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Michoacán

Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo, is one of the 32 states which compose the Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is divided into 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia; the city was named after José María Morelos, one of the main heroes of the Mexican War of Independence. Michoacán is located in Western Mexico, has a stretch of coastline on the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, it is bordered by the states of Colima and Jalisco to the west and northwest, Guanajuato to the north, Querétaro to the northeast, the State of México to the east, Guerrero to the southeast. The name Michoacán is from Nahuatl: Michhuahcān from michhuah and -cān and means "place of the fishermen" referring to those who fish on Lake Pátzcuaro. In pre-Hispanic times, the area was the home of the Purépecha Empire, which rivaled the Aztec Empire at the time of Spanish encounter. After the Spanish conquest, the empire became a separate province which became smaller over the colonial period.

The state and several of its residents played a major role in the Mexican War of Independence. Today, the state is still home to a sizable population of Purépecha people as well as minor populations of Otomi and Nahua; the economy is based on agriculture, fishing and some industry. The major tourism draw for the state is the Lake Pátzcuaro–Tzintzuntzan–Quiroga area, the center of the Purépecha Empire the national or state parks which include the winter grounds of the monarch butterflies and the park where the Cupatitzio River has its main source. According to the archeological evidence, there has been human habitation within the territory of the Mexican state of Michoacán for at least 10,000 years. In the pre-Hispanic period, there were waves of migration into the area, including the Pirinda, Huetamo, Purépecha and other peoples. There are sites of formal settlements from all Mesoamerican periods. Important sites include El Opeño and those in Curutarán, Apatzingán, Zinapécuaro and Coalcomán; the territory has been inhabited by the Nahua, Matlatzinca and Teco peoples as well as the Purépecha.

The main pre-Hispanic civilization of the state is that of the Purépecha, centered in the Lake Pátzcuaro area. Before the 13th century, both Nahua and Purépecha peoples were here, sustaining themselves by agriculture and fishing; the Purépecha are descendants of a late arrival of Chichimeca. At Lake Patzcuaro, they came upon people with similar cultures to their own but who were more technically and advanced; the formation of the Purépechan state in the 13th century, when these people started their own dominion at Uayameo, today Santa Fé de la Laguna, becoming dominant over the entire Lake Patzcuaro area by the 15th century. Conquest of neighboring tribes and territories occurred between 1401 and 1450, as they absorbed peoples with different cultures and languages into the empire. By the late 15th century, this state rivaled that of the Aztec, having expanded their territory over much of what is now Michoacán and into part of Colima, Querétaro, Guanajuato and Jalisco; the Aztec were repelled.

Because of this attack, the Purépecha denied the Aztecs aid in their defense of Tenochtitlan against the Spanish. Prior to the arrival of any Spaniard in the territory, then-ruler Zuanga died of smallpox carried by one of the Aztec delegations seeking military aid, he was succeeded by Tanganxoan II. The first Spaniard to the area was Cristóbal de Olid; the Spanish destruction of Tenochtitlan and their promise to allow him to remain ruler convinced Tanganxoan II to submit to Spanish rule. But, Nuño de Guzmán reneged on this agreement and killed Tanganxoan II in 1530. During the first years of the Conquest, Michoacán was part of the "kingdom of Mexico" which included the current states of Mexico, Querétaro, Tlaxcala, Morelos, Veracruz, Michoacán, Guanajuato and parts of San Luis Potosí, Jalisco and Colima; these lands were divided into encomiendas among the conquistadors. The provinces with the largest populations were called Alcaldias Mayores, with Michoacán being one of these, with its capital at Tzintzuntzan.

Soon after, it was moved to Patzcuaro and settled in what is now Morelia. The provincial and state capital was founded by viceroy Antonio de Mendoza in 1541, it became the political and ecclesiastical center of the province after the death of Vasco de Quiroga in 1565. Soon after the Conquest, evangelists from the Franciscan, Augustinian and other orders established monasteries all over the territory; some of the best-known are Martín de la Coruña and Jacob the Dacian. As first governor, Nuño de Guzmán disrupted and devastated the social and economic order of the area. Vasco de Quirga succeeded Guzman, bringing Franciscan and Augustinian friars to both evangelize and repair the area's broken economy and social institutions. Quiroga founded the Spanish city of Patzcuaro in 1538. For his efforts, Quiroga is still referred to in the Patzcuaro area as "Tata Vasco"; the diocese of Michoacán was established in 1536 by Pope Paul III, its boundaries coincide with the old Purépecha kingdom. Its first bishop was Vasco de Quiroga.

The Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo began as the Colegio de San Nicolas Obispo, founded by Vasco de Quiroga in Patzcuaro in 1540. It was a seminary for the training of ev

Radio Tarifa

Radio Tarifa was a Spanish World music ensemble combining Flamenco, Arab-Andalusian music, Arabian music, Moorish music and influences of the Mediterranean, of the Middle Ages and of the Caribbean. The name of the ensemble comes from an imaginary radio station in Tarifa, a small town in the southernmost Spanish province of Cadiz, the nearest part of Spain to Morocco. Instead of fusing musical styles as they exist, Radio Tarifa goes back in time to the common past of those styles, back to before 1492 when the Moors and Jews were exiled from Spain; this invented style sheds light upon the real styles of Spain, most notably flamenco although the band rejected all musical purism, preferring to mix arrangements of traditional compositions with their own melodies and combining instruments from Ancient Egypt, classical Greek and Roman times with modern saxophones and electric bass. Both Fain Dueñas and Vincent Molino were students of Moroccan multi-instrumentalist and composer Tarik Banzi of the Al-Andalus Ensemble.

Together they founded an early music group playing music from the late Middle Ages and Renaissance called Ars Antiqua Musicalis, although this group was unable to find commercial success. When they met Benjamin Escoriza —a troubadour flamenco singer raised by Gypsies—in Madrid in the late 1980s, the last piece was in place, their first recording together, Rumba Argelina, was recorded in 1993 and became a sensation in Europe when it was released in 1996, again when it was issued in America in 1997. The critical and financial success of that disc made it possible to put together a full-fledged touring band which played Germany, France, United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Greece, Morocco, Palestine, New Zealand, Colombia, Mexico and the United States". After 14 years of intense activity—according to their website—the band announced they would take an indefinite break. Benjamin Escoriza died on 9 March 2012, at the age of 58. Rumba Argelina Temporal Cruzando el río Fiebre Live 25 July 2004 - Ramallah, Palestine Benjamin Escoriza - vocals Fain Sanchez Dueñas - darbuka, backing vocals Vincent Molino - ney, poitou oboe Jaime Muela - flute, soprano saxophone Pedro Esparza - soprano saxophone Amir-John Haddad - oud, backing vocals Wafir Sh.

Gibril - accordion Ramiro Amusategui - buzuki Jorge Gomez - flamenco guitar, electric guitar Sebastian Rubio - pandereta, bongos David Purdye - electric bass, backing vocals Peter Oteo - electric bass Javier Paxarino - Flute Instruments Radio Tarifa Home Page

117th Operations Group

The 117th Operations Group is a unit of the Alabama Air National Guard, stationed at Sumpter Smith Air National Guard Base, Alabama. If activated into federal service, it is gained by Air Mobility Command; the group flies the Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker. Its mission is to train and equip combat ready aircrews and support personnel to perform worldwide air refueling and airlift. Combat ready intelligence technical support is available for worldwide assignment; the group supports state and local contingencies. The 117th Operations Group consists of the following units: 106th Air Refueling Squadron 99th Air Refueling Squadron The 99th Air Refueling Squadron is an active duty associate unit that supports and flies the group's aircraft. 117th Operations Support Flight In May 1946, the Army Air Forces redesignated 27 of its combat groups and allotted them to the National Guard. One of these groups was the 354th Fighter Group. However, in 1956, the Air Force decided to return the 354th Group to the active force.

To accomplish this, the 1946 redesignation and allotment was rescinded on 26 September 1956, effective 24 March 1946. The same order constituted the 117th Fighter Group effective on 24 March 1946, severing any relation between the two units; the 117th Fighter Group was extended federal recognition by the National Guard Bureau on 1 October 1947 at Birmingham Municipal Airport, Alabama. As they were organized and received federal recognition, the 153d Fighter Squadron of the Mississippi National Guard, the 157th Fighter Squadron of the South Carolina National Guard and the 160th Fighter Squadron of the Alabama National Guard were assigned. Training was supervised by Air Defense Command, but on 1 July 1948, Continental Air Command assumed responsibility for training Guard and Reserve units; the 117th was one of the first Guard units to be ordered to active service for the Korean War, entering active service on 22 October 1950. Of the group's squadrons, only the 157th and 160th remained assigned to the group.

The group moved to Lawson Air Force Base, where it was converted to a reconnaissance unit, becoming the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, adding another federalized squadron, the 112th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron. At Lawson, the group trained for overseas deployment; the group's organization differed from that of regular Air Force units, which had operated under the Wing Base Organization system since 1948. On 30 November 1950, the Air Force activated the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing and support units and the group was assigned to the new wing. At Lawson, the 157th and 160th squadrons converted to Lockheed RF-80 Shooting Star daylight photo-reconnaissance jet aircraft, while the 112th, a light bomber unit, retained its Douglas RB-26C Invaders, becoming a night reconnaissance unit; the original plan was to deploy the 117th to France and reinforce the United States Air Forces in Europe at a new base, Toul-Rosières Air Base. However Toul Air Base was still under construction, delays forced the 117th to temporarily move to Neubiberg Air Base, along with its 160th Squadron, while the 112th was transferred to Wiesbaden Air Base and the 157th was located at Fürstenfeldbruck Air Base.

Headquarters and support organizations were located at Toul. The group and 112th Squadron moved to Toul, but the two F-80 squadrons remained in Germany while federalized. On 10 July 1952 the 117th was inactivated; the 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Group was activated in its place and the mission and equipment of the 117th were transferred to the 10th. The group was again activated at Birmingham Airport, remaining the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in state service. Two of its squadrons, the 106th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, located with the group at Birmingham and the 160th at Dannelly Field, were Alabama Air National Guard units, while the 183d Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron was located at Hawkins Field, Mississippi; the group continued to fly the RB-26C until May 1957 when new Republic RF-84F Thunderflash jet reconnaissance aircraft replaced them. The group continued to train in tactical reconnaissance missions throughout the 1950s with the Thunderflashes until inactivated in 1959.

The 117th Wing had been mobilized during the during the Berlin Crisis of 1961. This mobilization demonstrated that although mobilizing a wing with dispersed flying units was not a problem when the entire wing was called to active service, mobilizing individual flying squadron and elements to support it proved difficult. To resolve this, the Air Force determined to reorganize its National Guard wings by establishing groups with support elements for each of its squadrons to facilitate mobilization of elements of wings in various combinations when needed. Shortly after the 117th Wing returned to Alabama in July, the group was again activated as this plan was implemented; the 184th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, of the Arkansas Air National Guard was assigned to the group while this reorganization was being implemented. The group remained active until December 1974, when the Air Force inactivated groups located on the same station as the wing to which they were assigned. In 1993, the Air National Guard reorganized under the Air Force's Objective wing concept, which reintroduced groups under operational wings.

The group, redesignated the 117th Operations Group, was again activated as an element of the 117th Reconnaissance Wing. After the end of Desert Storm, the phaseout of the McDonnell RF-4C Phantom II, flown by the 117th was accelerated. During 1994, the group's RF-4Cs were sent to Arizona for retirement. On 1 October, the wing was redesig