Bond Minicar is a series of economical three-wheeled microcars which were manufactured by the British car manufacturer Sharp's Commercials Ltd, in Preston, between 1949 and 1966. The basic concept for the minicar was derived from a prototype built by Lawrence "Lawrie" Bond, an engineer from Preston. During the war, Bond had worked as an aeronautical designer for the Blackburn Aircraft Company before setting up a small engineering business in Blackpool, manufacturing aircraft and vehicle components for the government. After the war he moved his company to Longridge where he built a series of small, innovative racing cars, which raced with a modest amount of success. In the early part of 1948, he revealed the prototype of what was described as a new minicar to the press. Described as a "short radius runabout, for the purpose of shopping and calls within a 20-30-mile radius", the prototype was demonstrated climbing a 25 per cent gradient with driver and passenger on board, it was reported to have a 125 cc Villiers two-stroke engine with a three-speed gearbox, a dry weight of 195 pounds and a cruising speed of around 30 mph.
At the time of the report, it was stated that production was "expected to start in three months' time". The prototype was built at Bond's premises in Berry Lane, Longridge where it is now commemorated with a blue plaque. Sharp's Commercials was a company contracted by the Ministry of Supply to rebuild military vehicles. Knowing that the Ministry were ending their contract in 1948, recognising the limitations of his existing works as a base for mass production, Bond approached the Managing Director of Sharp's, Lt. Col. Charles Reginald'Reg' Gray, to ask if he could rent the factory to build his car. Gray refused, but said that instead, Sharp's could manufacture the car for Bond and the two entered into an agreement on this basis. Bond carried out some further development work on the Minicar, but once mass production was underway, left the project and sold the design and manufacturing rights to Sharp's; the prototype and early cars utilised stressed skin aluminium bodywork, though models incorporated chassis members of steel.
The Minicar was amongst the first British cars to use fibreglass body panels. Though retaining much of Lawrie Bond's original concept of a simple, economical vehicle, the Minicar was developed by Sharp's through several different incarnations; the majority of cars were convertibles, though hardtop models were offered, along with van and estate versions. Minicars were available either in standard or deluxe form, though the distinction between the two was one of mechanical detail rather than luxury; the cars were powered by a single-cylinder two-stroke Villiers engine of 122 cc. In December 1949 this was upgraded to a 197 cc unit; the engine was further upgraded in 1958, first to a single-cylinder 247 cc and to a 247 cc twin-cylinder Villiers 4T. These air-cooled engines were developed principally as motorcycle units and therefore had no reverse gear. However, this was a minimal inconvenience, because the engine and front wheel were mounted as a single unit and could be turned by the steering wheel up to 90 degrees either side of the straight-ahead position, enabling the car to turn within its own length.
A method of reversing the car was offered on models via a reversible Dynastart unit. The Dynastart unit, which doubled as both starter motor and dynamo on these models incorporated a built-in reversing solenoid switch. After stopping the engine and operating this switch the Dynastart, the engine, would rotate in the opposite direction; the car proved popular in the UK market, where its three-wheel configuration meant that it qualified for a lower rate of purchase tax, lower vehicle excise duty and cheaper insurance than comparable four-wheel cars. The three-wheel configuration, low weight and lack of a reverse gear meant that it could be driven on a motor cycle licence. In April 1962 the purchase tax rate of 55 percent, applied to all four-wheeled cars sold in the UK since the war was reduced to 45 per cent. In November 1962, it was reduced by another 20 per cent to 25 per cent – the same rate as that applied to three-wheelers; this rapid change meant that at the point of sale, some three-wheelers became more expensive than four-wheeled cars like the Mini.
In response, Tom Gratrix, head of Sharp's sent a telegram to the Chancellor warning that unless a similar tax cut were given to the purchase tax rate for three-wheelers, there would be 300 redundancies and the closure of the Sharp's factory. No cut was forthcoming, sales of Minicars declined from this point and the final Minicar was produced in 1966. At the end of production 24,482 had been made. Sold as the Bond Minicar, the car was advertised as the world's most economical car, it was austere and simple without luxuries. Production began in January 1949, although 90 per cent of the initial production was said to have been allocated to the overseas market; as with the prototype, a large proportion of the Minicar was made from different aluminium alloys. The main body was a simple construction of 18 swg sheet with a 14 swg main bulkhead; the integrity of the main stressed skin structure was enhanced by the absence of doors, the bodysides being deemed low enough to be stepped over without major inconvenience.
Most of the bodywork panels were flat or simple curves whilst the compound curves of the bonnet and rear mudguard arches were pressed out as separate panels. The windscreen was made from Pers
Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. It is noted for producing bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe in World War II and for important contributions to high-speed flight, with the pioneering examples of a successful liquid-fueled rocket and a turbojet-powered aircraft in aviation history, with both Heinkel designs' first flights occurring shortly before the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Following the successful career of Ernst Heinkel as the chief designer for the Hansa-Brandenburg aviation firm in World War I, Heinkel's own firm was established at Warnemünde in 1922, after the restrictions on German aviation imposed by the Treaty of Versailles were relaxed. By 1929, the firm's compressed air-powered catapults were in use on the German Norddeutscher Lloyd ocean-liners SS Bremen and Europa to launch short-range mail planes from the liners' decks; the company's first post-World War I aircraft design success was the design of the all-metal, single-engined Heinkel He 70 Blitz high-speed mail plane and airliner for Deutsche Luft Hansa in 1932, which broke a number of air speed records for its class.
It was followed by the two-engine Heinkel He 111 Doppel-Blitz, which became a mainstay of the Luftwaffe during World War II as a bomber. Heinkel's most important designers at this point were the twin Günter brothers and Walter, Heinrich Hertel; the firm's headquarters was in Rostock known as Heinkel-Nord, located in what used to be named the Rostock-Marienehe neighborhood, where the firm additionally possessed a factory airfield along the coastline in the Rostock/Schmarl neighborhood three kilometers north-northwest of the main offices, with a second Heinkel-Süd engineering and manufacturing facility in Schwechat, after the Anschluss in 1938. The Heinkel company is most associated with aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during World War II; this began with the adaptation of the He 70 and, in particular, the He 111. Heinkel provided the Luftwaffe's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177, although this was never deployed in significant numbers; the German Luftwaffe equipped both of these bombers with the Z-Gerät, Y-Gerät, Knickebein, developed by Johannes Plendl, thus they were among the first aircraft to feature advanced night navigation devices, common in all commercial airplanes today.
Heinkel was less successful in selling fighter designs. Before the war, the Heinkel He 112 had been rejected in favour of the Messerschmitt Bf 109, Heinkel's attempt to top Messerschmitt's design with the Heinkel He 100 failed due to political interference within the Reichsluftfahrtministerium; the company provided the Luftwaffe with an outstanding night fighter, the Heinkel He 219, which suffered from politics and was produced only in limited numbers, but was the first Luftwaffe front-line aircraft to use retractable tricycle gear for its undercarriage design, the world's first front-line military aircraft to use ejection seats. By contrast, the only heavy bomber to enter service with the Luftwaffe during the war years – the Heinkel He 177 Greif – turned out to be one of the most troublesome German wartime aircraft designs, plagued with numerous engine fires from both its inadequate engine accommodation design and its general airframe design being mis-tasked, for a 30-meter class wingspan design, to be built to be able to perform moderate-angle dive bombing attacks from the moment of its approval by the RLM in early November 1937, which would not be rescinded until September 1942.
From 1941 until the end of the war, the company was merged with engine manufacturer Hirth to form Heinkel-Hirth, giving the company the capability of manufacturing its own powerplants, including its Heinkel Strahltriebwerke turbojet engine manufacturing firm. The Heinkel name was behind pioneering work in jet engine and rocket development, the German aviation firm that attempted to popularize the use of retractable tricycle landing gear, a relative rarity in early WW II German airframe design. In 1939, flown by Erich Warsitz, the Heinkel He 176 and Heinkel He 178 became the first aircraft designs to fly under liquid-fuel rocket and turbojet power respectively. Heinkel was the first to develop a jet fighter to prototype stage, the Heinkel He 280, the first Heinkel design to use and fly with retractable tricycle gear. In early 1942, the photographic interpretation unit at RAF Medmenham first saw evidence of the existence of the 280 in aerial reconnaissance photographs taken after a bombing raid on the Rostock factory.
Thereafter, the Allies began intensive aerial reconnaissance intended to learn more about the German jet aircraft programme. The He 219 night fighter design was the first German frontline combat aircraft to have retracting tricycle gear, the first operational military aircraft anywhere to use ejection seats. Heinkel's He 280, the firm's only twin-jet aircraft design to fly never reached production, since the RLM wanted Heinkel to concentrate on bomber production and instead promoted the development of the rival Messerschmitt Me 262. Late in the war, a Heinkel single-jet powered fighter took to the air as the Heinkel He 162A Spatz as the first military jet to use retractable tricycle landing gear, use a turbojet engine from its maiden flight forward, use an ejection seat from the start, but it had entered service at the time of Germany's surrender. Heinkel was a major user of Sachsenhausen concentration camp labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on the He 177 bomber. Following t
Microcar is a French microcar manufacturer. The company was founded in 1984 as a division of a major sailboat manufacturer. Production moved to a new custom-built factory in September 2000. In September 2008, Microcar was acquired by Ligier Automobiles in a deal backed by the Italian private equity firm 21 Investimenti Partners; the merger created Europe's second-biggest manufacturer of microcars, largest maker of quadricycles, or "sans permis" vehicles. The Microcar and Ligier brands are to retain their separate identities and production facilities. Phillipe Ligier, son of company founder Guy Ligier, serves as CEO of the expanded Ligier Automobiles; the current model range consists of the M. Go model introduced in 2009; the M. Go is available in conventional, diesel-engined S, S PACK, MICA, SXI, Sport trim levels, as well as full electric. Prior to the M. Go, Microcar was known for their long-running MC Series models, sold as the MC1 and MC2. Both where available as a 2-seat, or 4-seat long wheel base version.
The long wheel base being 40mm longer than the short Virgo models. The company sold a small commercial vehicle called the Sherpa, a badge-engineered Ligier X-Pro; the Sherpa was discontinued after the Ligier merger, the MC has been dropped in favor of the new M. Go; the M. Go was produced with a petrol engine for the UK market. Microcar Family Luxe Microcar Lyra Microcar NewStreet, NewStreet Cabriolet Microcar Pratic Luxe Microcar Virgo Microcar Virgo 2 Microcar Virgo 3 Microcar Virgo Luxe From 2006 to 2010, the long-wheelbase version of Microcar's MC Series was used as the basis for the ZENN EV assembled in Canada by ZENN Motor Company with an electric drivetrain, it was marketed in the U. S. and Canada under the ZENN brand as a "Neighborhood Electric Vehicle", with its top speed governed to 25 mph. Microcar began distributing the ZENN in Europe during 2007 under its own brand, as the Microcar ZENN. ZENN Motor purchased engineless, rolling chassis from Microcar and installed their own electric motor and drivetrain.
The ZENNs retailed for $16,900 while actual cost was $65,000. Microcar brought electric vehicle production in-house with the M. Go Electric in 2009, ZENN ceased production of its MC-based vehicle in 2010. UK site Microcar website
A cyclecar was a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured in Europe and the United States between 1910 and the early 1920s. The purpose of cyclecars was to fill a gap in the market between the car; the demise of cyclecars was due to larger cars – such as the Citroën 5CV, Austin 7 and Morris Cowley – becoming more affordable. Small, inexpensive vehicles reappeared after World War II, were known as microcars. Cyclecars were propelled by engines with a single cylinder or V-twin configuration, which were air-cooled. Sometimes motorcycle engines were used, in which case the motorcycle gearbox was used. All cyclecars were required to have variable gears; this requirement could be fulfilled by the simplest devices such as provision for slipping the belt on the pulley to act as a clutch, varying of the pulley diameter to change the gear ratio. Methods such as belt drive or chain drive were used to transmit power to the drive wheel to one wheel only, so that a differential was not required; the bodies sometimes offered minimal weather protection or comfort features.
The rise of cyclecars was a direct result of reduced taxation both for registration and annual licences of lightweight small-engined cars. On 14 December 1912, at a meeting of the Federation Internationale des Clubs Moto Cycliste, it was formally decided that there should be an international classification of cyclecars to be accepted by the United Kingdom, United States, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany; as a result of this meeting, the following classes of cyclecars were defined: From 1898 to 1910, automobile production expanded. Light cars of that era were known as voiturettes; the smaller cyclecars appeared around 1910 with a boom shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, with Temple Press launching The Cyclecar magazine on 27 November 1912, the formation of the Cyclecar Club. From 1912, the Motor Cycle show at Olympia became Cycle Car Show; the number of cyclecar manufacturers was less than a dozen in each of the UK and France in 1911, but by 1914, there were over 100 manufacturers in each country, as well as others in Germany and other European countries.
By 1912, the A. C. Sociable was described as "one of the most popular cycle cars on the road, both for pleasure and for business", though another source states that the "Humberette" was the most popular of cycle cars at that time. Many of the numerous makes were short-lived, but several brands achieved greater longevity, including Bédélia, GN and Morgan. By the early 1920s, the days of the cyclecar were numbered. Mass producers, such as Ford, were able to reduce their prices to undercut those of the small cyclecar makers. Similar affordable cars were offered in Europe, such as Austin 7 or Morris Cowley; the cyclecar boom was over. The majority of cyclecar manufacturers closed down; some companies such as Chater-Lea survived by returning to the manufacture of motorcycles. After the Second World War, economic cars were again in demand and a new set of manufacturers appeared; the cyclecar name did not reappear however, the cars were called microcars by enthusiasts and bubble cars by the general population.
Several motor racing events for cyclecars were run between 1913 and 1920. The first race dedicated to cyclecars was organised by the Automobile Club de France in 1913, followed by a Cyclecar GP at Le Mans in 1920; the Auto Cycle Union was to have introduced cycle car racing on the Isle of Man in September 1914, but the race was abandoned due to the onset of the war. Brass Era car Microcar Voiturette Worthington-Williams, Michael. From cyclecar to microcar the story of the cyclecar movement. Beaulieu Books. ISBN 0-901564-54-0. David Thirlby. Minimal Motoring: From Cyclecar to Microcar. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2367-3
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War named the Tripartite Aggression in the Arab world and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War in Israel, was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalized the canal. After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders; the episode humiliated the United France and strengthened Nasser. On 29 October, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, ignored. On 5 November and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal; the Egyptian forces were defeated. It became clear that the Israeli invasion and the subsequent Anglo-French attack had been planned beforehand by the three countries; the three allies had attained a number of their military objectives.
Heavy political pressure from the United States and the USSR led to a withdrawal. U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower had warned Britain not to invade. Historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers"; the Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950; as a result of the conflict, the United Nations created the UNEF Peacekeepers to police the Egyptian–Israeli border, British Prime Minister Anthony Eden resigned, Canadian Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize, the USSR may have been emboldened to invade Hungary. The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, after ten years of work financed by the French and Egyptian governments; the canal was operated by the Universal Company of the Suez Maritime Canal, an Egyptian-chartered company. The canal became strategically important, as it provided the shortest ocean link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
The canal eased commerce for trading nations and helped European colonial powers to gain and govern their colonies. In 1875, as a result of debt and financial crisis, Egypt was forced to sell its shares in the canal operating company to the British government of Benjamin Disraeli, they were willing buyers and obtained a 44 percent share in the canal's operations for less than £4 million. With the 1882 invasion and occupation of Egypt, the United Kingdom took de facto control of the country as well as the canal proper, its finances and operations; the 1888 Convention of Constantinople declared the canal a neutral zone under British protection. In ratifying it, the Ottoman Empire agreed to permit international shipping to pass through the canal, in time of war and peace; the Convention came into force in 1904, the same year as the Entente cordiale between Britain and France. Despite this convention, the strategic importance of the Suez Canal and its control were proven during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, after Japan and Britain entered into a separate bilateral agreement.
Following the Japanese surprise attack on the Russian Pacific Fleet based at Port Arthur, the Russians sent reinforcements from their fleet in the Baltic Sea. The British denied the Russian fleet use of the canal and forced it to steam around Africa, giving the Japanese forces time to consolidate their position in East Asia; the importance of the canal as a strategic intersection was again apparent during the First World War, when Britain and France closed the canal to non-Allied shipping. The attempt by German-led Ottoman forces to storm the canal in February 1915 led the British to commit 100,000 troops to the defense of Egypt for the rest of the war; the canal continued to be strategically important after the Second World War as a conduit for the shipment of oil. Petroleum business historian Daniel Yergin wrote of the period: "In 1948, the canal abruptly lost its traditional rationale.... Control over the canal could no longer be preserved on grounds that it was critical to the defence either of India or of an empire, being liquidated.
And yet, at the same moment, the canal was gaining a new role—as the highway not of empire, but of oil.... By 1955, petroleum accounted for half of the canal's traffic, and, in turn, two thirds of Europe's oil passed through it". At the time, Western Europe imported two million barrels per day from the Middle East, 1,200,000 by tanker through the canal, another 800,000 via pipeline from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, where tankers received it; the US imported another 300,000 barrels daily from the Middle East. Though pipelines linked the oil fields of Iraq and the Persian Gulf states to the Mediterranean, these routes were prone to suffer from instability, which led British leaders to prefer to use the sea route through the Suez Canal; as it was, the rise of super-tankers for shipping Middle East oil to Europe, which were too big to use the Suez Canal meant that British policy-makers overestimated the importance of the canal. By 2000, only 8 percent of the imported oil in Britain arrived via the Suez canal with the rest coming via the Cape route.
In August 1956 the Royal Institute of International Affairs published a report titled "Britain and the
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Trojan was a British automobile manufacturer producing light cars between 1914 and 1965, light commercial vehicles for a short time. The company was founded by Leslie Hayward Hounsfield who went into business as a general engineer in a small workshop called the Polygon Engineering Works in Clapham, South London, he got the idea to make a simple, economical car that would be easy to drive and started design work in 1910. Hounsfield was a Whitworth Exhibitioner in 1898 and President of the Whitworth Society in 1946. In 1913 the prototype was ready, it had a two-stroke engine with four cylinders arranged in pairs, each pair shared a common combustion chamber – a doubled-up version of what would be called the "split-single" engine. The pistons in each pair drove the crankshaft together as they were coupled to it by a V-shaped connecting rod. For this arrangement to work, it is necessary for the connecting rod to flex which goes against normal practice; the claim was that each engine had only seven moving parts, four pistons, two connecting rods and a crankshaft.
This was connected to a two-speed epicyclic gearbox, to simplify gear changing, a chain to the rear wheels. Solid tyres were used though these were antiquated for car use, to prevent punctures and long springs used to give some comfort. War broke out before production could start, from 1914 to 1918, Trojan Ltd, as the company had become in 1914, made production tools and gauges. In 1920 the first series of six cars was made from a works in Croydon and the final production version was shown at the 1922 London Motor Show. An agreement was reached with Leyland Motors to produce the cars at their Kingston upon Thames factory, where work on reconditioning former Royal Air Force wartime trucks was running down; this arrangement continued until 1928. During the nearly seven years of the agreement 11,000 cars and 6700 vans were made; the Trojan Utility Car entered the market at £230, reduced to £125 in 1925, the same as a Model T Ford. Nothing was conventional. Rather than a chassis the car had a punt shaped tray which housed the engine and transmission below the seats.
The transmission used a chain to drive the solid tyre shod wheels. The 1527 cc engine to the ingenious Hounsfield design was started by pulling a lever on the right of the driver. To prove how economical the car was to run, the company ran the slogan "Can you afford to walk?" and calculated that over 200 miles it would cost more in shoes and socks than to cover the distance by Trojan car. A modified car was released in 1920 with a smaller 1488 cc engine to bring it into the sub-1.5-litre class and with pneumatic tyres available as an option. A major contract was agreed with Brooke Bond tea for delivery vans, making the car familiar all over Britain, with a top speed of 38 mph, not causing too much worry over speeding drivers. With the ending of the Leyland partnership, Leslie Hounsfield took over production back in Croydon, but at new premises with Leyland continuing to supply some parts until the early 1930s. In spite of new body styles, sales of the cars were falling and so a new model, the RE, or Rear Engine capable of 45 mph was announced in 1931.
It still did without electric starter and had only rear-wheel braking, was beginning to look old fashioned, although new modern bodies were fitted, only about 250 were sold. A final attempt was the Wayfarer of 1934 with the engine back in the middle, but now with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive, but only three were sold, the 6-cylinder Mastra did no better, with only two produced; the original van continued to sell well and the Utility car could still be ordered. Leslie Hounsfield had left the company in 1930 to set up a new enterprise making amongst other things the "Safari" camp bed which would be made in thousands during the Second World War. Trojan Ltd continued to make vans until war broke out, during hostilities made bomb racks and parachute containers. With peace, van production restarted, still with the original engine until 1952 when it was replaced by a Perkins diesel. In 1959 the company was bought by Peter Agg and from 1960 to 1965 he built Heinkel bubble cars under licence, selling them as the Trojan 200, the last vehicle to bear the Trojan name.
The company acquired the rights to build the Elva Courier sports car in 1962, producing 210 cars between 1962 and 1965 when production switched from road cars to the McLaren-Elva racing car. The company existed as Trojan Limited until 19/03/2013, but no longer operating from the Croydon factory, sold, on which latter date it was dissolved via "Voluntary Strike-off". Trobike was a type of mini-bike. Although preceded by the Second World War military Welbike and Corgi for the civilian market, it was one of the earliest to be sold in kit form, thus avoiding purchase tax; the Trojan Lambretta group was founded in 1959 when Lambretta Concessionaires Ltd took over Trojan Ltd, one of the oldest firms in the British motor industry. At about the time the group owned the Clinton Engine Corporation of Maquoketa, Iowa, USA. Clinton were world famous for their engines used in chainsaws. At this time many were supplied for use in portable generators, paint sprayers etc. During the late 1950s the British public was becoming aware of the craze sweeping teenage America – karting.
The sport arrived in Britain with US servicemen bringing outfits over and making their own. At first, the most popular engine was the 2.5 hp 95 cc Clinton engine – being both available and cheap. By 1959 Trojan bega