for 233 performances, opposite Diana Wynyard as Gilda and Rex Harrison as Leo. In 1952 he appeared at the Coliseum as Cosmo Constantine in Call Me Madam participating alongside Billie Worth, Jeff Warren and Shani Wallis on the EMI cast record.
Producer-director Herbert Wilcox cast him as Prince Albert in Victoria the Great and Walbrook appeared in the sequel, Sixty Glorious Years the following year. He was in director Thorold Dickinson's version of Gaslight, in the role played by Charles Boyer in the Hollywood remake. In Dangerous Moonlight, a romantic melodrama, he was a Polish pianist torn over whether to return home. For the Powell and Pressburger team in The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp he played the role of the dashing, intense "good German" officer Theo Kretschmar-Schuldorff, the tyrannical impresario Lermontov in The Red Shoes. One of his most unusual films, reuniting him with Dickinson, is The Queen of Spades, a Gothic thriller based on the Alexander Pushkin short story, in which he co-starred with Edith Evans. For Max Ophüls he was the ringmaster in Ludwig I, King of Bavaria in Lola Montès, his Red Shoes co-star Moira Shearer recalled Walbrook was a loner on set wearing dark glasses and eating alone. He retired from films at the end of the 1950s and in years appeared on the European stage and television.
Walbrook died of a heart attack in Garatshausen, Germany in 1967. His ashes were interred in the churchyard of St. John's Church, London, as he had wished in his testament. Notes BibliographyMoor, Dangerous Limelight: Anton Walbrook and the Seduction of the English Anton Walbrook on IMDb Anton Walbrook at the BFI's Screenonline. Biography & filmography Anton Walbrook fan site Photographs of Anton Walbrook Anton Walbrook at Find a Grave