The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
François Couperin was a French Baroque composer and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family. Couperin was born into one of the best known musical families of Europe, his father Charles was organist at the Church of Saint-Gervais in Paris, a position occupied by Charles's brother Louis Couperin, a regarded keyboard virtuoso and composer whose career was cut short by an early death. As a boy, François must have received his first music lessons from his father. Charles died in 1679; the church council at Saint-Gervais hired Michel Richard Delalande to serve as new organist, with the condition that François would replace him at age 18. Meanwhile, the boy was taken care of and taught by organist Jacques-Denis Thomelin, who served both at the court and at the famous church of St Jacques-de-la-Boucherie. According to a biography by Évrard Titon du Tillet, Thomelin treated the boy well and became "a second father" to him.
François's talent must have manifested itself quite early, since by 1685 the church council agreed to provide him with a regular salary though he had no formal contract. Couperin's mother Marie died in 1690, but otherwise his life and career were accompanied by good fortune. In 1689 he married one Marie-Anne Ansault, daughter of a well connected family; the next year saw the publication of Couperin's Pieces d'orgue, a collection of organ masses, praised by Delalande. In three more years Couperin succeeded his former teacher Thomelin at the court; the new appointment was prestigious and brought Couperin in contact with some of the finest composers of his time, as well as numerous members of the aristocracy. His earliest chamber music dates from around that time; the numerous duties Couperin carried out at the court were accompanied by duties as organist at Saint Gervais, by the composition and publication of new music. He obtained a 20-year royal privilege to publish in 1713 and used it to issue the first volume of his harpsichord works, Pieces de clavecin.
A harpsichord playing manual followed in 1716, as well as other collections of keyboard and chamber music. In 1717 Couperin succeeded one of his most eminent colleagues, Jean-Baptiste-Henry d'Anglebert, as ordinaire de la musique de la chambre du roi pour le clavecin, one of the highest possible appointments for a court musician. However, his involvement in the musical activities at the court may have lessened after Louis XIV's death in 1715. Couperin's health declined throughout the 1720s; the services of a cousin were required by 1723 at Saint Gervais, in 1730 Couperin's position as court harpsichordist was taken up by his daughter Marguerite-Antoinette. Couperin's final publications were the fourth volume of harpsichord pieces; the composer died in 1733. The building where Couperin and his family lived since 1724 still stands and is located at the corner of the rue Radziwill and the rue des Petits Champs; the composer was survived by at least three of his children: Marguerite-Antoinette, who continued working as court harpsichordist until 1741, Marie-Madeleine, who became a nun and may have worked as organist at the Maubuisson Abbey, François-Laurent, who according to contemporary sources left the family after François died.
Couperin acknowledged his debt to the Italian composer Corelli. He introduced Corelli's trio sonata form to France. Couperin's grand trio sonata was subtitled ou L'apothéose de Corelli. In it he blended the Italian and French styles of music in a set of pieces which he called Les goûts réunis, his most famous book, L'art de toucher le clavecin, contains suggestions for fingerings, touch and other features of keyboard technique. Couperin's four volumes of harpsichord music, published in Paris in 1713, 1717, 1722, 1730, contain over 230 individual pieces, he published a book of Concerts Royaux which can be played as solo harpsichord pieces or as small chamber works; the four collections for harpsichord alone are grouped into ordres, a synonym of suites, containing traditional dances as well as pieces with descriptive titles. They are notable for Couperin's detailed indication of ornaments, which in most harpsichord music of the period was left to the discretion of the player; the first and last pieces in an ordre were of the same tonality, but the middle pieces could be in other related tonalities.
These volumes were admired by Johann Sebastian Bach, who exchanged letters with Couperin, by Brahms and by Ravel, who memorialized their composer in Le tombeau de Couperin. Many of Couperin's keyboard pieces have evocative, picturesque titles and express a mood through key choices, adventurous harmonies and discords, they have been likened to miniature tone poems. These features attracted Richard Strauss. Johannes Brahms's piano music was influenced by the keyboard music of Couperin. Brahms performed Couperin's music in public and contributed to the first complete edition of Couperin's Pièces de clavecin by Friedrich Chrysander in the 1880s; the early-music expert Jordi Savall has written that Couperin was the "poet musician par excellence", who believed in "the ability of Music to express itself in prose and poetry", that "if we enter into
Charles d'Helfer was a French baroque composer and maître de musique at Soissons Cathedral. His masses follow a strict one syllable per note style, he is best remembered for his requiem for four voices of 1656, used for the funeral of composer Michel Richard Delalande in 1726 and was the basis of Julien-Amable Mathieu and François Giroust's requiem mass for Louis XV in 1775. Missa quatuor vocum ad imitationem moduli Benedicam Dominum, Paris 1653 Missa pro defunctis quatuor vocum, Paris 1656 Missa quatuor vocum ad moduli Lorsque d'un désir curieux, Paris 1658 Missa sex vocum ad imitationem moduli In aeternum cantabo, Paris 1658 Vespres et Hymnes de l'année avec plusieurs motets du St. Sacrement, de la Vierge des SS. Et patrons de lieux etc à 4 parties, Paris 1660 Missa quatuor vocum ad imitationem moduli Deliciae Regum, Paris 1664 Missa sex vocum ad imitationem moduli Quid videbis in Sunamitae, Paris 1674 Missa quatuor vocibus ad imitationem moduli Laetatus sum, Paris 1678 Requiem, with funeral oration for Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.
A Sei Voci. 1994 Jean-Paul C. Montagnier, The Polyphonic Mass in France, 1600-1780: The Evidence of the Printed Choirbooks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017
André Danican Philidor the elder
André Danican Philidor the elder, a member of the Philidorit family of French musicians and referred to as André Danican Philidor le père after 1709, was a music librarian and composer. He is chiefly known as the organizer and principal copyist of what is now known as the Philidor Collection of French Baroque manuscript scores, he was appointed Garde de la Bibliothèque de la Musique du Roi sometime before 1684, although in 1694 he claimed to have been working as music librarian for 30 years. Philidor occupied the position jointly with the violinist François Fossard, until Fossard's death, after which Philidor held it alone. In 1694 he and Fossard received a privilège to print music written for the court, but they only published the anthology Airs italiens. Philidor's atelier prepared manuscript copies of much of the music performed at the Palace of Versailles during the reign of Louis XIV, as well as some dating back to the reign of Henri IV; the earliest known copy is dated 1681. Besides music performed at court, he copied music composed for other royal patrons and aristocrats.
At least nine copyists were employed, including Fossard. Philidor manuscripts are now found in libraries. Nicolas Roze inventoried 59 volumes in the library of the Paris Conservatory early in the 19th century. Now known as the Philidor Collection, over the years nearly half have been lost; some of the lost volumes included music by members of the Philidor family. The remaining volumes were dispersed, with surviving copies located in libraries at Paris and Versailles the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the Bibliothèque municipale de Versailles. A large number of manuscripts that Philidor prepared for the Count of Toulouse were owned by St Michael's College, Tenbury; when these were sold in 1978, a number of volumes returned to France. Philidor l'aîné was appointed to a position held by his uncle, Michel Danican, in the Cromornes et Trompettes Marines in 1659, he played oboe in the royal musketeers from 1667 to 1677. In 1714 he owned 33 instruments, including oboes, recorders, oboe musette, drums.
He composed occasional pieces throughout his career and began composing for the stage after Lully's death in 1687. He may have hoped to be appointed to Lully's post of surintendant of the king's music, but in 1689 the position went to Michel-Richard de Lalande instead. Anthony, James R.. French Baroque Music from Beaujoyeulx to Rameau and extended edition. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 9781574670219. Carissimi, Giacomo. Partition de Plusieurs Airs Italiens, copied by François Fossard and edited by André Philidor. Paris. OCLC 764362904. Online copy at Gallica. Fellowes, Edmund H.. "The Philidor Manuscripts: Paris, Tenbury", Music & Letters, vol. 12, no. 2. JSTOR 726641. Harris-Warrick, Rebecca. Musical Theatre at the Court of Louis XIV:'Le mariage de la grosse Cathos' . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521380126. Harris-Warrick, Rebecca. "Philidor: André Danican Philidor l'aîné" in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592395. OCLC 419285866.
At Oxford Music Online. Massip, Catherine. "La collection musicale Toulouse-Philidor à la Bibliothèque nationale", Fontes Artis Musicae, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 184–207. ISSN 0015-6191. OCLC 78243220. Rushton, Julian. "Philidor, François-André Danican", vol. 3, p. 993–995, in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 volumes, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592289. At Oxford Music Online. Sadie, Julie Anne. Companion to Baroque Music. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 9780028722757. Tessier, André. "Un fonds musical de la bibliothèque de Louis XIV: la collection Philidor", La Revue musicale, nos. 111–115. OCLC 27878424. Waquet, Françoise. "Philidor l'aîné, ordinaire de la Musique du Roy et garde de tous les livres de sa Bibliothèque de Musique", Revue de musicologie, vol. 66, no. 2. JSTOR 928489
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
The Te Deum is a Latin Christian hymn composed in the 4th century. It is one of the core hymns of the Ambrosian hymnal, which spread throughout the Latin Church with the Milanese Rite in the 6th to 8th centuries, is sometimes known as "the Ambrosian Hymn" though authorship by Saint Ambrose is unlikely; the term Te Deum can refer to a short religious service, held to bless an event or give thanks, based upon the hymn. Authorship is traditionally ascribed to Saint Augustine. In 19th-century scholarship, Saints Hilary of Poitiers and Nicetas of Remesiana were proposed as possible authors. In the 20th century, the association with Nicetas has been deprecated, so that the hymn, while certainly dating to the 4th century, is considered as being of unknown authorship, it has been proposed based on the structural similarities with a eucharistic prayer that it was composed as part of one. The hymn was part of the Old Hymnal as it was introduced to the Benedictine order in the 6th century, it was preserved in the Frankish Hymnal of the 8th century.
It was, removed from the New Hymnal which became prevalent in the 10th century. It was restored in the 12th century in hymnals that attempted to restore the original intent of rule of St. Benedict. In the traditional office, the Te Deum is sung at the end of Matins on all days when the Gloria is said at Mass. Before the 1961 reforms of Pope John XXIII, neither the Gloria nor the Te Deum were said on the feast of the Holy Innocents, unless it fell on Sunday, as they were martyred before the death of Christ and therefore could not attain the beatific vision. In the Liturgy of the Hours of Pope Paul VI, the Te Deum is sung at the end of the Office of Readings on all Sundays except those of Lent, on all solemnities, on the octaves of Easter and Christmas, on all feasts. A plenary indulgence is granted, under the usual conditions, to those who recite it in public on New Year's Eve, it is used together with the standard canticles in Morning Prayer as prescribed in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, in Matins for Lutherans, is retained by many churches of the Reformed tradition.
The hymn is in regular use in the Catholic Church, Lutheran Church, Anglican Church and Methodist Church in the Office of Readings found in the Liturgy of the Hours, in thanksgiving to God for a special blessing such as the election of a pope, the consecration of a bishop, the canonization of a saint, a religious profession, the publication of a treaty of peace, a royal coronation, etc. It is sung either as a separate religious ceremony; the hymn remains in use in the Anglican Communion and some Lutheran Churches in similar settings. The petitions at the end of the hymn are a selection of verses from the book of Psalms, appended subsequently to the original hymn; the hymn follows the outline of the Apostles' Creed, mixing a poetic vision of the heavenly liturgy with its declaration of faith. Calling on the name of God the hymn proceeds to name all those who praise and venerate God, from the hierarchy of heavenly creatures to those Christian faithful in heaven to the Church spread throughout the world.
The hymn returns to its credal formula, naming Christ and recalling his birth and death, his resurrection and glorification. At this point the hymn turns to the subjects declaiming the praise, both the universal Church and the singer in particular, asking for mercy on past sins, protection from future sin, the hoped-for reunification with the elect; the text has been set to music by many composers, with settings by Haydn, Berlioz, Bruckner, Furtwängler, Dvořák, Kodály, Pärt among the better known. Jean-Baptiste Lully wrote a setting of Te Deum for the court of Louis XIV of France, received a fatal injury while conducting it; the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's setting is well known in Europe on account of its being used as the theme music for some broadcasts of the European Broadcasting Union, most notably the Eurovision Song Contest. Earlier it had been used as the theme music for The Olympiad. Sir William Walton's Coronation Te Deum was written for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953.
Other English settings include those by Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Edward Elgar, Herbert Howells, as well as three settings each by George Frideric Handel and Charles Villiers Stanford. Puccini's opera Tosca features a dramatic performance of the initial part of the Te Deum at the end of Act I; the traditional chant melody was the basis for elaborate Te Deum compositions by notable French organists Louis Marchand, Guillaume Lasceux, Charles Tournemire, Jean Langlais, Jeanne Demessieux, which are still performed today. A version by Father Michael Keating is popular in some Charismatic circles. Mark Hayes wrote a setting of the text in 2005, with Latin phrases interpolated amid English lyrics. In 1978, British hymnodist Christopher Idle wrote God We Praise You, a version of the text in 18.104.22.168. D meter, set to the tune Rustington. British composer John Rutter has composed two settings of this hymn, one entitled Te Deum and the other Winchester Te Deum. Igor Stravinsky set the first 12 lines of the text as part of The Flood in 1962.
Antony Pitts was commissioned by the London Festival of Contemporary Church Music to write a setting for the 2011 10th Anniversary Festival. T