Extortion is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion. It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from threats from unspecified other parties. Extortion is practiced by organized crime groups; the actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense, making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the demanding and obtaining of something through force, but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant; the term extortion is used metaphorically to refer to usury or to price-gouging, though neither is considered extortion. It is often used loosely to refer to everyday situations where one person feels indebted against their will, to another, in order to receive an essential service or avoid legal consequences.
Neither extortion nor blackmail requires a threat of a criminal act, such as violence a threat used to elicit actions, money, or property from the object of the extortion. Such threats include the filing of reports of criminal behavior to the police, revelation of damaging facts, etc. In law, the word extortion can refer to political corruption, such as selling one's office or influence peddling, but in general vocabulary the word first brings to mind blackmail or protection rackets; the logical connection between the corruption sense of the word and the other senses is that to demand bribes in one's official capacity is blackmail or racketeering in essence. Extortion is distinguished from robbery. In robbery, whether armed or not, the offender takes property from the victim by the immediate use of force or fear that force will be used. Extortion, not limited to the taking of property, involves the verbal or written instillation of fear that something will happen to the victim if they do not comply with the extortionist's will.
Another key distinction is that extortion always involves a verbal or written threat, whereas robbery does not. In United States federal law, extortion can be committed with or without the use of force and with or without the use of a weapon. In blackmail, which always involves extortion, the extortionist threatens to reveal information about a victim or their family members, embarrassing damaging, or incriminating unless a demand for money, property, or services is met. In the United States, extortion may be committed as a federal crime across a computer system, phone, by mail, or in using any instrument of interstate commerce. Extortion requires that the individual sent the message willingly and knowingly as elements of the crime; the message only has to be sent to commit the crime of extortion. In England and Wales extorting property and money by coercion is the offence of Blackmail which covers any "unwarranted demand with menaces" including physical threats. See section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 plus sections 29 and 30 of the Larceny Act 1916.
A group of people may be committing conspiracy. Extortion is a common law offence in Scotland of using threat of harm to demand money, property or some advantage from another person, it does not matter whether the demand itself is legitimate as the offence can still be committed when illegitimate threats of harm are used. Cyberextortion is when an group uses the internet as an offensive force; the group or individual sends a company a threatening email stating that they have received confidential information about their company and will exploit a security leak or launch an attack that will harm the company's network. The message sent through the email demands money in exchange for the prevention of the attack. In March 2008, Anthony Digati was arrested on federal charges of extortion through interstate communication. Digati put $50,000 into a variable life insurance policy by New York Life Insurance Company and wanted a return of $198,303.88. When the firm didn't comply, he threatened to send out 6 million spam emails.
He registered a domain in February 2008 that contained New York Life's name in the URL to display false public statements about the company and increased his demand to $3 million. According to prosecutors, Digati's intent was not to inform or educate but he wanted to "damage the reputation of New York Life and cost the company millions of dollars in revenue,”. New York Life contacted the Federal Bureau of Digati was apprehended. On February 15, 2011, Spanish police apprehended a man who attempted to blackmail Nintendo over customer information he had stolen; the man stole personal information about 4,000 users and emailed Nintendo Ibérica, Nintendo's Spanish division, accused the company of data negligence. He threatened the company that he would make the information public and complain to the Spanish Data Agency if his demands were not met. After Nintendo ignored his demands, he published some of the informati
The Bank Job
The Bank Job is a 2008 heist-thriller film directed by Roger Donaldson, written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, starring Jason Statham, based on the 1971 Baker Street robbery in central London, from which the money and valuables stolen were never recovered. The producers allege that the story was prevented from being told in 1971 because of a D-Notice to protect a prominent member of the British Royal Family. According to the producers, this film is intended to reveal the truth for the first time, although it includes significant elements of fiction; the premiere was held in London on 18 February 2008. The film was released in both the UK on 29 February 2008 and in the US on 7 March 2008, it has grossed $64.8 million worldwide and has a 79% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, which called it "thoroughly entertaining". The British Security Services have taken interest in a safe deposit box, located in a Lloyd's Bank branch on the corner of Baker Street and Marylebone Road, it belongs to a black militant gangster, Michael X, contains compromising photos of Princess Margaret, which he is keeping as insurance to keep the British authorities off his back.
Martine Love, an ex-model, romantically involved with MI5 agent Tim Everett, is caught at Heathrow Airport smuggling drugs into the country, to avoid going to jail, she makes a deal with the authorities whereby she agrees to retrieve the photos. Martine approaches her friend Terry, a struggling East London car salesman with criminal contacts, tells him that if he can assemble the gang to help her rob the bank, he will be richly rewarded, though she does not tell him about the photos in the deposit box. Terry recruits a small team, including one of his own workers, Dave, Kevin and Guy Singer. While scouting the bank, Dave runs into local gangster Lew Vogel, for whom he has made several pornographic films; the gang rents a leather goods shop near tunnels into the vault. They loot the safety deposit boxes, but Terry becomes suspicious when Martine seems to display intense interest in one box; the police are alerted to the robbery by a ham radio operator who overhears the gang's walkie-talkie communications, but by the time they locate the bank, the gang has gotten away.
The robbery rattles many important underworld figures who had used the bank, including Lew Vogel, who kept a ledger of police payoffs inside. He notifies a furious Michael X in Trinidad, who suspects Gale Benson - the lover of his associate Hakim Jamal - of spying for MI5, subsequently murders her. Vogel decides that Dave’s presence outside that particular bank was not a coincidence, has him tortured for information. Dave gives in, Lew has Gerald Pyke - a corrupt policeman working on his payroll - kidnap Eddie at Terry's garage. Meanwhile, Terry discovers explicit photographs of important government officials among their lot and uses them to secure passports and new identities for the gang. Vogel's men track Guy Singer. Eddie refuses to cooperate with Vogel. Terry agrees to meet with Vogel at Paddington Station to exchange the ledger for Eddie, he arranges for the meeting to happen at the same time. Meanwhile, Terry sends Kevin to honest cop Roy Given with a copy of the ledger. Vogel becomes spooked and tries to flee, but Terry attacks and beats him, only to be arrested by the police.
However, Given has Terry released and uses the information he supplied to arrest the corrupt cops working for Vogel. In Trinidad, Michael X is arrested as well. Eddie inherits Terry's car dealership, while Kevin and Martine prepare to begin new lives with their share of the money. Terry and his family enjoy a carefree life on a boat in a sunny location; the film is in part based on historical facts about the Baker Street robbery. A gang tunnelled into a branch of Lloyds Bank at the junction of Baker Street and Marylebone Road, in London, on the night of 11 September 1971 and robbed the safe deposit boxes that were stored in the vault; the robbers had rented a leather goods shop named Le Sac two doors down from the bank, tunneled a distance of 40 feet, passing under the Chicken Inn restaurant, located between the shop and the bank. The tunneling took 3 weeks working on weekends. Robert Rowlands, a ham radio operator, overheard conversations between the robbers and their rooftop lookout, he contacted tape-recorded the conversations, which were subsequently made public.
The film includes lines recorded by Rowlands, such as the lookout's comment that "Money may be your god, but it's not mine, I'm fucking off."The film's producers said that they have an inside source, identified in press reports as George McIndoe, who served as an executive producer. The film's plot point of the issuance of a D-Notice by MI5, because a safe deposit box held sex pictures of Princess Margaret with London gangster-turned-actor John Bindon, is fictional; the possible connection to Michael X is based on information provided by McIndoe, though the basis and extent of his information remains unclear. The Daily Mail interviewed a convicted robber, who claims to be a perpetrator and he indicated that embarrassing photos including child pornography were found but deliberately left behind for the police; the film-makers acknowledged that they made up the character Martine, David Denby in The New Yorker wrote that it is "impossible to say how much of the film's story is true". The fictitious character of Lew Vogel may in part allude to
Notting Hill is an affluent district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea. Notting Hill is known for being a cosmopolitan and multicultural neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival and Portobello Road Market. From around 1870, Notting Hill had an association with artists. For much of the 20th century, the large houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Caribbean immigrants were drawn to the area in the 1950s because of the cheap rents, but were exploited by slum landlords like Peter Rachman and became the target of white Teddy Boys in the 1958 Notting Hill race riots. In the early 21st century, after decades of gentrification, Notting Hill has a reputation as an affluent and fashionable area known for attractive terraces of large Victorian townhouses and high-end shopping and restaurants. A Daily Telegraph article in 2004 used the phrase "the Notting Hill Set" to refer to a group of emerging Conservative politicians, such as David Cameron and George Osborne, who would become Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer and were once based in Notting Hill.
Notting Hill is in the historic county of Middlesex. It was a hamlet on rural land until the expansion of urban London during the 19th century; as late as 1870 after the hamlet had become a London suburb, Notting Hill was still referred to as being in Middlesex rather than in London. The origin of the name "Notting Hill" is uncertain though an early version appears in the Patent Rolls of 1356 as Knottynghull, while an 1878 text and New London, reports that the name derives from a manor in Kensington called "Knotting-Bernes,", "Knutting-Barnes," or "Nutting-barns", goes on to quote from a court record during Henry VIII's reign that "the manor called Notingbarons, alias Kensington, in the parish of Paddington, was held of the Abbot of Westminster." For years, it was thought to be a link with Canute, but it is now thought that the "Nott" section of the name is derived from the Saxon personal name Cnotta, with the "ing" part accepted as coming from the Saxon for a group or settlement of people.
The area in the west around Pottery Lane was used in the early 19th century for making bricks and tiles out of the heavy clay dug in the area. The clay was fired in a series of brick and tile kilns; the only remaining 19th-century tile kiln in London is on Walmer Road. In the same area, pig farmers moved in after being forced out of the Marble Arch area. Avondale Park was created in 1892 out of a former area of pig slurry called "the Ocean"; this was part of a general clean-up of the area which had become known as the Potteries and Piggeries. The area remained rural until London's westward expansion reached Bayswater in the early 19th century; the Ladbroke family was Notting Hill's main landowner, from the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to develop the Ladbroke Estate. Working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital. Many of these streets bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the area's main north-south axis, Ladbroke Square, London's largest private garden square.
The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, other roads are reminders of this. The local telephone prefix 7727 is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk. Ladbroke left the actual business of developing his land to the firm of City solicitors, Bayley, who worked with Allason to develop the property. In 1823 Allason completed a plan for the layout of the main portion of the estate; this marks the genesis of his most enduring idea – the creation of large private communal gardens known as "pleasure grounds", or "paddocks", enclosed by terraces and/or crescents of houses. Instead of houses being set around a garden square, separated from it by a road, Allason's houses would have direct access to a secluded communal garden in the rear, to which people on the street did not have access and could not see. To this day these communal garden squares continue to provide the area with much of its attraction for the wealthiest householders. In 1837 the Hippodrome racecourse was laid out.
The racecourse ran around the hill, bystanders were expected to watch from the summit of the hill. However, the venture was not a success, in part due to a public right of way which traversed the course, in part due to the heavy clay of the neighbourhood which caused it to become waterlogged; the Hippodrome closed in 1841, after which development resumed and houses were built on the site. The crescent-shaped roads that circumvent the hill, such as Blenheim Crescent, Elgin Crescent, Stanley Crescent, Cornwall Crescent and Landsdowne Crescent, were built over the circular racecourse tracks. At the summit of hill stands the elegant St John's church, built in 1845 in the early English style, which formed the centrepiece of the Ladbroke Estate development; the Notting Hill houses were large, but they did not succeed in enticing the richest Londoners, who tended to live closer to the centre of London in Mayfair or Belgravia. The houses appealed to the upper middle class, who could live there in Belgravia style at lower prices.
In the opening chapter of John Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga novels, he housed the Nicholas Forsytes "in Ladbroke Grove, a spacious abode and a great bargain". In 1862 Thomas Hardy left Dorchester for London to work with architect Arthur Blomfield.
Passing (racial identity)
Racial passing occurs when a person classified as a member of one racial group is accepted as a member of a racial group other than their own. The term has been used in the United States to describe a person of color or multiracial ancestry who has assimilated into the white majority during times when legal and social conventions of hypodescent classified the person as a minority, subject to racial segregation and discrimination, regardless of their actual ancestry. To understand how some African-American people pass as white, one must acknowledge the rape of slave women at the hands of white plantation owners. Although anti-miscegenation laws outlawing racial intermarriage existed in America as early as 1664, there were no laws preventing the rape of enslaved women. For generations, enslaved black mothers bore mixed-race children who were deemed "mulattos", "quadroons", "octoroons" or "hexadecaroons" based on their percentage of "white blood."Although the aforementioned mixed-race people were half white or more, institutions of hypodescent and the 20th-century one drop rule classified them as black and therefore, inferior after slavery became a racial caste.
But there were other mixed-race people who were born to unions or marriages in colonial Virginia between free white women and African or African-American men, indentured, or slave, became ancestors to many free families of color in the early decades of the US, as documented by Paul Heinegg in his Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Delaware. Mixed-race African Americans sometimes used their racially ambiguous appearance in order to pass as white and evade the restrictions against them to seek better lives. For some people, passing as white and using their whiteness to uplift other black people was the best way to undermine the system that relegated black people to a lower position in society. Although reasons behind passing are individual, the history of African Americans passing as white can be categorized by the following time periods: the antebellum era, post-emancipation, Reconstruction through Jim Crow, present day. During the antebellum period, passing as white was a means of escaping slavery.
Once they left the plantation, escaped slaves who could pass as white found safety in their perceived whiteness. To pass as white was to pass as free. However, once they gained their freedom, most escaped slaves intended to return to blackness - passing as white was a temporary disguise used to gain freedom. Once they had escaped, their racial ambiguity could be a safeguard to their freedom. If an escaped slave was able to pass as white, they were less to be caught and returned to their plantation. If they were caught, white-passing slaves such as Jane Morrison could sue for their freedom, using their white appearance as justification for emancipation. Post-emancipation, passing as white was no longer a means to obtain freedom; as passing shifted from a necessity to an option, it fell out of favor in the black community. Author Charles W. Chestnutt, born free in Ohio as a mixed-race African American, explored circumstances for persons of color in the South after emancipation, for instance, for a enslaved woman who marries a white-passing man shortly after the conclusion of Civil War.
Some fictional exploration coalesced around the figure of the "tragic mulatta", a woman whose future is compromised by her being mixed race and able to pass for white. During the Reconstruction era, black people gained the constitutional rights of which they were deprived during slavery. Although they would not secure full constitutional equality for another century until after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, reconstruction promised African Americans legal equality for the first time. Abolishing slavery did not abolish racism. During Reconstruction whites tried to enforce white supremacy, in part through the rise of Ku Klux Klan chapters, rifle clubs and paramilitary insurgent groups such as the Red Shirts. Passing was used by some African Americans to evade segregation; those who were able to pass as white engaged in tactical passing or passing as white in order to get a job, go to school, or to travel. Outside of these situations, "tactical passers" still lived as black people, for this reason, tactical passing is referred to as "9 to 5 passing."
The writer and literary critic Anatole Broyard saw his father pass in order to get work after his Louisiana Creole family moved north to Brooklyn before World War II. This idea of crossing the color line at different points in one's life is explored in James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, but the narrator closes the novel by saying "I have sold my birthright for a mess of pottage", meaning that he regrets trading in his blackness for whiteness. The idea that passing as white was a rejection of blackness was common at the time and remains so to the present time. People chose to pass for good during Jim Crow and beyond; the US civil rights leader Walter Francis White was of mixed-race European ancestry: 27 of his 32 great-great-great-grandparents were white. He identified with it, he served as the chief executive of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1929 until his death in 1955. In the earlier stages of his career, he conducted investigations in the South, during which he sometimes passed as white in order to gather information more on lynchings and hate crimes, to protect himself in hostile env
Notting Hill Carnival
The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event that has taken place in London since 1966 on the streets of the Notting Hill area of Kensington, each August over two days. It is led by members of the British West Indian community, attracts around one million people annually, making it one of the world's largest street festivals, a significant event in Black British culture. In 2006, the UK public voted it onto a list of icons of England. Despite its name, it is not part of the global Carnival season preceding Lent; the roots of the Notting Hill Carnival that took shape in the mid-1960s had two separate but connected strands. A "Caribbean Carnival" was held on 30 January 1959 in St Pancras Town Hall as a response to the problematic state of race relations at the time; the 1959 event, held indoors and televised by the BBC, was organised by the Trinidadian journalist and activist Claudia Jones in her capacity as editor of influential black newspaper The West Indian Gazette, directed by Edric Connor.
The other important strand was the "hippie" London Free School-inspired festival in Notting Hill that became the first organised outside event, in August 1966. The prime mover was Rhaune Laslett, not aware of the indoor events when she first raised the idea; this festival was a more diverse Notting Hill event to promote cultural unity. A street party for neighbourhood children turned into a carnival procession when Russell Henderson's steel band went on a walkabout. By 1970, "the Notting Hill Carnival consisted of 2 music bands, the Russell Henderson Combo and Selwyn Baptiste's Notting Hill Adventure Playground Steelband and 500 dancing spectators."Emslie Horniman's Pleasance, with Kensal Green and Westbourne Park the nearest tube stations, has been the carnival's traditional starting point. Among the early bands to participate were Ebony Steelband and Metronomes Steelband; as the carnival had no permanent staff and head office, the Mangrove restaurant in Notting Hill, run by another Trinidadian, Frank Crichlow, came to function as an informal communication hub and office address for the carnival's organisers.
Leslie Palmer, director from 1973 to 1975, is credited with "getting sponsorship, recruiting more steel bands, reggae groups and sound systems, introducing generators and extending the route." He encouraged traditional masquerade, for the first time in 1973 costume bands and steel bands from the various islands took part in the street parade, alongside the introduction of stationary sound systems, as distinct from those on moving floats, which, as Alex Pascall has explained, "created the bridge between the two cultures of carnival and calypso." "Notting Hill Carnival became a major festival in 1975 when it was organised by a young teacher, Leslie Palmer." The carnival was popularised by live radio broadcasts by Pascall on his daily Black Londoners programme for BBC Radio London. By 1976, the event had become Caribbean in flavour, with around 150,000 people attending. However, in that year and several subsequent years, the carnival was marred by riots, in which predominantly Caribbean youths fought with police – a target due to the continuous harassment the population felt they were under.
During this period, there was considerable press coverage of the disorder, which some felt took an unfairly negative and one-sided view of the carnival. For a while it looked. Prince Charles was one of the few establishment figures. Concerns about the size of the event resulted in London's mayor, Ken Livingstone, setting up a Carnival Review Group to look into "formulating guidelines to safeguard the future of the Carnival". An interim report by the review resulted in a change to the route in 2002; when the full report was published in 2004, it recommended that Hyde Park be used as a "savannah", though the proposal of such a move attracted concerns, including that the Hyde Park event might overshadow the original street carnival. In 2003, the Notting Hill Carnival was run by a limited company, the Notting Hill Carnival Trust Ltd. A report by the London Development Agency on the 2002 Carnival estimated that the event contributed around £93 million to the London and UK economy, set against an estimated £6-10 million costs.
However, the 2016 residents' survey commissioned by local Conservative MP Victoria Borwick found that while 6% of businesses reported an upturn in trade, many others boarded up their shopfronts and lost business due to closure. In 2005, entrants from the Notting Hill Carnival participated in the Bridgwater, carnival, Europe's largest lighted carnival and part of the West Country Carnival circuit. For the 2011 Notting Hill Carnival an iPhone app was released, in 2012 both iPhone and Android apps. For 2014, a Notting Hill Carnival illustrated guide was created by official city guide to London visitlondon.com. The infographic includes transport information and a route map; the book Carnival: A Photographic and Testimonial History of the Notting Hill Carnival, by Ishmahil Blagrove and Margaret Bus
Guyana the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America. It is considered part of the Caribbean region because of its strong cultural and political ties with other Anglo-Caribbean countries and the Caribbean Community. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, Suriname to the east. With an area of 215,000 square kilometres, Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state on mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname; the region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Major rivers in Guyana include the Essequibo, the Berbice, the Demerara. Inhabited by many indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century, it was governed as British Guiana, with a plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970.
The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African and multiracial groups. Guyana is the only South American nation; the majority of the population, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member; the name "Guyana" derives from Guiana, the original name for the region that included Guyana, French Guiana, parts of Colombia and Brazil. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Guyana" comes from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters". There are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Patamona, Kalina, Pemon and Warao; the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus was the first European to sight Guyana during his third voyage, Sir Walter Raleigh wrote an account in 1596, the Dutch were the first Europeans to establish colonies: Essequibo and Demerara.
After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. Since its independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River. Simón Bolívar wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled; the British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area dating to the sixteenth century, ceded to the British. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth; the US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time.
The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress, to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, supported by Guyanese of East Indian background. In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, died in a mass murder/suicide drinking cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. However, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese. More than 300 children were killed. Jim Jones's bodyguards had earlier attacked people taking off at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown, killing five people, including Leo Ryan, a US congressman. In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana has ratified the treaty; the territory controlled by Guyana lies between latitudes 1° and 9°N, longitudes 56° and 62°W.
The country can be divided into five natural regions. Some of Guyana's highest mountains are Mount Ayanganna, Monte Caburaí and Mount Roraima on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint border, part of the Pakaraima range. Mount Roraima and Guyana's table-top mountains are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel The Lost World. There are many volcanic escarpments and waterfalls, including Kaieteur Falls, believed to be the largest water drop in the world. No
Angela Yvonne Davis is an American communist, political activist and author. She emerged as a prominent counterculture activist in the 1960s working with the Communist Party USA, of which she was a member until 1991, was involved in the Black Panther Party during the Civil Rights Movement. Davis is a professor emerita at the University of California, Santa Cruz, in its History of Consciousness Department, she is a former director of the university's Feminist Studies department. Her research interests are feminism, African-American studies, critical theory, popular music, social consciousness, the philosophy and history of punishment and prisons, she co-founded Critical Resistance, an organization working to abolish the prison–industrial complex. Davis's membership in the Communist Party USA led California Governor Ronald Reagan in 1969 to attempt to have her barred from teaching at any California university, she supported the governments of the Soviet Bloc for several decades. During the 1980s, she was twice a candidate for Vice President on the CPUSA ticket.
She left the party in 1991. After Davis purchased firearms for personal security guards, those guards used them in the 1970 armed takeover of a Marin County, California courtroom, in which four people were killed, she was prosecuted for three capital felonies, including conspiracy to murder, but was acquitted of the charges. Angela Davis was born in Alabama, her family lived in the "Dynamite Hill" neighborhood, marked in the 1950s by the bombings of houses in an attempt to intimidate and drive out middle-class blacks who had moved there. Davis spent time on her uncle's farm and with friends in New York City, she had two brothers and Reginald, a sister, Fania. Ben played defensive back for the Cleveland Browns and Detroit Lions in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Davis attended Carrie A. Tuggle School, a segregated black elementary school, Parker Annex, a middle-school branch of Parker High School in Birmingham. During this time, Davis's mother, Sallye Bell Davis, was a national officer and leading organizer of the Southern Negro Youth Congress, an organization influenced by the Communist Party aimed at building alliances among African Americans in the South.
Davis grew up surrounded by communist organizers and thinkers, who influenced her intellectual development. Davis was involved in her church youth group as a child, attended Sunday school regularly, she attributes much of her political involvement to her involvement with the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. She participated in the Girl Scouts 1959 national roundup in Colorado; as a Girl Scout, she picketed to protest racial segregation in Birmingham. By her junior year of high school, Davis had been accepted by an American Friends Service Committee program that placed black students from the South in integrated schools in the North, she chose Elisabeth Irwin High School in Greenwich Village. There she was recruited by Advance. Davis was awarded a scholarship to Brandeis University in Waltham, where she was one of three black students in her class, she encountered the Frankfurt School philosopher Herbert Marcuse at a rally during the Cuban Missile Crisis and became his student. In a 2007 television interview, Davis said, "Herbert Marcuse taught me that it was possible to be an academic, an activist, a scholar, a revolutionary."
She worked part-time to earn enough money to travel to France and Switzerland and attended the eighth World Festival of Youth and Students in Helsinki. She returned home in 1963 to a Federal Bureau of Investigation interview about her attendance at the Communist-sponsored festival. During her second year at Brandeis, Davis decided to major in French and continued her intensive study of philosopher and writer Jean-Paul Sartre, she was accepted by the Hamilton College Junior Year in France Program. Classes were at Biarritz and at the Sorbonne. In Paris and other students lived with a French family, she was in Biarritz when she learned of the 1963 Birmingham church bombing, committed by members of the Ku Klux Klan, in which four black girls were killed. She grieved as she was acquainted with the victims. Nearing completion of her degree in French, Davis realized, she was interested in Marcuse's ideas. On returning to Brandeis, she sat in on his course. Marcuse, she wrote in her autobiography, was helpful.
She began making plans to attend the University of Frankfurt for graduate work in philosophy. In 1965, she graduated a member of Phi Beta Kappa. In Germany, with a monthly stipend of $100, she lived first with a German family and with a group of students in a loft in an old factory. After visiting East Berlin during the annual May Day celebration, she felt that the East German government was dealing better with the residual effects of fascism than were the West Germans. Many of her roommates were active in the radical Socialist German Student Union, Davis participated in some SDS actions. Events in the United States, including the formation of the Black Panther Party and the transformation of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee to an all-black organization, drew her interest upon her return. Marcuse had moved to a position at the University of California, San Diego, Davis followed him there after her two years in Frankfurt. On her way back, she stopped in London to attend a conference on "The Dialectics of Liberation."
The black contingent at the conference included the Trinidadian-American Stokely Carmichael and the British Michael X. Although moved by Carmichael's rhetoric, Davis was repor