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Michelson–Morley experiment

The Michelson–Morley experiment was an attempt to detect the existence of aether, a supposed medium permeating space, thought to be the carrier of light waves. The experiment was performed between April and July 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and published in November of the same year, it compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the stationary luminiferous aether. The result was negative, in that Michelson and Morley found no significant difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, the speed at right angles; this result is considered to be the first strong evidence against the then-prevalent aether theory, initiated a line of research that led to special relativity, which rules out a stationary aether. Of this experiment, Einstein wrote, "If the Michelson–Morley experiment had not brought us into serious embarrassment, no one would have regarded the relativity theory as a redemption."Michelson–Morley type experiments have been repeated many times with increasing sensitivity.

These include experiments from 1902 to 1905, a series of experiments in the 1920s. More recent optical resonator experiments confirmed the absence of any aether wind at the 10−17 level. Together with the Ives–Stilwell and Kennedy–Thorndike experiments, Michelson–Morley type experiments form one of the fundamental tests of special relativity theory. Physics theories of the late 19th century assumed that just as surface water waves must have a supporting substance, i.e. a "medium", to move across, audible sound requires a medium to transmit its wave motions, so light must require a medium, the "luminiferous aether", to transmit its wave motions. Because light can travel through a vacuum, it was assumed that a vacuum must be filled with aether; because the speed of light is so great, because material bodies pass through the aether without obvious friction or drag, it was assumed to have a unusual combination of properties. Designing experiments to investigate these properties was a high priority of 19th century physics.

Earth orbits around the Sun at 108,000 km/h. The Earth is in motion, so two main possibilities were considered: The aether is stationary and only dragged by Earth, or the aether is dragged by Earth and thus shares its motion at Earth's surface. In addition, James Clerk Maxwell recognized the electromagnetic nature of light and developed what are now called Maxwell's equations, but these equations were still interpreted as describing the motion of waves through an aether, whose state of motion was unknown. Fresnel's idea of an stationary aether was preferred because it appeared to be confirmed by the Fizeau experiment and the aberration of star light. According to the stationary and the partially-dragged aether hypotheses and the aether are in relative motion, implying that a so-called "aether wind" should exist. Although it would be possible, in theory, for the Earth's motion to match that of the aether at one moment in time, it was not possible for the Earth to remain at rest with respect to the aether at all times, because of the variation in both the direction and the speed of the motion.

At any given point on the Earth's surface, the magnitude and direction of the wind would vary with time of day and season. By analyzing the return speed of light in different directions at various different times, it was thought to be possible to measure the motion of the Earth relative to the aether; the expected relative difference in the measured speed of light was quite small, given that the velocity of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun has a magnitude of about one hundredth of one percent of the speed of light. During the mid-19th century, measurements of aether wind effects of first order, i.e. effects proportional to v/c were thought to be possible, but no direct measurement of the speed of light was possible with the accuracy required. For instance, the Fizeau–Foucault apparatus could measure the speed of light to 5% accuracy, quite inadequate for measuring directly a first-order 0.01% change in the speed of light. A number of physicists therefore attempted to make measurements of indirect first-order effects not of the speed of light itself, but of variations in the speed of light.

The Hoek experiment, for example, was intended to detect interferometric fringe shifts due to speed differences of oppositely propagating light waves through water at rest. The results of such experiments were all negative; this could be explained by using Fresnel's dragging coefficient, according to which the aether and thus light are dragged by moving matter. Partial aether-dragging would thwart attempts to measure any first order change in the speed of light; as pointed out by Maxwell, only experimental arrangements capable of measuring second order effects would have any hope of detecting aether drift, i.e. effects proportional to v2/c2. Existing experimental setups, were not sensitive enough to measure effects of that size. Michelson had a solution to the problem of how to construct a device sufficiently accurate to detect aether flow. In 1877, while teaching at his alma mater, the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Michelson conducted his first known light speed experiments as a part of a classroom

Rifad Marasabessy

Muhammad Rifad Marasabessy is an Indonesian professional footballer who plays as a right back for TIRA-Persikabo in Liga 1. In January 2017, Rifad signed a two-year contract with Madura United to commence ahead of the 2017 Liga 1, he made his debut in the Liga 1 on April 2017 against Bali United. In February 2019, Rifad joined TIRA-Persikabo Bogor. On 1 June 2017, Rifad made his debut against Brazil U-20 in the 2017 Toulon Tournament in France, and Rifad is one of the players. Indonesia U-19 AFF U-19 Youth Championship Third place: 2017 AFF U-19 Youth Championship Third place: 2018 Rifad Marasabessy at Goal.com Muhammad Rifad Marasabessy at Soccerway

Lo Kwee-seong

Dr. Lo Kwee-seong, CBE, JP was a Hong Kong businessman and philanthropist, he was the founder of the Vitasoy, a well-known soymilk drink company in Hong Kong. He was an unofficial member of the Urban Council and the Legislative Council of Hong Kong and the chairman of the Hong Kong Consumer Council. Lo was born in Meixian county in Guangdong of Hakka descent on 2 February 1910, his father, Lo Chin-hing, took the family to Malaya when he was ten years old and arrived in Hong Kong when he was twenty years old. After graduating from secondary school in 1929, Lo wanted to go to China and study civil engineering, but his family was not able to support him. For that, his father's employer offered a scholarship for Lo to study Economics at the University of Hong Kong where he graduated from in 1935. Lo joined the company of his patron after graduation and was appointed Hong Kong manager of the real estate branch. During a business trip in Shanghai in 1937, he attended a talk called "Soybeans: the cow of China" presented by Julean Arnold the commercial attache to the American Embassy in Nanking and involved in relief work using soymilk.

He wrote, "Arnold called the soybean the'Cow of China' and attributed to it the preservation of the Chinese race. He said that the fact that the Chinese as a race were able to maintain the physical fitness for over 5,000 years in a land where meat was so rare was due to the people's inclusion of soybeans in their diet. I was impressed by his talk and came away with soybeans stuck in my mind."Two years when he was volunteering at the Argyle Street refugee camp where the Chinese refugees fled from the Japanese invasion of China, he was appalled the poor nutritional condition of the refugees, many of whom were sick with beriberi and pellagra. Soybean came to Lo's mind, he raised some money to buy a stone grinder, brown sugar and cheese-cloth with some friends to teach refugees to make soymilk. Lo wrote, "the results were quite startling, as many of them showed significant improvement in their health after the first month." The experiment gave Lo full confidence in the nutritional value of soy bean milk.

After the event, he decided to go into the soymilk business, to make soymilk "available to the masses of the people in Hong Kong who could not afford to buy cow's milk." He formed the Hong Kong Soya Bean Products Company with his friends with paid-up capital of HK$15,000 in 1939. They set up a factory in Causeway Bay and began operations on 7 March 1940. In his inaugural speech, Lo stated that the company's aim was to provide nutritious soymilk for the masses at the lowest possible price, which has not changed over the year. Nine bottles of the product called. A dozen delivery boys deliver door-to-door each morning. Dr. Selwyn Clark director of Medical and Health Services became the strongest supporter of the operation, he ordered to all government hospitals to use the soymilk instead of cow's milk for all third-class patients. However, Lo found out that many Chinese who were familiar with soymilk held prejudice against it as they did not believe its nutritional values. Many customers found the strong beany flavour and the bitter taste hard to take.

Another problem was the keeping quality of the soy milk. Many bottles were spoiled. Lo began to work with Dr. Y. T. Chiu who did his doctoral degree at the Cornell University to promote Vitasoy to local schools. After the first year, the distribution expanded from Hong Kong Island to Kowloon peninsula. In 1941, the company was joined by Howard Hoover who run a small Seventh-day Adventist soy dairy in Canton until it fell to the Japanese. Hoover taught Lo to homogenise coconut oil into the soymilk to give it a richer flavour helped to install the company's first Cherry Burrell homogeniser. By mid-1941, the company was able to sell up to 1,000 bottles per day at six cents per bottle, which still could not cover its expenses. By December 1941, he was bankrupt with HK$30,000 sunk into the business, he and wife Maggie took refuge in the town of Lingshan, on the border between Kwantung and Kwangsi during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. Maggie supported themselves by selling soybean milk in a makeshift building which they called The Cafe.

His fifth child Irene, born in Lingshan, was raised on soy milk. Lo returned to Hong Kong two weeks after the Japanese surrender, got back his plant from the Custodian of Enemy Properties, he borrowed HK$50,000 by November 1945 Vitasoy was back on the market. In 1948, Lo began to add vitamins to his soymilk and sell his products through retail outlets besides door-to-door delivery. Lo started to build a new plant. However, before it was finished the company had acquired the franchise for Green Spot, a large California-based manufacturer of an orange flavoured soft drink; when the Aberdeen factory opened in 1950, it was used for bottling of Green Spot orangeade while Vitasoy remained in the Causeway Bay factory. Lo began to sell his products in soft drink type glass bottles, he hired an expert who helped him to the sterilisation technology in producing Vitasoy beverages in capped glass bottles in 1953 after repeated failures. The new technology enabled the beverages to be stored without refrigeration.

In the same year, the company began to work with UNICEF to popularise the use of soy beverages in developing countries. At that time, other companies formed a lobby to get the Urban Council to ban Lo from u

Anthony Pazos

Anthony Pazos is a television personality, celebrity stylist, entrepreneur from Los Angeles, California. He is most recognizably known for his work on WE tv's L. A. Hair, where he starred in four seasons and over 50 episodes, where the show ranked #1 in the female African American demographic; some of his celebrity clientele include Beyoncé, Khloe Kardashian, Ashley Greene, One Direction. Anthony Pazos comes from a diverse family. Anthony comes from a long line of Artists, he is the great-grandson of Peruvian Sculptor Carlos Pazos, known for his bronze bust made for President John F. Kennedy. Growing up eating traditional dishes whipped up by his Peruvian grandfather, a restaurateur; the 26-year-old described his family as “culturally diverse and loving.” Anthony Pazos began his televised career at a young age. His first television appearances were on the Style Network's'Split Ends' and'How Do I Look'. Anthony's work has been featured in publications such as Allure, Vanity Fair, Vogue Italia, The Hollywood Reporter, Wired, Venice and Curve magazines.

Working as a freelancer, social media influencer, salon owner, he divides his time between private clients, editorial shoots and film projects. When asked about why he does hair, Anthony said, "My mission is not to make someone look'pretty', but unveil their true beauty to the world. After sitting in my chair, no matter who you are or where you come from, you will leave feeling elevated and confident. I will incorporate your face shape and personality to invigorate your look; when we look this good and feel this great, it's that much easier to live our dreams"Throughout his career, Anthony has worked with such entertainers as Ashley Greene, the Kardashians, Leighton Meester, One Direction, among others. Anthony worked alongside Beyonce Knowles for her 2016 VMA performance and her legendary Super Bowl 50 performance. On his future plans, Anthony will be creating a docu-series reality show to follow up his experience on WETv's LA Hair, as well as starting an e-commerce store to ship personalized beauty products worldwide.

His mission statement is always to create high-class products at an affordable price. Anthony gives his expert style advice to publications such as Shape and Redbook. Anthony runs a successful hair and makeup agency where he sends talented artists to high-end events, like runway shows for Armani and Saint John to name a few. Born and raised in Torrance, CA, he graduated with an AA and license in cosmetology and began “popping around from studio to studio” in Beverly Hills, he settled in West Hollywood at his own private studio suite, where he sees celebrity clientele and creates digital media for high-end beauty organizations such as Coty and SalonCentric. In 2011, Pazos rescued two pit bulls named Kenny Powers and Peanut Butter, calls them, “the sweetest dogs ever.” He makes it a point to mention. He says he does not have any tolerance for it

Mike Richardt

Michael Anthony Richardt is an American former Major League Baseball second baseman. He played all or part of four seasons in the majors, between 1980 and 1984 for the Texas Rangers, he played in 16 games for the Houston Astros at the end of the 1984 season. He was listed as 6 feet tall and 170 pounds. After a brief trial in 1980, Richardt spent the entire 1981 season in the minor leagues with the Wichita Aeros. There, he led the American Association in batting average at.354. That performance earned him a spot on the Rangers' opening day roster as their starting designated hitter in 1982. After a return trip to the minor leagues in May, he returned to the majors and spent the last four months of the season as the Rangers' regular second baseman; that year, he batted.241 in 119 games. He stole 9 bases in 10 attempts. Richardt started the 1983 season in the same position, but by the end of April he was batting just.194 and was replaced in the lineup by Wayne Tolleson. Richardt returned to the minor leagues, received only a few more brief trials over the remainder of the season and in 1984.

In May 1984, he was traded to the Astros for Alan Bannister. Starting 1985 in the minors, Richardt played just 13 games that season, was out of organized baseball for two full years, he attempted a comeback in 1988 with the independent Fresno Suns of the California League, played well enough to get a minor league deal with the Rangers. After playing 28 games for the Tulsa Drillers, however, he was out of baseball for good. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Robbinsville High School (New Jersey)

Robbinsville High School is a comprehensive community public high school serving students in ninth through twelfth grades from Robbinsville Township, in Mercer County, New Jersey, operating as the lone secondary school of the Robbinsville Public School District. The school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 2008; as of the 2017-18 school year, the school had an enrollment of 989 students and 71.0 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 13.9:1. There were 23 eligible for reduced-cost lunch; the school was the 59th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology. The school had been ranked 110th in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 109th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed. Schooldigger.com ranked the school 43rd out of 389 public high schools statewide in its 2012 rankings, based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the mathematics and language arts literacy components of the High School Proficiency Assessment.

The New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association recognized Robbinsville High School as the Group I winner of the Seventh Annual ShopRite Cup in 2009-10, based on the overall performances of the school's athletic teams which included first-place finishes in boys' cross country and girls' soccer, second place in girls' cross country, third-place finishes in indoor track & field and wrestling, along with finishing fourth in both girls' indoor relays and girls' outdoor track and field, with bonus points awarded for not having any disqualifications during the three sports seasons. The school was first opened in 2004 as a wing in the middle school to house ninth graders. There was a great struggle in the community to get the high school approved, when it was approved, the vote was close; the plan was to start with only freshmen and each year fill in an additional grade. In 2005, the new high school building opened; as of the 2006-07 school year, only students in 12th grade from Robbinsville Township were attending Lawrence High School in Lawrence Township, as part of the final year of a sending/receiving relationship with the Lawrence Township Public Schools.

With the start of the 2007-08 school year, the sending relationship had ended, Robbinsville High School began to serve all of Robbinsville Township's high school students on site. The school graduated its first class of 150 students in June 2008; the school features a large common area with an atrium to serve as a cafeteria as well as several other purposes, an attached music wing, a central hallway which connects the commons area to the four main wings, the kitchen, the black box theater, the 1,000-seat auditorium with a 12-foot-deep opera pit, the gymnasium wing, the main office as well as administrators offices on the first floor and contains much technology including a recording studio. Outside, there is a rubberized turf football field along with a track, an aerial obstacle course, numerous sports fields for all seasons. Robbinsville High School offers a diverse curriculum to its students covering an art department, business department, English/ language arts department and consumer science department, health department, mathematics department and performing arts department, science department, social studies department, technology department, world languages department.

Students may take classes at nearby colleges Mercer County Community College. Robbinsville High School offers advanced placement college credit in the following courses: Advanced Placement Art History Advanced Placement Biology Advanced Placement Calculus Advanced Placement Chemistry Advanced Placement Computer Science Advanced Placement French Language Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Advanced Placement Music Theory Advanced Placement Psychology Advanced Placement Physics B Advanced Placement Spanish Language Advanced Placement Statistics Advanced Placement United States History Advanced Placement World History Extracurricular activities and clubs offered at the high school include: Chinese Club The RHS Choir Dance Team Debate Team Drama Club Friends of Rachel Club Future Business Leaders of America Future Educators of America Gay-Straight Alliance Club Harry's Helping Hands Improv Club Interact Club Language Honor Society Literary Magazine Marching Band Math Club Model U.

N. Mock Trial National Honor Society Robotics Team Science Olympiad Ski Club Spanish Club Students Against Destructive Decisions Red Cross Club RHS Executive Council Class Councils Technology Student Association Tri-M Music Honor Society The debate team finished an undefeated season in 2010 and was named Colonial Valley Conference champions. In 2011 the debate team renewed their title as champions; the regiment received the "Best Visuals" award at the NJ State Marching Band Competition in 2009, won 4th out of 23 bands at the Northern states Marching Band Competition in 2010. In their 2011 season, the Regiment took 7th out of 21 at Nationals in Pennsylvania; the band moved up from a 1A class to a 2A class band. In 2012, the Raven Regiment was the only New Jersey band invited to perform at the 2nd Annual Pearl Harbor Day Parade in Honolulu, Hawai'i. In 2014, the band received the award for "B