Kathryn Bridget Moynahan is an American actress and model. Moynahan is known for her role in the police drama Blue Bloods, she graduated from Longmeadow High School in Massachusetts in 1989, began pursuing a career in modeling. She appeared in department-store catalogs and magazines, after doing television commercials, she began taking acting lessons. Moynahan made her television debut in a guest appearance in the comedy series Sex and the City in 1999, where she had a recurring role as Natasha, she made her feature film debut in Coyote Ugly. She was cast in a supporting role in Serendipity. Moynahan was featured in films The Sum of All Fears, The Recruit, I, Lord of War, Grey Matters, Noise and Beezus, John Wick, The Journey Home and John Wick: Chapter 2, she starred in the ABC television series Six Degrees, which premiered in September 2006, but was taken off the schedule after just eight episodes aired. Moynahan has starred as an assistant district attorney in the CBS drama Blue Bloods since September 2010, in its ninth season.
Kathryn Bridget Moynahan was born on April 1971, in Binghamton, New York. She is the daughter of Irish Americans Mary Bridget, a former school teacher, Edward Bradley Moynahan, a scientist and former administrator at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Moynahan has two brothers and Sean, her family moved to Longmeadow, Massachusetts when Moynahan was around seven years old, where she attended Longmeadow High School, was captain of the girls' soccer and lacrosse teams, graduating in 1989. She has said. After graduating from high school, Moynahan pursued a modeling career despite admitting she had never read fashion magazines growing up, she had accompanied a friend to a modeling audition in Springfield and was signed by the modeling agency instead of her friend. She began her career appearing in department-store catalogs in Springfield, during which time she attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Moynahan moved to New York at age 18 and, a year began appearing in magazines such as Vogue and Elle, on covers of other widely-known magazines.
Her cover highlights include Vogue Paris and Glamour. In an interview given in July 2004, discussing her early work, said: "It was a crazy world that paid a lot of money. I liked being a model, but I knew it would never last, so I looked into acting."During that time, she began doing soap and shampoo commercials, in addition to taking acting and art classes. She studied acting at the Caymichael Patten Studio in New York, in 1999, made her television debut as Natasha in HBO's romantic comedy Sex and the City, she had a recurring role in the show, until the divorce of her character from Mr. Big; the following year, she appeared including parts in In the Weeds and Whipped. Moynahan made her feature-film debut in the 2000 comedy-drama Coyote Ugly as Rachel, a bartender/dancer in a wild New York bar, a role, considered Moynahan's breakthrough, she had accepted the role because she "thought it was interesting that the whole movie revolved around five women…and my character was so strong and independent".
The film garnered unfavorable critical reviews, but was a box-office success, earning $133 million worldwide. Her next role was a supporting role in 2001 film Serendipity as Hally, the fiancée of John Cusack's character. Moynahan was cast opposite Ben Affleck and Morgan Freeman in the action film The Sum of All Fears, based on Tom Clancy's book of the same name. Moynahan plays a love interest for Affleck's Jack Ryan. Dave Larsen of the Dayton Daily News reported that the subplot involving Moynahan and Affleck was "the film's weakest point"; the Sum of All Fears received ambivalent reviews, but was a commercial success, earning $193 million at the box office. Her next role was as a CIA trainee in The Recruit; the movie was not well received, with Mike Clark of USA Today commenting that The Recruit is "less-than-middling melodrama whose subject matter and talent never click as much as its credits portend". In 2004, Moynahan starred alongside Will Smith in Alex Proyas' science-fiction movie I, loosely based on Isaac Asimov's short-story collection of the same name.
Moynahan portrays a specialist in robot psychology. Upon release, I, Robot received mixed reviews. Daniel Neman of Richmond Times-Dispatch, who disliked the film, concluded that she "turns in an able performance as Dr. Calvin, the convenient character." With revenue of $347 million worldwide, the film remains Moynahan's most commercially successful picture to date. Her next movie was in 2005's Lord of War, a political crime thriller, as Ava Fontaine Orlov, the wife of Nicolas Cage's character. In 2006, Maxim named her number 96 on its annual "Hot 100" list. In September 2006, away from film, Moynahan starred as Whitney Crane in the ABC television drama series Six Degrees, co-starring alongside Jay Hernandez, Erika Christensen, Hope Davis, Dorian Missick, Campbell Scott; the series centered on six residents of New York City and their respective relationships and connections with one another, based on the idea of six degrees of separation. It debuted on September 20, 2006, was watched by 13.3 million viewers.
Six Degrees debuted to varied reception, with David Hinckley of the New York Daily News writing, "In theory, it's an intriguing concept for a series. But in practice, Six Degrees doesn't work at all in drawing you in at the s
Constantine is a 2005 American occult detective film directed by Francis Lawrence, in his directorial debut, starring Keanu Reeves as John Constantine. Rachel Weisz, Shia LaBeouf, Tilda Swinton, Pruitt Taylor Vince, Djimon Hounsou co-star. With a screenplay by Kevin Brodbin and Frank Cappello, the film is based on DC Comics' Hellblazer comic book, with plot elements taken from the "Dangerous Habits" story arc and the "Original Sins" story arc; the film portrays John Constantine as a cynic with the ability to perceive and communicate with half-angels and half-demons in their true form. He seeks salvation from eternal damnation in Hell for a suicide attempt in his youth. Constantine exorcises has become weary over time. With terminal lung cancer, he helps a troubled police detective learn the truth about her twin sister's death while unraveling a much larger and darker plot; the character of John Constantine was introduced by comic book writer/creator Alan Moore while writing the Swamp Thing, first appearing there in June 1985.
In 1988, the character of John Constantine was given his own comic book title, published by DC Comics. The "Dangerous Habits" story arc was written by Garth Ennis in 1991. Constantine was released in the United States and Canada on February 18, 2005, in Hong Kong on February 8, 2005; the film grossed $230.9 million worldwide from a $100 million budget. God and Lucifer have a standing wager for mankind's souls. Angels and demons are forbidden to manifest on Earth. In the Mexican countryside, a scavenger named Manuel finds a spearhead wrapped in a Nazi flag at the ruins of an old church, revealed as the Spear of Destiny. Manuel travels to the United States. In Los Angeles, John Constantine exorcises a Filipina girl possessed by a demon trying to break through to Earth, which should not be possible under the wager's rules, he meets with the androgynous half-angel being Gabriel. He asks Gabriel for a reprieve from his impending death from lung cancer brought forth by prolonged smoking. Gabriel declines, telling Constantine that he exorcises demons for selfish reasons and can not buy his way into Heaven.
After being assaulted by another demon, Constantine goes to Papa Midnite, a reputed witch-doctor who runs a club serving as neutral ground where half-breeds do not have to conceal themselves. Midnite does not believe Constantine's claim of demons crossing over. Constantine leaves, after exchanging hostile words with half-demon Balthazar. Elsewhere, a woman named, her twin sister, Detective Angela Dodson, refuses to believe that Isabel, a devout Roman Catholic, would kill herself. Watching security footage of Isabel's suicide, Angela hears. Angela asks him to help investigate. After they are attacked by winged demons, which Constantine believes were targeting Angela, he agrees to help. Constantine transports himself to Hell through the possession of a familiar and sees Isabel damned to eternally relive her suicide. Constantine explains to Angela, she committed suicide to escape her visions and her soul was sent to Hell, but he was revived by paramedics two minutes later. The two examine Isabel's room in the hospital and find a clue pointing to a prophecy in the Satanic Bible that Lucifer's son, will attempt to claim Earth as his own kingdom.
To do so, Mammon requires both a powerful assistance from God. Angela tells Constantine that a clairvoyant and a psychic, was committed by her parents. Angela suppressed it. At Angela's insistence, Constantine reawakens her psychic ability through a near death experience, she finds a clue pinpointing Balthazar as an accomplice to the plot. Angela, now the psychic in place of Isabel, is abducted by an invisible entity. Constantine convinces Midnite. With Midnite's help, Constantine finds out how Angela's location. Constantine arms himself and goes to the hospital, accompanied by his driver and apprentice Chas Kramer; the two fight their way through an army of half-demons to exorcise Angela. Chas is killed by the invisible entity. Resenting God's favoritism towards humans, Gabriel plans to unleash Hell on Earth to weed out those deemed "unworthy" of God's love. Gabriel casts Constantine from the room and prepares to use the Spear to cut Mammon free from Angela. Out of options, Constantine slits his wrists.
As he bleeds out, Lucifer arrives to collect his soul. Constantine tells Lucifer of Mammon's plan to usurp him. Confronted by Lucifer, Gabriel threatens to'smite' him in God's honor. Lucifer proceeds making Gabriel mortal. Lucifer grants Constantine any wish. Lucifer realizes too late that he can not take Constantine to Hell as a consequence. Infuriated, Lucifer heals Constantine's injuries and cures him of his lung cancer, hoping he will damn himself again. Angela and Constantine depart. Sometime Constantine, now mak
Val Edward Kilmer is an American actor. A stage actor, Kilmer became popular in the mid-1980s after a string of appearances in comedy films, starting with Top Secret! and Real Genius, as well as the military action film Top Gun, the fantasy film Willow, the western Tombstone. Some of his other notable film roles include Jim Morrison in The Doors, armed robber Chris Shiherlis in Heat, Bruce Wayne / Batman in Batman Forever, Simon Templar in The Saint, Moses in The Prince of Egypt. Kilmer was born December 31, 1959, in Los Angeles, the son of Gladys Swanette and Eugene Dorris Kilmer, an aerospace equipment distributor and real estate developer, his mother was of Swedish descent. His father's ancestry included English, Scots-Irish and German, his parents divorced in 1968. Kilmer's grandfather was a gold miner in New Mexico, near the border with Arizona. In 1977 Kilmer's younger brother Wesley drowned in a swimming pool at age 15. Kilmer attended a Christian Science school in Los Angeles, until ninth grade.
He attended Chatsworth High School with Kevin Spacey and Mare Winningham, attended the Hollywood Professional School. He became the youngest person at the time to be accepted into the Juilliard School's Drama Division, where he was a member of Group 10. In 1981, while at Juilliard, Kilmer co-authored and starred in the play How It All Began, performed at the Public Theater at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Kilmer turned down a role in Francis Ford Coppola's 1983 film The Outsiders, as he had prior theatre commitments. In 1983 he appeared off Broadway in The Slab Boys with Sean Penn.. That same year, his first off-stage acting role came in the form of an episode of ABC Afterschool Special called One Too Many, an educational drama on drinking and driving. In 1983, Kilmer self-published a collection of his own poetry entitled My Edens After Burns, that included poems inspired by his time with Pfeiffer; the book of poems is difficult to obtain, expensive. His big break came when he received top billing in the comedy spoof of spy movies Top Secret!, where he played an American rock and roll star.
Kilmer sang all the songs in the film and released an album under the film character's name, "Nick Rivers." While garnering more substantial roles and prestige, he gained a reputation as a ladies man, dating numerous women, some many years older, including Cher and Ellen Barkin. During a brief hiatus, he backpacked throughout Europe before going on to play the lead character in the 1985 comedy Real Genius, he turned down a role in David Lynch's Blue Velvet before being cast as naval aviator "Iceman" in the action film Top Gun alongside Tom Cruise. Top Gun made Kilmer a major star. Following roles in the television films The Murders in the Rue Morgue and The Man Who Broke 1,000 Chains, Kilmer played Madmartigan in the fantasy Willow. Kilmer starred in the Colorado Shakespeare Festival production of Hamlet in 1988. In 1989, Kilmer played the lead in both Kill Me Again, again opposite Whalley, in TNT's Billy the Kid. After several delays, director Oliver Stone started production on the film The Doors, based on the band of the same name.
Kilmer spoke with Oliver Stone early on, concerned about what he might want to do with the story because Kilmer didn't believe in or want to promote substance abuse. Kilmer saw Morrison as having picked the wrong heroes, who had different issues, that were not part of the creativity or inspiration. Kilmer saw Morrison's story as one that could be told "a thousand different ways" and didn't want to tell it by playing the role in the style of drugs, with which Oliver Stone agreed. Kilmer memorized the lyrics to all of lead singer Jim Morrison's songs prior to his audition, sent a video of himself performing some Doors songs to director Stone. Stone was not impressed with the tape, but Paul Rothchild said "I was shaken by it" and suggested they record Kilmer in the studio. After Kilmer was cast as Morrison, he prepared for the role by attending Doors tribute concerts and reading Morrison's poetry, he spent close to a year before production dressing in Morrison-like clothes, spent time at Morrison's old hangouts along the Sunset Strip.
His portrayal of Morrison was praised and members of The Doors noted that Kilmer did such a convincing job that they had trouble distinguishing his voice from Morrison's. Paul Rothchild played Kilmer's version of "The End" for the band's guitarist, Robby Krieger, who told him, "I'm glad they got'The End'. We never got a recording of that live with Jim and now we've got it." However, Doors keyboardist Ray Manzarek was less than enthusiastic with how Morrison was portrayed in Stone's interpretation. In the early 1990s, Kilmer starred in the mystery thriller Thunderheart, the action comedy The Real McCoy, again teamed with Top Gun director Tony Scott to play Elvis Presley in True Romance, written by Quentin Tarantino. In 1993, Kilmer played Doc Holliday in the western Tombstone alongside Kurt Russell. In the film, Doc Holliday performs Chopin's Nocturne in E minor, Op.72, No. 1. In 1995, Kilmer starred in Wings of Courage, a 3D IMAX film, that same year, he starred opposite Al Pacino and Robert De Niro in Heat, now considered one of the best crime/drama films of the 19
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
True Detective is an American anthology crime drama television series created and written by Nic Pizzolatto. The series, broadcast by the premium cable network HBO in the United States, premiered on January 12, 2014; each season of the series is structured as a disparate, self-contained narrative, employing new cast ensembles, following various sets of characters and settings. The first season, starring Matthew McConaughey, Woody Harrelson, Michelle Monaghan, Michael Potts, Tory Kittles, takes place in Louisiana and follows a pair of Louisiana State Police homicide detectives, their pursuit of a serial killer over a 17-year period; the second season, starring Colin Farrell, Rachel McAdams, Taylor Kitsch, Kelly Reilly, Vince Vaughn, is set in California, focuses on three detectives from three cooperating police departments and a criminal-turned-businessman as they investigate a series of crimes they believe are linked to the murder of a corrupt politician. The third season, starring Mahershala Ali, Carmen Ejogo, Stephen Dorff, Scoot McNairy, Ray Fisher, takes place in the Ozarks over three separate time periods as two state police detectives investigate a macabre crime involving two missing children.
The first season received excellent reviews from critics and earned high ratings for HBO. It was nominated for and won numerous awards and other accolades, chiefly for its acting, cinematography and direction. Reception to the second season was more divided, although the show maintained high viewership for HBO; the third season was greenlit in August 2017, starring Ali in the lead role, directed by Pizzolatto, Jeremy Saulnier, Daniel Sackheim. Pizzolatto is the primary writer, alongside David Milch and Graham Gordy. Season 3 premiered on January 13, 2019; as of January 2019, Pizzolatto is developing a storyline for a potential fourth season. Before developing True Detective, Nic Pizzolatto worked as a literature professor for the University of Chicago, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DePauw University, he delved into fiction writing, having developed a fascination for it as a graduate student at the University of Arkansas. His first published work was the short story collection Between Here and the Yellow Sea, released in 2006.
The author published his debut novel, titled Galveston, four years and around the same time began preparing to branch out into the television industry. Intended to be Galveston's follow-up, Pizzolatto felt True Detective was more suitable on-screen once the project took definite form. Pizzolatto shopped the novel to two TV executives, once he secured a deal in May 2010, drafted six screenplays, including the pilot episode script, which ran 90 pages, he devoted another script for the series shortly after his departure from The Killing's writing staff in 2011, thanks to the support of Anonymous Content. The final copy, amounting to 500 pages, was written without the aid of a writing staff. By this time, Pizzolatto secured a development deal with HBO, by April 2012, the network commissioned True Detective on an order of eight episodes. Set up as an anthology series, each season will feature a different cast of characters and self-contained narratives in various time periods and locations; the initial location for principal photography of True Detective's first season was Arkansas, but Pizzolatto opted to film in Louisiana, cheaper due to its generous film-tax incentive program.
Production lasted 100 consecutive days, each episode was shot on 35 mm film. The crew filmed exterior shots of various constructed sets, including a remote sugarcane field outside of Erath, in addition to real life locations such as Fort Macomb, a nineteenth-century fort located outside of New Orleans. California was selected as the setting for True Detective's sophomore season. Producers were urged to avoid filming in Los Angeles and, focus on the more obscure regions of the state to "capture a certain psycho-sphere ambiance". Production began in November 2014. Led by creative director Patrick Clair, True Detective's title sequences were developed by a collaborative team consisting of three motion-design studios: Santa Monica-based Elastic and Breeder, both based in Australia. For the first season and his team took a variety of photos of the Louisiana scenery, which became the sequence's backbone, they superimposed these images onto low poly meshes, thanks to the use of various animation and special effects techniques.
This was a meticulous process for production, since they wanted to avoid creating a digitized look for the sequence. Once its final cut took form, the team polished it by employing optical glitching and motion distortion technique. True Detective's season one opening theme is "Far from Any Road", an alternative country song composed by The Handsome Family for their 2003 album Singing Bones; the Sydney Morning Herald included season one's opening sequence in their list of the "Ten of the Best" title sequences on television. Clair took a similar approach to creating the title sequence for True Detective's second season. Production used material from a number of photographers, including aerial shots captured by David Maisel. However, unlike season one, season two's title sequence incorporates deep, vivid gold and red color, thereby presenting "that more complicated view of California". Leonard Cohen's "Nevermind" is the season two opening theme, a song off Cohen's 2014 album Popular Problems; the theme song's lyrics change with every episode.
The first actor to be cast for True Detective was Matthew McConaughey, who acted as Detective Rustin "Rust" Cohle. McConaughey came to Pizzolatto's attention
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear