Mickey Rooney in 1945
Joseph Yule Jr.|
September 23, 1920
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
April 6, 2014 (aged 93)|
Studio City, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Hollywood Forever Cemetery|
|Residence||Westlake Village, California|
|Education||Hollywood High School|
|Alma mater||Fairfax Senior High School|
|Occupation||Actor, vaudevillian, comedian, producer, radio personality|
|Known for||Mickey Mulligan on the Mickey Rooney Show|
|Children||11, including Mickey, Tim, and Michael|
|Relatives||Jan Rooney Mickey Rooney, Jr. Teddy Rooney|
|Awards||Juvenile Academy Award, Academy Honorary Award, Emmy, 2 Golden Globes|
Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule Jr.; September 23, 1920 – April 6, 2014) was an American actor, vaudevillian, comedian, producer and radio personality. In a career spanning nine decades and continuing until shortly before his death, he appeared in more than 300 films and was one of the last surviving stars of the silent film era.
At the height of a career that was marked by precipitous declines and raging comebacks, Rooney performed the role of Andy Hardy in a series of 15 films in the 1930s and 1940s that epitomized American family values. A versatile performer, he became a celebrated character actor later in his career. Laurence Olivier once said he considered Rooney "the best there has ever been". Clarence Brown, who directed him in two of his earliest dramatic roles, National Velvet and The Human Comedy, said he was "the closest thing to a genius I ever worked with".
Rooney first performed in vaudeville as a child and made his film debut at the age of six. At 14 he played Puck in the play and later the 1935 film adaptation of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Critic David Thomson hailed his performance as "one of the cinema's most arresting pieces of magic". In 1938, he co-starred in Boys Town. At nineteen he was the first teenager to be nominated for an Oscar for his leading role in Babes in Arms, and he was awarded a special Academy Juvenile Award in 1939. At the peak of his career between the ages of 15 and 25, he made 43 films, which made him one of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's most consistently successful actors and a favorite of MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer.
Rooney was the top box-office attraction from 1939 to 1941 and one of the best-paid actors of that era, but his career would never again rise to such heights. Drafted into the Army during World War II, he served nearly two years entertaining over two million troops on stage and radio and was awarded a Bronze Star for performing in combat zones. Returning from the war in 1945, he was too old for juvenile roles but too short to be an adult movie star, and was unable to get as many starring roles. Nevertheless, Rooney's popularity was renewed with well-received supporting roles in films such as Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962), It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963), and The Black Stallion (1979). In the early 1980s, he returned to Broadway in Sugar Babies and again became a celebrated star. Rooney made hundreds of appearances on TV, including dramas, variety programs, and talk shows, and won an Emmy in 1982 plus a Golden Globe for his role in Bill (1981).
At his death, Vanity Fair called him "the original Hollywood train wreck". He struggled with alcohol and pill addiction. Ava Gardner was his first wife, and he would go on to marry an additional seven times. Despite earning millions during his career, he had to file for bankruptcy in 1962 due to mismanagement of his finances. Shortly before his death in 2014 at age 93, he alleged mistreatment by some family members and testified before Congress about what he alleged was physical abuse and exploitation by family members. By the end of his life, his millions in earnings had dwindled to an estate that was valued at only $18,000. He died owing medical bills and back taxes, and contributions were solicited from the public.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Filmography
- 6 Stage
- 7 Awards and honors
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Rooney was born Joseph Yule, Jr. on September 23, 1920, in Brooklyn, New York, the only child of vaudevillians Nellie W. Carter, from Kansas City, Missouri and Joe Yule, a native of Glasgow, Scotland. His mother was a former chorus girl and a burlesque performer. When Rooney was born, his parents were appearing in a Brooklyn production of A Gaiety Girl. Rooney later recounted in his memoirs that he began performing at the age of 17 months as part of his parents' routine, wearing a specially tailored tuxedo.
Rooney's parents separated when he was four years old in 1924, and he and his mother moved to Hollywood the following year. He made his first film appearance at age six in 1926, in the short Not to be Trusted. Rooney got bit parts in films such as The Beast of the City (1932) and The Life of Jimmy Dolan (1933), which allowed him to work alongside stars such as Joel McCrea, Colleen Moore, Clark Gable, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., John Wayne and Jean Harlow. He enrolled in the Hollywood Professional School and later attended Hollywood High School, graduating in 1938.
His mother saw an advertisement for a child to play the role of "Mickey McGuire" in a series of short films. Rooney got the role and became "Mickey" for 78 of the comedies, running from 1927 to 1936, starting with Mickey's Circus (1927), his first starring role.[a][b] During this period, he also briefly voiced Oswald the Lucky Rabbit.
He made other films in his adolescence, including several more of the McGuire films. At age 15 he played the role of Puck in the Warner Brothers all-star adaptation of A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1935. Rooney then moved to MGM, where he befriended Judy Garland, with whom he began making a series of musicals that propelled both of them to stardom.
Andy Hardy, Boys Town and Hollywood stardom
In 1937, Rooney was selected to portray Andy Hardy in A Family Affair, which MGM had planned as a B-movie. Rooney provided comic relief as the son of Judge James K. Hardy, portrayed by Lionel Barrymore (although Lewis Stone would play the role of Judge Hardy in subsequent films). The film was an unexpected success, and led to 13 more Andy Hardy films between 1937 and 1946, and a final film in 1958.
According to author Barry Monush, MGM wanted the Andy Hardy films to appeal to all family members. Rooney's character would portray a typical "anxious, hyperactive, girl-crazy teenager", and he soon became the unintended main star of the films. Although some critics describe the series of films as "sweet, overly idealized, and pretty much interchangeable," their ultimate success was because they gave viewers a "comforting portrait of small-town America that seemed suited for the times", with Rooney instilling "a lasting image of what every parent wished their teen could be like".
Behind the scenes, however, Rooney was like the "hyperactive girl-crazy teenager" he portrayed on the screen. Wallace Beery, his co-star in Stablemates, described him as a "brat", but a "fine actor". MGM head Louis B. Mayer found it necessary to manage Rooney's public image, explains historian Jane Ellen Wayne:
Mayer naturally tried to keep all his child actors in line, like any father figure. After one such episode, Mickey Rooney replied, "I won't do it. You're asking the impossible." Mayer then grabbed young Rooney by his lapels and said, "Listen to me! I don't care what you do in private. Just don't do it in public. In public, behave. Your fans expect it. You're Andy Hardy! You're the United States! You're the Stars and Stripes. Behave yourself! You're a symbol!" Mickey nodded. "I'll be good, Mr. Mayer. I promise you that." Mayer let go of his lapels, "All right," he said.
Fifty years later, Rooney realized in hindsight that these early confrontations with Mayer were necessary for him to develop into a leading film star: "Everybody butted heads with him, but he listened and you listened. And then you'd come to an agreement you could both live with. ... He visited the sets, he gave people talks ... What he wanted was something that was American, presented in a cosmopolitan manner.":323
In 1937, Rooney made his first film alongside Judy Garland with Thoroughbreds Don't Cry. Garland and Rooney became close friends as they co-starred in future films and became a successful song-and-dance team. Audiences delighted in seeing the "playful interactions between the two stars showcase a wonderful chemistry". Along with three of the Andy Hardy films, where she portrayed a girl attracted to Andy, they appeared together in a string of successful musicals, including Babes in Arms (1939). During an interview in the 1992 documentary film MGM: When the Lion Roars, Rooney describes their friendship:
Judy and I were so close we could've come from the same womb. We weren't like brothers or sisters but there was no love affair there; there was more than a love affair. It's very, very difficult to explain the depths of our love for each other. It was so special. It was a forever love. Judy, as we speak, has not passed away. She's always with me in every heartbeat of my body.
In 1937, Rooney received top billing as Shockey Carter in Hoosier Schoolboy but his breakthrough-role as a dramatic actor came in 1938's Boys Town opposite Spencer Tracy as Father Flanagan, who runs a home for wayward and homeless boys. Rooney was awarded a special Juvenile Academy Award in 1939, for "significant contribution in bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth".:161 Wayne describes one of the "most famous scenes" in the film, where tough young Rooney is playing poker with a cigarette in his mouth, his hat is cocked and his feet are up on the table. "Tracy grabs him by the lapels, throws the cigarette away and pushes him into a chair. 'That's better,' he tells Mickey." Louis B. Mayer said Boys Town was his favorite film during his years at MGM.:161
The popularity of his films made Rooney the biggest box-office draw in 1939, 1940 and 1941. For their roles in Boys Town, Rooney and Tracy won first and second place in the Motion Picture Herald 1940 National Poll of Exhibitors, based on the box office appeal of 200 players. Boys' Life magazine wrote, "Congratulations to Messrs. Rooney and Tracy! Also to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer we extend a hearty thanks for their very considerable part in this outstanding achievement." Actor Laurence Olivier once called Rooney "the greatest actor of them all".
Hollywood's No. 1 box office bait in 1939 was not Clark Gable, Errol Flynn or Tyrone Power, but a rope-haired, kazoo-voiced kid with a comic-strip face, who until this week had never appeared in a picture without mugging or overacting it. His name (assumed) was Mickey Rooney, and to a large part of the more articulate U.S. cinema audience, his name was becoming a frequently used synonym for brat.
During his long and illustrious career, Rooney also worked with many of the screen's female stars, including Elizabeth Taylor in National Velvet (1944) and Audrey Hepburn in Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961)." Rooney's "bumptiousness and boyish charm" as an actor would develop more "smoothness and polish" over the years, writes biographer Scott Eyman. The fact that Rooney fully enjoyed his life as an actor played a large role in those changes:
You weren't going to work, you were going to have fun. It was home, everybody was cohesive; it was family. One year I made nine pictures; I had to go from one set to another. It was like I was on a conveyor belt. You did not read a script and say, "I guess I'll do it." You did it. They had people that knew the kind of stories that were suited to you. It was a conveyor belt that made motion pictures.:224
Mickey Rooney is the closest thing to a genius that I ever worked with. There was Chaplin, then there was Rooney. The little bastard could do no wrong in my book ... All you had to do with him was rehearse it once.
World War II and career decline
In June 1944, Rooney was inducted into the United States Army, where  he served more than 21 months (until shortly after the end of World War II) entertaining the troops in America and Europe in Special Services. He spent part of the time as a radio personality on the American Forces Network and was awarded the Bronze Star Medal for entertaining troops in combat zones. In addition to the Bronze Star Medal, Rooney also received the Army Good Conduct Medal, American Campaign Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, and World War II Victory Medal, for his military service.[self-published source]
Rooney's career slumped after his return to civilian life. He was now an adult with a height of only 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) and he could no longer play the role of a teenager, but he also lacked the stature of most leading men. He appeared in a number of films, including Words and Music in 1948, which paired him for the last time with Garland on film (he appeared with her on one episode as a guest on The Judy Garland Show). He briefly starred in a CBS radio series, Shorty Bell, in the summer of 1948, and reprised his role as "Andy Hardy", with most of the original cast, in a syndicated radio version of The Hardy Family in 1949 and 1950 (repeated on Mutual during 1952).
In 1949 Variety reported that Rooney had renegotiated his deal with MGM. He agreed to make one film a year for them for five years at $25,000 a movie (his fee until then had been $100,000 but Rooney wanted to enter independent production.) Rooney claimed he was unhappy with the billing MGM gave him for Words and Music.
His first television series, The Mickey Rooney Show (also known as Hey, Mulligan; created by Blake Edwards with Rooney as his own producer), appeared on NBC television for 32 episodes between August 28, 1954, and June 4, 1955.:317 In 1951, he made his directorial debut with My True Story, starring Helen Walker.:413 Rooney also starred as a ragingly egomaniacal television comedian, loosely based on Red Buttons, in the live 90-minute television drama The Comedian, in the Playhouse 90 series on the evening of Valentine's Day in 1957, and as himself in a revue called The Musical Revue of 1959 based on the 1929 film The Hollywood Revue of 1929, which was edited into a film in 1960.
In 1958, Rooney joined Dean Martin and Frank Sinatra in hosting an episode of NBC's short-lived Club Oasis comedy and variety show. In 1960, Rooney directed and starred in The Private Lives of Adam and Eve, an ambitious comedy known for its multiple flashbacks and many cameos. In the 1960s, Rooney returned to theatrical entertainment. He still accepted film roles in undistinguished films but occasionally would appear in better works, such as Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962) and It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963).
He portrayed a Japanese character, Mr. Yunioshi, in the 1961 film version of Truman Capote's novella Breakfast at Tiffany's. His performance was criticized by some in subsequent years as a racist stereotype. Rooney later said that he would not have taken the role if he had known it would offend people.
On December 31, 1961, Rooney appeared on television's What's My Line and mentioned that he had already started enrolling students in the MRSE (Mickey Rooney School of Entertainment). His school venture never came to fruition. This was a period of professional distress for Rooney; as a childhood friend, director Richard Quine put it: "Let's face it. It wasn't all that easy to find roles for a 5-foot-3 man who'd passed the age of Andy Hardy." In 1962, his debts had forced him into filing for bankruptcy.
In 1966, Rooney was working on the film Ambush Bay in the Philippines when his wife Barbara Ann Thomason— a former model and aspiring actress who had won 17 straight beauty contests in Southern California—was found dead in her bed. Her lover, Milos Milos—who was one of Rooney's actor-friends—was found dead beside her. Detectives ruled it a murder-suicide, which was committed with Rooney's own gun.:362
Francis Ford Coppola had bought the rights to make The Black Stallion (1979), and when casting it, he called Rooney and asked him if he thought he could play a jockey. Rooney replied saying, "Gee, I don't know. I never played a jockey before." He was kidding, he said, since he had played a jockey in at least three past films, including Down the Stretch, Thoroughbreds Don't Cry, and National Velvet.:450 The film garnered excellent reviews and earned $40 million in its first run, which gave Coppola's struggling studio, American Zoetrope, a major boost. It also gave Rooney newfound recognition, along with a nomination for Best Supporting Actor.:452
Character roles and Broadway comeback
In addition to his movie roles, Rooney made numerous guest-starring roles as a television character actor for nearly six decades, beginning with an episode of Celanese Theatre. The part led to other roles on such television series as Schlitz Playhouse,:542 Playhouse 90,:542 Producers' Showcase, Alcoa Theatre,:542 The Soldiers, Wagon Train, General Electric Theater,:587 Hennesey,:486 The Dick Powell Theatre,:544 Arrest and Trial (1964),:544 Burke's Law (1963),:542 Combat! (1964),:544 The Fugitive, Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, The Jean Arthur Show (1966),:544 The Name of the Game (1970),:542 Dan August (1970),:545 Night Gallery (1970),:545 The Love Boat,:594 Kung Fu: The Legend Continues (1995),:545 Murder, She Wrote (1992),:545 The Golden Girls (1988):545 among many others.
In 1961, he guest-starred in the 13-week James Franciscus adventure–drama CBS television series The Investigators.:544 In 1962, he was cast as himself in the episode "The Top Banana" of the CBS sitcom, Pete and Gladys,:542 starring Harry Morgan and Cara Williams.
In 1963, he entered CBS's The Twilight Zone,:595 giving a one-man performance in the episode "The Last Night of a Jockey" (1963).:544 Also in 1963, in 'The Hunt' for Suspense Theater,:544 he played the sadistic sheriff hunting the young surfer played by James Caan. In 1964, he launched another half-hour sitcom, Mickey. The story line had "Mickey" operating a resort hotel in southern California. His own son Tim Rooney appeared as his character's teenage son on this program, and Emmaline Henry starred as Rooney's wife. The program lasted for 17 episodes.
Rooney garnered a Golden Globe and an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or a Special for his role in 1981's Bill. Playing opposite Dennis Quaid, Rooney's character was a mentally handicapped man attempting to live on his own after leaving an institution. His acting quality in the film has been favorably compared to other actors who took on similar roles, including Sean Penn, Dustin Hoffman and Tom Hanks. He reprised his role in 1983's Bill: On His Own, earning an Emmy nomination for the turn.
Rooney did voice acting from time to time. He provided the voice of Santa Claus in four stop-motion animated Christmas TV specials: Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town (1970), The Year Without a Santa Claus (1974),:540 Rudolph and Frosty's Christmas in July (1979):540 and A Miser Brothers' Christmas (2008). In 1995, he appeared as himself on The Simpsons episode "Radioactive Man".:545
After starring in one unsuccessful TV series and turning down an offer for a huge TV series, Rooney, now 70, starred in the Family Channel's The Adventures of the Black Stallion, where he reprised his role as Henry Dailey in the film of the same name, eleven years earlier.:594 The series ran for three years and was an international hit.,:484
A major turning point came in 1979, when Rooney made his Broadway debut in the acclaimed stage play Sugar Babies, a musical revue tribute to the burlesque era costarring former MGM dancing star Ann Miller. Aljean Harmetz noted that "Mr. Rooney fought over every skit and argued over every song and almost always got things done his way. The show opened on Broadway on October 8, 1979, to rave reviews, and this time he did not throw success away. Rooney and Miller performed the show 1,208 times in New York and then toured with it for five years, including eight months in London. Co-star Miller recalls that Rooney "never missed a performance or a chance to ad-lib or read the lines the same way twice, if he even stuck to the script". Biographer Alvin Marill states that "at 59, Mickey Rooney was reincarnated as a baggy-pants comedian—back as a top banana in show biz in his belated Broadway debut."
Following this, he toured as Pseudelous in Stephen Sondheim's A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum.:351 In the 1990s, he returned to Broadway for the final months of Will Rogers Follies, playing the ghost of Will's father.:547 On television, he starred in the short-lived sitcom, One of the Boys,:539 along with two unfamiliar young stars, Dana Carvey and Nathan Lane, in 1982.
He toured Canada in a dinner theatre production of The Mind with the Naughty Man in the mid-1990s.:548 He played The Wizard in a stage production of The Wizard of Oz with Eartha Kitt at Madison Square Garden.:489 Kitt was later replaced by Jo Anne Worley.
Rooney wrote a memoir titled Life is Too Short, published by Villard Books in 1991. A Library Journal review said that "From title to the last line, 'I'll have a short bier', Rooney's self-deprecating humor powers this book." He wrote a novel about a child star, published in 1994, The Search For Sunny Skies.
Despite the millions of dollars that he earned over the years, such as his $65,000 a week earnings from Sugar Babies, Rooney was plagued by financial problems late in life. His longtime gambling habit caused him to "gamble away his fortune again and again". He declared bankruptcy for the second time in 1996 and described himself as "broke" in 2005. He kept performing on stage and in the movies, but his personal property was valued at only $18,000 when he died in 2014.
Rooney and his wife Jan toured the country in 2005 through 2011 in a musical revue called Let's Put on a Show. Vanity Fair called it "a homespun affair full of dog-eared jokes" that featured Rooney singing George Gershwin songs.
In 2006, Rooney played Gus in Night at the Museum. He returned to play the role again in the sequel Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian in 2009, in a scene that was deleted from the final film.
On May 26, 2007, he was grand marshal at the Garden Grove Strawberry Festival. Rooney made his British pantomime debut, playing Baron Hardup in Cinderella, at the Sunderland Empire Theatre over the 2007 Christmas period, a role he reprised at Bristol Hippodrome in 2008 and at the Milton Keynes theatre in 2009.
In 2011, Rooney made a brief cameo appearance in The Muppets and in 2014, at age 93, he reprised his role as Gus in Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb, with the film being dedicated in the honor of Rooney and Robin Williams, who also died that year. Although confined to a wheelchair, he was described by director Shawn Levy as "energetic and so pleased to be there. He was just happy to be invited to the party."
An October 2015 article in The Hollywood Reporter maintained that Rooney was frequently abused and financially depleted by his closest relatives in the last years of his life. The article said that it was clear that "one of the biggest stars of all time, who remained aloft longer than anyone in Hollywood history, was in the end brought down by those closest to him. He died humiliated and betrayed, nearly broke and often broken." Rooney suffered from bipolar disorder and had attempted suicide two or three times over the years, with resulting hospitalizations reported as "nervous breakdowns".
At the time of his death, he was married to Jan Chamberlin Rooney, although they had separated in June 2012. He had nine children and two stepchildren, as well as 19 grandchildren and several great-grandchildren.
Rooney had been addicted to sleeping pills; he overcame the sleeping pill addiction in 2000, when he was in his late 70s.
On February 16, 2011, Rooney was granted a temporary restraining order against stepson Christopher Aber and Aber's wife, Christina, and they were ordered to stay 100 yards from Rooney, his stepson Mark Rooney and his wife, Charlene Rooney. Rooney claimed that he was a victim of elder abuse.
On March 2, 2011, Rooney appeared before a special U.S. Senate committee that was considering legislation to curb elder abuse, testifying about the abuse he claimed to have suffered at the hands of family members. In 2011 all of Rooney's finances were permanently handed over to a conservator, who called Rooney "completely competent".
In April 2011, the temporary restraining order that Rooney was previously granted was replaced by a confidential settlement between Rooney and his stepson, Aber. Christopher Aber and Jan Rooney denied all the allegations.
In 1997, Rooney was arrested on suspicion of beating his wife, but charges were dropped due to lack of evidence.
Rooney was married eight times, with six of the marriages ending in divorce. In 1942, he married his first wife, actress Ava Gardner, who at that time was still an obscure teenage starlet. They divorced the following year, partly because he had apparently been unfaithful. While stationed in the military in Alabama in 1944, Rooney met and married Betty Jane Phillips, who later became a singer under the name B.J. Baker. They had two sons together. This marriage ended in divorce after he returned from Europe at the end of World War II. His marriage to actress Martha Vickers in 1949 produced one son but ended in divorce in 1951. He married actress Elaine Mahnken in 1952 and they divorced in 1958.
In 1958, Rooney married Barbara Ann Thomason, but she was murdered by her secret lover in 1966. He then married Barbara's best friend, Marge Lane. That marriage lasted 100 days. He was married to Carolyn Hockett from 1969 to 1975. In 1978, Rooney married his eighth and final wife, Jan Chamberlin. Their marriage lasted until his death, a total of 34 years (longer than his seven previous unions combined), although they separated in 2012.
|Betty Jane Rase (née Phillips)||1944–49||2, Mickey Rooney, Jr. and Tim Rooney|
(a.k.a.: Elaine Davis)
|1952–58||2, Jimmy and Jonelle|
|Barbara Ann Thomason
(a.k.a.: Tara Thomas, Carolyn Mitchell)
|1958–66||4, including Michael Joseph Rooney|
|Jan Chamberlin||1978–2014 (separated, June 2012)|
A group of family members and friends, including Mickey Rourke, held a memorial service on April 18. A private funeral, organized by another set of family members, was held at Hollywood Forever Cemetery, where he was ultimately interred, on April 19. His eight surviving children said in a statement that they were barred from seeing Rooney during his final years.
Rooney was one of the last surviving actors of the silent picture era. His movie career spanned 88 years, from 1926 to 2014, continuing until shortly before his death. During his peak years from the late 1930s to the early 1940s, Rooney was among the top box-office stars in the United States.
He made forty-three pictures between the age of 15 and 25. Among those, his role as Andy Hardy became one of "Hollywood's best-loved characters," with Marlon Brando calling him "the best actor in films". For his acting the part in fifteen Andy Hardy films, he received an honorary Oscar in 1938 for "bringing to the screen the spirit and personification of youth" and for "setting a high standard of ability and achievement".
"There was nothing he couldn't do", said actress Margaret O'Brien. MGM boss Louis B. Mayer treated him like a son and saw in Rooney "the embodiment of the amiable American boy who stands for family, humbug, and sentiment," writes critic and author, David Thomson.
By the time Rooney was 20, his consistent portrayals of characters with youth and energy suggested that his future success was unlimited. Thomson also explains that Rooney's characters were able to cover a wide range of emotional types, and gives three examples where "Rooney is not just an actor of genius, but an artist able to maintain a stylized commentary on the demon impulse of the small, belligerent man:"
Rooney's Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1935) is truly inhuman, one of cinema's most arresting pieces of magic. ... His toughie in Boys Town (1938) struts and bullies like something out of a nightmare and then comes clean in a grotesque but utterly frank outburst of sentimentality in which he aspires to the boy community ... His role as Baby Face Nelson (1957), the manic, destructive response of the runt against a pig society.
By the end of the 1940s, Rooney's movie characters were no longer in demand and his career went downhill. "In 1938," he said, "I starred in eight pictures. In 1948 and 1949 together, I starred in only three." However, film historian Jeanine Basinger notes that although his career "reached the heights and plunged to the depths, Rooney kept on working and growing, the mark of a professional." Some of the films which reinvigorated his popularity, were Requiem for a Heavyweight (1962), It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) and The Black Stallion (1979). In the early 1980s, he returned to Broadway in Sugar Babies, and "found himself once more back on top".
Basinger tries to encapsulate Rooney's career:
Rooney's abundant talent, like his film image, might seem like a metaphor for America: a seemingly endless supply of natural resources that could never dry up, but which, it turned out, could be ruined by excessive use and abuse, by arrogance or power, and which had to be carefully tended to be returned to full capacity. From child star to character actor, from movie shorts to television specials, and from films to Broadway, Rooney ultimately did prove he could do it all, do it well, and keep on doing it. His is a unique career, both for its versatility and its longevity.
One of the most enduring performers in show business history, Rooney appeared in over 300 films. He was one of the last surviving stars of the silent film era, having one of the longest careers in movie history.
- 1935: A Midsummer Night's Dream
- 1951: Sailor Beware
- 1963: The Tunnel of Love
- 1965: A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
- 1967: The Odd Couple
- 1969–70: George M!
- 1971: Three Goats and a Blanket
- 1971: Hide and Seek
- 1971: W.C. (closed on the road)
- 1972–74: See How They Run
- 1973: A Midsummer Night's Dream
- 1975: Goodnight Ladies
- 1975: Sugar
- 1976: Alimony
- 1979–82, 1983–88: Sugar Babies
- 1983: Show Boat
- 1986: The Laugh's On Me
- 1987: A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
- 1989: Two for the Show
- 1990: The Sunshine Boys
- 1991–93: The Will Rogers Follies
- 1993: Lend Me a Tenor
- 1994: The Mind with the Naughty Man
- 1995: Crazy for You
- 1997–99: The Wizard of Oz
- 2000: Hollywood Goes Classical
- 2003: Singular Sensations
- 2000–11: Let's Put On A Show
Awards and honors
On February 8, 1960, Rooney was initiated into the Hollywood Walk of Fame with a star heralding his work in motion pictures, located at 1718 Vine Street, one for his television career located at 6541 Hollywood Boulevard, and a third dedicated to his work in radio, located at 6372 Hollywood Boulevard. On March 29, 1984, he received a fourth star, this one for his live performances, located at 6211 Hollywood Boulevard.
- The film was long believed lost, but in 2014 was reported found in the Netherlands.
- The Mickey McGuire films were adapted from the Toonerville Trolley comic strip, which contained a character named Mickey McGuire. Joe Yule briefly became Mickey McGuire legally "trump an attempted copyright lawsuit so the film producer Larry Darmour would not have to pay the comic strip writers royalties" His mother also changed her surname to McGuire in an attempt to bolster the argument, but the film producers lost. The litigation settlement awarded damages to the owners of the cartoon character, compelling the twelve-year-old actor to refrain from calling himself Mickey McGuire on- and off-screen.
During an interruption in the series in 1932, Mrs. Yule made plans to take her son on a 10-week vaudeville tour as McGuire, and Fox sued successfully to stop him from using the name. Mrs. Yule suggested the stage name of Mickey Looney for her comedian son. He altered this to Rooney, which did not infringe upon the copyright of Warner Brothers' animation series called Looney Tunes.
- "Mickey Rooney, an enduring star", Boston Globe, April 7, 2014
- Gary Baum and Scott Feinberg (October 21, 2015). "Tears and Terror: The Disturbing Final Years of Mickey Rooney". The Hollywood Reporter. (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Iconic Actor Mickey Rooney Dies At 93", CBS News, April 7, 2014.
- Los Angeles Times (April 7, 2014). "Mickey Rooney: A long and remarkable career in film, TV". latimes.com. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Sales, Nancy Jo (April 7, 2014). "Mickey Rooney Blew Through Wives and Fortunes, but God, What a Talent!". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Kim, Victoria; Ryan, Harriet (April 8, 2014). "Mickey Rooney's body goes unclaimed as family feuds over burial site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- "The Official Mickey Rooney Site". Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Joe Yule, 55, Father Of Mickey Rooney". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 31 March 1950. p. 30. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Life Is Too Short (1991 autobiography); ISBN 978-0-679-40195-7
- Bernstein, Adam (April 7, 2014). "Mickey Rooney dies at 93". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- Lertzman, Richard A.; Birnes, William J. (2015). The Life and Times of Mickey Rooney. Gallery Books. pp. 24–27. ISBN 1-5011-0096-3. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Duke, Alan; Leopold, Todd (April 7, 2014). "Legendary actor Mickey Rooney dies at 93". CNN. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Hollywood Professional School Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Hollywood High School, notable graduates
- Current Biography 1942. H.W. Wilson Co. (January 1942). pp. 704–06. ISBN 99903-960-3-5.
- Barnes, Mike (March 30, 2014). "Lost Mickey Rooney Film Is Found and Set for Preservation". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- Server, Lee, Ava Gardner - "Love is Nothing" (2006), St. Martin's Press
- Coons, Robbin (August 29, 1930). "Mother of Mickey McGuire Seeks to Change Her Name". The Evening Review. East Liverpool, Ohio. Retrieved January 10, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "The Walter Lantz Cartune Encyclopedia: 1931. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
- Krantz, Les. Their First Time in the Movies, The Overlook Press N.Y. (2001) p. 45
- orsandov (September 6, 2011). "Puck's Soliloquy". YouTube. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- BravuraK (February 12, 2011). "A Midsummer Night's Dream - 1935 "Puck, Oberon's Servant"". YouTube. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Monush, Barry. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Applause Theatre and Cinema Books (2003) pp. 648–51
- Marx, A. The Nine Lives of Mickey Rooney. Stein and Day (1986), p. 68; ISBN 0-8128-3056-3.
- Wayne, Jane Ellen. The Leading Men of MGM, Carroll & Graf (2005) p. 246
- Eyman, Scott. Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer, Simon & Schuster (2005)
- "Judy and Mickey", Slate, October 30, 2015
- "Remembering Mickey Rooney With a Few of His Greatest Musical Performances", Slate.com, April 7, 2014.
- Rooney, Mickey. "The Lion Reigns Supreme", MGM: When the Lion Roars, 1992 miniseries
- "11th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- " By 1939 [Rooney] was the top box-office star in the world, a title he held for three consecutive years." Branagh, Kenneth (narrator). 1939: Hollywood's Greatest Year. Turner Classic Movies, 2009.
- Mathews, Franklin K. Boys' Life, April 1941, p. 23
- "Hollywood legend Mickey Rooney dies", USA Today, April 7, 2014
- "Young Tom Edison (1940)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
Time put Rooney on the cover, noting that his movies had grossed a whopping $30 million for MGM the previous year and praising him for 'his most sober and restrained performance to date' as young Edison, 'who (like himself) began at the bottom of the American heap, (like himself) had to struggle, (like himself) won, but a boy whose main activity (unlike Mickey's) was investigating, inventing, thinking.'
- "Cinema: Success Story". Time. March 18, 1940. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
Hollywood's No. 1 box office bait in 1939 was not Clark Gable, Errol Flynn or Tyrone Power, but a rope-haired, kazoo-voiced kid with a comic-strip face, who until this week had never appeared in a picture without mugging or overacting it. His name (assumed) was Mickey Rooney, and to a large part of the more articulate U. S. cinema audience, his name was becoming a frequently used synonym for brat.
- "Mickey Rooney Dead: Legendary Actor Dies At 93", Huffington Post, April 7, 2014.
- Basinger, Jeanine. The Star Machine, Alfred A. Knopf (2007) p. 442
- "Rooney, Mickey, Pfc Deceased". TogetherWeServed. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Bowman, John S. (2014). Pergolesi in the Pentagon. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-1-4990-3877-4.
- Marill, Alvin H. (2004). Mickey Rooney: His Films, Television Appearances, Radio Work, Stage Shows, and Recordings. McFarland & Company. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7864-2015-5.
- "Mickey Rooney obituary: women liked me because I made them laugh". The Guardian. April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- Dunning, John, On The Air: The Encyclopedia Of Old-Time Radio (1998), Oxford University Press; accessed November 16, 2015.
- Staff (April 13, 1949) "Rooney's $25,000 Per Metro Picture; He's Out to Cash in on Own Prods." Variety p.4
- Durant, Yvonne (June 18, 2006). "Where Holly Hung Her Ever-So-Stylish Hat". The New York Times - New York Observed. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Dargis, Manohla (July 20, 2007). "Dude (Nyuck-Nyuck), I Love You (as If!)". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Yang, Jeff (April 8, 2014). "The Mickey Rooney Role Nobody Wants to Talk Much About". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Arthur Marx (1987). The Nine Lives of Mickey Rooney. New York: Berkley. ISBN 978-0-425-10552-8.
- Marill, Alvin H. (2005). Mickey Rooney: His Films, Television Appearances, Radio Work, Stage Shows, And Recordings. Jefferson NC: McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 0-7864-2015-4.
- "Legendary Actor Mickey Rooney Dead at 93", ABC News, April 7, 2014
- Arthur Marx, The Nine Lives Of Mickey Rooney (1986), Stein & Day
- "Mickey Rooney's Quietest Role", The New York Times, April 7, 2014.
- MightyFalcon2011 (June 9, 2013). "1/1/2002 Commercials Part 25". YouTube. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Harmetz, Aljean (April 7, 2014). "Mickey Rooney, Master of Putting On a Show, Dies at 93". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- Video: on YouTube 8 min.
- "Iconic Hollywood Actor Mickey Rooney Dies At 93". NPR. The Associated Press. April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Mickey Rooney gives one final 'Museum' moment", USA Today, December 17, 2014
- "The films of Mickey Rooney "Night at the Museum"". CBS News Sunday Morning. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Mickey Rooney makes panto debut, Channel 4, December 7, 2007.
- "Mickey Rooney: The Mickey show". The Independent. London, UK. December 14, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Review – Cinderella with Mickey Rooney, Milton Keynes Theatre". Westendwhingers.wordpress.com. December 6, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "‘Night at the Museum’ Mickey Rooney’s Highest Paying Job", 2paragraphs, December 21, 2014
- Alexander, Bryan (December 17, 2014). "Mickey Rooney gives one final 'Museum' moment". USA Today. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- Duke, Alan (May 11, 2014). "Mickey Rooney's widow contests late actor's will". CNN. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Mickey Rooney Dies at 93", People, September 23, 2016 (updated)
- "Legendary Actor Mickey Rooney Dead at 93", Liberty Voice, April 6, 2014
- "A Star Is Burned: Mickey Rooney's Final Days Marred by Bizarre Family Feud", The Hollywood Reporter, April 9, 2014
- "Mickey Rooney granted restraining order against stepson". BBC. February 16, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Feinberg, Scott (April 9, 2014). "A Star Is Burned: Mickey Rooney's Final Days Marred by Bizarre Family Feud". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "Mickey Rooney lawyer to control finances". BBC. March 27, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- "Mickey Rooney drops restraining order against stepson". Tmz.com. February 15, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Carole Fleck and Talia Schmidt, "Mickey Rooney Claims Elder Abuse: Actor's testimony to Congress helps spur bill for new crackdown", AARP Bulletin, March 2, 2011.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (March 3, 2011). "Mickey Rooney: 'Elder Abuse Made Me Feel Trapped'". People. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
- Wilson, Tracy (March 12, 1997). "Rooney Won't Be Charged With Abuse". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- Hetherman, Bill (March 3, 2013). "Mickey Rooney's home to be sold for $1.3M to West Hills firm". Daily Breeze.
- "Mickey Rooney's Wife Murder-Suicide Victim". The Charleston Daily Mail. February 1, 1966. p. 1. Retrieved October 31, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Barnes, Mike (July 4, 2016). "Teddy Rooney, a Former Child Actor and a Son of Mickey Rooney, Dies at 66". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Nelson, Valerie J. (April 6, 2014). "Mickey Rooney dies at 93; show-business career spanned a lifetime". Los Angeles Times.
- AP (9 April 2014). "After 80-year career, Mickey Rooney estate: $18K". USA Today. Gannett. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- Durkin, Erin (April 20, 2014). "Mickey Rooney laid to rest in private funeral at Hollywood Forever Cemetery". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Stevens, Matt (April 19, 2014). "Mickey Rooney funeral set for today at Hollywood Forever". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Parker, Mike (April 13, 2014). "Mickey Rooney died too poor to pay for his own Hollywood funeral". Daily Express. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- Mccartney, Anthony. "Los Angeles: Iconic Hollywood actor Mickey Rooney dies at 93". Miami Herald. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- Bassinger, Jeanine; Unterburger, Amy L., ed. International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers: Actors and Actresses, 3rd ed., St. James Press, (1997) pp. 1053–56.
- Thomson, David. The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, Alfred A. Knopf (2002) pp. 754–755
- "Mickey Rooney, an enduring star", The Boston Globe, April 7, 2014
- "Mickey Rooney" Hollywood Walk of Fame website
- "Palm Springs Walk of Stars in order by dedication date" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- Willson, Dixie (1935). Little Hollywood Stars. Akron, OH, e New York: Saalfield Pub. Co..
- Zierold, Norman J. (1965). The Child Stars. New York: Coward-McCann.
- Best, Marc (1971). Those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen. South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co., pp. 220–224.
- Parish, James Robert (1976). Great Child Stars. New York: Ace Books.
- Edelson, Edward (1979). Great Kids of the Movies. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
- Marx, Arthur (1988)  The Nine Lives Of Mickey Rooney. New York: Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 0-425-10552-0
- Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914–1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 201–205.
- Rooney, Mickey (1991) Life Is Too Short. New York: Villard Books ISBN 0-679-40195-4
- Holmstrom, John (1996). The Moving Picture Boy: An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995, Norwich, Michael Russell, pp. 100–102.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mickey Rooney.|
- Official website
- Mickey Rooney on IMDb
- Mickey Rooney at the TCM Movie Database
- Mickey Rooney at the Internet Broadway Database
- Mickey Rooney at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Mickey Rooney at Find a Grave
- Mickey Rooney on the Phil Silvers Show
- "Mickey Rooney on America, Christ and Judy Garland: The Hollywood Legend Speaks Out." Montreal Mirror interview 1998. Republished on a blog as Montreal Mirror has dissolved.
- Mickey Rooney at Virtual History
- Fate Slaps Down Andy Hardy
- Mickey Rooney at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television
- Interview with Hollywood Reporter, July 2010