Michaelmas is a Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel Uriel, is added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year. In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven. In the fifth century a basilica near Rome was dedicated in honour of Michael on 30 September, beginning with celebrations on the eve of that day, 29 September is now kept in honour of Michael and all Angels throughout some western churches; the name Michaelmas comes from a shortening of "Michael's Mass", in the same style as Christmas and Candlemas. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days.
It was one of the English and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day. Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at beginning of October. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held. Many of the activities, done at Lughnasadh – sports and horse races – migrated to this day. One of the few flowers left around at this time of year is the Michaelmas daisy. Hence the rhyme: "The Michaelmas daisies, among dead weeds, Bloom for St Michael's valorous deeds..." A traditional meal for the day includes goose. The custom of baking a special bread or cake, called Sruthan Mhìcheil, St Michael's bannock, or Michaelmas Bannock on the eve of the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel originated in the Hebrides; the bread was made from equal parts of barley and rye without using any metal implements. In remembrance of absent friends or those who had died, special Struans, blessed at an early morning Mass, were given to the poor in their names. Nuts were traditionally cracked on Michaelmas Eve.
Folklore in the British Isles suggests that Michaelmas day is the last day that blackberries can be picked. It is said that when St Michael expelled Lucifer, the devil, from heaven, he fell from the skies and landed in a prickly blackberry bush. Satan cursed the fruit, scorched them with his fiery breath, stamped and urinated on them, so that they would be unfit for eating; as it is considered ill-advised to eat them after 29 September, a Michaelmas pie is made from the last of the season. In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for 29 September feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Michael and Raphael, Uriel. For the Roman Catholic Church 29 September is referred only to the three Archangels mentioned in the Bible: Saint Michael, Saint Gabriel, Saint Raphael, their feast were unified in one common day during the second half of the 20th century. In the time before their feasts were: 29 September, 18 March for St Gabriel, lastly, 24 October for St Raphael.
Michaelmas is used in the extended sense of autumn, as the name of the first term of the academic year, which begins at this time, at various educational institutions in the United Kingdom and those parts of the Commonwealth in the northern hemisphere. These include the universities of Cambridge, Lancaster, the London School of Economics, Oxford and Dublin. However, the ancient Scottish universities used the name Martinmas for their autumn term, following the old Scottish term days; the Inns of Court of the English Bar and the Honorable Society of King's Inns in Ireland have a Michaelmas term as one of their dining terms. It ends towards the end of December; the term is the name of the first of four terms into which the legal year is divided by the courts of Ireland and England and Wales. In the United Kingdom, the United States and Ireland, a Red Mass is traditionally convened on the Sunday closest to Michaelmas, in honor of and to bless lawyers and judges; because Saint Michael is the patron of some North American police officers, Michaelmas may be a Blue Mass.
However, the same can be said for members of the United States military and several of St. Michael's other patronages. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day, still sung in Lutheran churches: "Lord God, We All to Thee Give Praise". Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, which celebrate it as the "festival of strong will" during the autumnal equinox. Rudolf Steiner considered it the second most important festival after Easter, Easter being about Christ. Michaelmas is about man once he finds Christ, meaning man finds the Christ, therefore he will be safe in death. In the City of London, Michaelmas is the day when the new Lord Mayor of London is elected, in the Common Hall
Route 177 is a state highway in central Connecticut, running from Plainville to Canton. Route 177 begins as Town Line Road at an intersection with Route 10 in Plainville, just north of the Southington town line, it heads west for 0.2 miles turns north onto South Washington Street. From this intersection, South Washington Street continues one way southbound into Southington as Birch Street, ends at Route 10. Route 177 continues north along South Washington Street to the town center of Plainville, where it intersects with Route 372 and becomes North Washington Street. After crossing the Pequabuck River, it soon has a junction with Route 72, connecting with it via a partial interchange allowing access to and from points east. North of the intersection, the road becomes Unionville Avenue as it continues north into the town of Farmington. In Farmington, the road becomes Plainville Avenue and continues north across the southwestern part of town, passing Tunxis Community College before intersecting with U.
S. Route 6 about 0.6 miles north of the town line. Route 177 soon enters the Unionville section of Farmington, where the road becomes South Main Street. After crossing the Farmington River into the center of Unionville, it intersects Route 4. North of here, Route 177 continues as Lovely Street. Route 177 runs about 3.5 miles in the western portion of the town of Avon enters the town of Canton. The road ends 0.7 miles at an intersection with US 44 and US 202 near Bond Pond in Canton center. The route from Plainville to Unionville was designated in 1922 as State Highway 160, while that from Unionville to Canton center was known as State Highway 320. In the 1932 state highway renumbering, these two state highways were combined into a single route, Route 177. Similar to the older highways it replaced, Route 177 ran from Route 372 in Plainville to its current northern terminus at US 44 in Canton. In 1962, it was extended south to its current southern terminus; the entire route is in Hartford County
Glod is a Roma village in the commune of Moroeni, Dâmboviţa County, having a population of 1,513. Its name means "mud" in Romanian; the village is located near the towns of Fieni. Glod was a shooting location for the 2006 mockumentary film Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, representing Borat's home village of Kuzcek, Kazakhstan; the villagers were paid the equivalent of four U. S. dollars a day each for their appearances and were told the film would be a documentary about the hardships of village life. According to 20th Century Fox, the movie’s nature was obvious to everyone since it included blatantly ridiculous scenes like one of a cow inside someone’s house. Fox claims that the production team and star Sacha Baron Cohen each donated $5,000 to the town, as well as paid a location fee, bought computers and office supplies for the residents. In the film, some of the villagers are depicted as rapists and prostitutes for Baron's comedy movie. Two residents of Glod, Nicolae Todorache and Spiridon Ciorbea, have hired the services of Edward Fagan to sue the producers of the film.
The lawsuit was thrown out by U. S. District Judge Loretta Preska in a hearing in early December 2006 on the ground that the charges were too vague to stand up in court. Borat'villagers' demanding $30m from BBC News
Jacques Lamarre is a Canadian businessman and civil engineer. He became the CEO of SNC-Lavalin, one of the largest engineering corporations in the world, in 1996 and left his post in 2009, he earned his Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Arts and Science in civil engineering from Université Laval in Quebec City. He attended Harvard University's Executive Development Program. In November 1994, he was appointed SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.. In May 1996, Jacques Lamarre was named President and chief executive officer. Jacques has an older brother, Bernard Lamarre, who controlled Groupe Lavalin in the early 1990s, was the president of the Board of the École Polytechnique de Montréal from 2002 to 2012. Jacques Lamarre is a member of the Engineering Institute of Canada, the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada and l'Ordre des ingénieurs du Québec On November 12, 2009, Mr Lamarre was appointed to the board of directors of Suncor Energy Inc, Canada's largest energy company. Starting January 1, 2010, Mr. Lamarre joined the Canadian law firm of Heenan Blaikie as counsel, where he provides strategic counsel to clients on major infrastructure projects and finance.
Building the World, Canada Style and Mail
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission was a robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the launch of the two rovers: MER-A Spirit and MER-B Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology. Both rovers far outlived their planned missions of 90 Martian solar days: MER-A Spirit was active until March 22, 2010, while MER-B Opportunity was active until June 10, 2018 and holds the record for the longest distance driven by any off-Earth wheeled vehicle; the mission's scientific objective was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. The mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, which includes three previous successful landers: the two Viking program landers in 1976 and Mars Pathfinder probe in 1997; the total cost of building, launching and operating the rovers on the surface for the initial 90-sol primary mission was US$820 million. Since the rovers have continued to function beyond their initial 90 sol primary mission, they have each received five mission extensions.
The fifth mission extension was granted in October 2007, ran to the end of 2009. The total cost of the first four mission extensions was $104 million, the fifth mission extension is expected to cost at least $20 million. In July 2007, during the fourth mission extension, Martian dust storms blocked sunlight to the rovers and threatened the ability of the craft to gather energy through their solar panels, causing engineers to fear that one or both of them might be permanently disabled. However, the dust storms lifted. On May 1, 2009, during its fifth mission extension, Spirit became stuck in soft soil on Mars. After nearly nine months of attempts to get the rover back on track, including using test rovers on Earth, NASA announced on January 26, 2010 that Spirit was being retasked as a stationary science platform; this mode would enable Spirit to assist scientists in ways that a mobile platform could not, such as detecting "wobbles" in the planet's rotation that would indicate a liquid core. Jet Propulsion Laboratory lost contact with Spirit after last hearing from the rover on March 22, 2010 and continued attempts to regain communications lasted until May 25, 2011, bringing the elapsed mission time to 6 years 2 months 19 days, or over 25 times the original planned mission duration.
In recognition of the vast amount of scientific information amassed by both rovers, two asteroids have been named in their honor: 37452 Spirit and 39382 Opportunity. The mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which designed, is operating the rovers. On January 24, 2014, NASA reported that current studies by the remaining rover Opportunity as well as by the newer Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments that may have been habitable; the search for evidence of habitability and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective. The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission are to: Search for and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity. In particular, samples sought include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, sedimentary cementation, or hydrothermal activity.
Determine the distribution and composition of minerals and soils surrounding the landing sites. Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry; such processes could include water or wind erosion, hydrothermal mechanisms and cratering. Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments; this will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit. Search for iron-containing minerals, to identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates. Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils to determine the processes that created them. Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present. Assess whether those environments were conducive to life; the MER-A and MER-B probes were launched on July 7, 2003, respectively.
Though both probes launched on Boeing Delta II 7925-9.5 rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17, MER-B was on the heavy version of that launch vehicle, needing the extra energy for Trans-Mars injection. The launch vehicles were integrated onto pads right next to each other, with MER-A on CCAFS SLC-17A and MER-B on CCAFS SLC-17B; the dual pads allowed for working the 15- and 21-day planetary launch periods close together. NASA's Launch Services Program managed the launch of both spacecraft; the probes landed in January 2004 in separated equatorial locations on Mars. On January 21, 2004, the Deep Space Network lost contact with Spirit, for reasons thought to be related to a flare shower over Australia; the rover transmitted a message with no data, but that day missed another communications session with the Mars Global Surveyor. The next day, JPL received a beep from the rover. On January 23
Bill Cunningham is a former Justice of the Kentucky Supreme Court. He was elected to the court in November 2006 to represent the first Appellate District, he announced he would retire in early 2019. Cunningham earned his bachelor's degree from Murray State University in 1966 and his Juris Doctor in 1969 from the University of Kentucky College of Law. Cunningham served the court system in several capacities before entering his judicial career, he was the Eddyville city attorney from 1974 to 1991 and public defender for the Kentucky State Penitentiary from 1974 to 1976. He served as Commonwealth's Attorney for the 56th Judicial District from 1976 to 1988. During his tenure in that position, he was voted the Outstanding Commonwealth Attorney of Kentucky by his peers. Cunningham served as a hearing officer for the Kentucky Board of Claims from 1981 to 1985 and as a trial commissioner for the Lyon County District court from 1989 to 1992. Cunningham served as a circuit court judge for 15 years, he was elected to the Circuit Court Bench in November 1991 to serve the 56th Judicial Circuit, which consists of Caldwell, Livingston and Trigg counties.
He was re-elected in 1999 and served as circuit judge until January 2007. He was elected in 2006 to a seat on the Kentucky Supreme Court, he retired on February 2019, after a 40 year judicial career. Born in Eddyville, Cunningham is a native of Kuttawa, Kentucky in Lyon County and an author of five books about regional history, which chronicle the struggle for racial justice in western Kentucky since the American Civil War as well as a book about the history of the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Eddyville, he is a veteran of the U. S. Army, having served in Korea and Vietnam, he and his wife, have five sons and eleven grandchildren. His son, Joe, is the U. S. Representative from South Carolina's 1st congressional district. Justice Bill Cunningham Official Court Biography