Paul-Michel Foucault known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist and literary critic. Foucault's theories address the relationship between power and knowledge, how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, his thought has influenced academics those working in communication studies, sociology, cultural studies, literary theory and critical theory. Born in Poitiers, into an upper-middle-class family, Foucault was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV, at the École Normale Supérieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser, at the University of Paris, where he earned degrees in philosophy and psychology. After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness. After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced The Birth of the Clinic and The Order of Things, publications which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralism, from which he distanced himself.
These first three histories exemplified a historiographical technique Foucault was developing called "archaeology". From 1966 to 1968, Foucault lectured at the University of Tunis before returning to France, where he became head of the philosophy department at the new experimental university of Paris VIII. Foucault subsequently published The Archaeology of Knowledge. In 1970, Foucault was admitted to a membership he retained until his death, he became active in a number of left-wing groups involved in campaigns against racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform. Foucault published Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality, in which he developed archaeological and genealogical methods which emphasized the role that power plays in society. Foucault died in Paris of HIV/AIDS, his partner Daniel Defert founded the AIDES charity in his memory. Paul-Michel Foucault was born on 15 October 1926 in the city of Poitiers, west-central France, as the second of three children in a prosperous and conservative upper-middle-class family.
Family tradition prescribed naming him after his father, Paul Foucault, but his mother insisted on the addition of "Michel". His father, a successful local surgeon born in Fontainebleau, moved to Poitiers, where he set up his own practice and married Anne Malapert, she was the daughter of prosperous surgeon Dr. Prosper Malapert, who owned a private practice and taught anatomy at the University of Poitiers' School of Medicine. Paul Foucault took over his father-in-law's medical practice, while his wife took charge of their large mid-19th-century house, Le Piroir, in the village of Vendeuvre-du-Poitou. Together the couple had three children – a girl named Francine and two boys, Paul-Michel and Denys – who all shared the same fair hair and bright blue eyes; the children were raised to be nominal Roman Catholics, attending mass at the Church of Saint-Porchair, while Michel became an altar boy, none of the family was devout. In life, Foucault revealed little about his childhood. Describing himself as a "juvenile delinquent", he claimed his father was a "bully" who sternly punished him.
In 1930 Foucault began his schooling, two years early, at the local Lycée Henry-IV. Here he undertook two years of elementary education before entering the main lycée, where he stayed until 1936, he undertook his first four years of secondary education at the same establishment, excelling in French, Greek and history but doing poorly at arithmetic and mathematics. In 1939 the Second World War broke out and in 1940 Nazi Germany occupied France. In 1940 Foucault's mother enrolled him in the Collège Saint-Stanislas, a strict Roman Catholic institution run by the Jesuits. Lonely, he described his years there as an "ordeal", but he excelled academically in philosophy and literature. In 1942 he entered his final year, the terminale, where he focused on the study of philosophy, earning his baccalauréat in 1943. Returning to the local Lycée Henry-IV, he studied history and philosophy for a year, aided by a personal tutor, the philosopher Louis Girard. Rejecting his father's wishes that he become a surgeon, in 1945 Foucault went to Paris, where he enrolled in one of the country's most prestigious secondary schools, known as the Lycée Henri-IV.
Here he studied under the philosopher Jean Hyppolite, an existentialist and expert on the work of 19th-century German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Hyppolite had devoted himself to uniting existentialist theories with the dialectical theories of Hegel and Karl Marx; these ideas influenced Foucault, who adopted Hyppolite's conviction that philosophy must develop through a study of history. Attaining excellent results, in autumn 1946 Foucault was admitted to the élite École Normale Supérieure. Of the hundred students entering the ENS, Foucault ranked fourth based on his entry results, encountered the competitive nature of the institution. Like most of his classmates, he lived in the school's
Willow Tree railway station is located on the Main Northern line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the village of Willow Tree, opening on 13 August 1877 as Warrah when the line was extended from Murrururundi to Quirindi, it was renamed Willow Tree in 1879. The station has a passing loop, it had a locomotive turntable for bank engines used on the steeply graded banks over the Liverpool Range to Ardglen Tunnel south of the village. Aurizon and Pacific National still use bank locomotives on some services today. Willow Tree is served by NSW TrainLink's daily Northern Tablelands Xplorer service operating between Armidale/Moree and Sydney. Due to the length of the platform, only the Moree section of the train stops on the platform; this station is a request stop, so the train only stops here if passengers have booked to board/alight here. Willow Tree station details Transport for New South Wales
Connie Deanovich is an American poet. She lived in Chicago, she now lives in Wisconsin. Her work appeared in Bomb, Grand Street, New American Writing, See, Sulfur. 1997 Whiting Award GE Award for Younger Writers. "from THE SPOTTED MOON". Zoland Books. 1999. ISBN 978-1-58195-010-6. Watusi Titanic. Timken. 1996-01-01. ISBN 978-0-943221-24-3. Gerald Costanzo, Jim Daniels, eds.. American poetry: the next generation. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 978-0-88748-343-1. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Jim Elledge, Susan Swartwout, eds.. "from Ephemera Today on "All My Children"". Real things: an anthology of popular culture in American poetry. Indiana University Press. P. 166. ISBN 978-0-253-21229-0. Connie Deanovich. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Walk on the Wild Side: Contemporary Urban Poetry. Scribner. 1994. ISBN 978-0-684-19623-7. Nicholas Christopher, ed.. Under 35: the new generation of American poets. Anchor Book. ISBN 978-0-385-26035-0. "Connie Deanovich", Here Comes Everybody, July 19, 2005 Profile at The Whiting Foundation