Eureka is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California. The city is located on U. S. Route 101 on the shores of Humboldt Bay,270 miles north of San Francisco and 100 miles south of the Oregon border. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,191, Eureka is the largest coastal city between San Francisco and Portland, and the westernmost city of more than 25,000 residents in the 48 contiguous states. It is the center for government, health care, trade. Greater Eureka, one of Californias major commercial fishing ports, is the location of the largest deep-water port between San Francisco and Coos Bay, a stretch of about 500 miles. The headquarters of both the Six Rivers National Forest and the North Coast Redwoods District of the California State Parks System are in Eureka. As entrepôt for hundreds of mills that once existed in the area. Eureka is home to Californias oldest zoo, the Sequoia Park Zoo, Eurekas Pacific coastal location on Humboldt Bay, adjacent to abundant redwood forests, provided the reason for settlement of this 19th-century seaport town.
Before the arrival of Euro-American settlers, including farmers, miners and loggers, the Wiyot people lived in Jaroujiji, now known as Eureka, for thousands of years prior to European arrival. They are the farthest-southwest people whose language has Algonquian roots and their traditional coastal homeland ranged from the lower Mad River through Humboldt Bay and south along the lower basin of the Eel River. The Wiyot are particularly known for their basketry and fishery management, an extensive collection of intricate basketry of the areas indigenous groups exists in the Clarke Historical Museum in Old Town Eureka. As of 2013, Eureka High School has the largest Yurok language program in California, the timing of this discovery would lead to the May 13,1850 founding of the settlement of Eureka on its shore by the Union and Mendocino Exploring companies. Eureka received its name from a Greek word meaning I have found it and this exuberant statement of successful gold rush miners is the official Motto of the State of California.
Eureka is the only U. S. location to use the seal as the state for its seal. In the United States, California is the largest of about a dozen towns, the first Europeans venturing into Humboldt Bay encountered the indigenous Wiyot. Records of early forays into the bay in 1806 reported that the violence of the indigenous people made it nearly impossible for landing parties to survey the area. After 1850, Europeans ultimately overwhelmed the Wiyot, whose maximum population before the Europeans was in the hundreds in the area of what would become the primary city. The 1860 Wiyot Massacre took place on Indian Island in the spring of 1860, committed by a group of locals, thought to be primarily Eureka businessmen
Viticulture is the science and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events occur in the vineyard. It is a branch of the science of horticulture, for this reason, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Viticulturists are often involved with winemakers, because vineyard management. A great number of varieties are now approved in the European Union as true grapes for wine-growing and viticulture, the earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 7,000 years. The history of viticulture is closely related to the history of wine, evidence suggests that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera occurred in the area of the modern countries Georgia and Armenia. The oldest-known winery was discovered in the Areni-1 cave in Vayots Dzor, dated to c. 4100 BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats and cups. Archaeologists found V. vinifera seeds and vines, commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier.
There is evidence of domestication in the Near East in the early Bronze Age. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by sources, plant remains, historical geography. The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption, in addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of raisins. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire offspring that were consistently hermaphroditic, during this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of local consumption to an important component of international economies and trade. From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the Phoenicians developed viticulture practices that were used in Carthage. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer Mago recorded such practices in a work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the Roman destruction of Carthage during the Third Punic War. The Roman statesman Cato the Elder was influenced by texts, and around 160 BC he wrote De Agricultura.
Around 65 AD, the Roman writer Columella produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text De Re Rustica, columellas work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of training vines to grow up along tree trunks. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill
In physical geology, aspect is the compass direction that a slope faces. For example, a slope on the edge of the Rockies toward the Great Plains is described as having an easterly aspect. A slope which falls down to a valley on its western side. The direction a slope faces can affect the physical and biotic features of the slope, the term aspect can be used to describe the shape or alignment of a coastline. Here, the aspect is the direction which the coastline is facing towards the sea, for example, a coastline with sea to the northeast has a northeasterly aspect. Aspect can have an influence on temperature. This is because of the angle of the sun in the northern and southern hemispheres which is less than 90 degrees or directly overhead. 5° at 40° north on December 22, the aspect of a slope can make very significant influences on its local climate. For example, because the rays are in the west at the hottest time of day in the afternoon. This can have effects on altitudinal and polar limits of tree growth.
In Australia, for example, remnants of rainforest are almost always found on east-facing slopes which are protected from dry westerly wind, similarly, in the northern hemisphere a south-facing slope will therefore generally be warmer and dryer due to higher levels of evapotranspiration than a north-facing slope. This can be seen in the Swiss Alps, where farming is more extensive on south-facing than on north-facing slopes. In the Himalayas, this effect can be seen to a degree, with south-facing slopes being warm and forested. In some locales there are patterns of soil differences related to differences in aspect, aspect similarly influence seasonal soil biological processes that are temperature dependent. Particulate laden winds often blow from a prevailing direction near solar early afternoon, the summer dryness of the Coromandel Coast due to the southerly monsoon flowing parallel to the coast. Its wetness during the northeast monsoon is similarly explained, the anomalous late autumn rainy seasons of central Vietnam and the coastal zone of northeastern Brazil for the same reason as above.
The unusual dryness of Port Moresby compared to the rest of New Guinea is because the National Capital District lies parallel to the winds which have a drying effect. In Gulf Province and Lae, which receives their full force, rainfall during winter is exceedingly heavy, with rainfall. The relative dryness of the Queensland coast has the same cause as with Port Moresby
The Klamath River flows 263 miles through Oregon and northern California in the United States, emptying into the Pacific Ocean. By average discharge, the Klamath is the second largest river in California after the Sacramento River and it drains an extensive watershed of almost 16,000 square miles that stretches from the arid country of south-central Oregon to the temperate rainforest of the Pacific coast. Unlike most rivers, the Klamath begins in the desert and flows toward the mountains – carving its way through the rugged Cascade Range. The watershed is known for this peculiar geography, and the Klamath has been called a river upside down by National Geographic magazine, the Klamath is the most important North American river south of the Columbia River for anadromous fish migration. Its salmon and rainbow trout have adapted to high water temperatures. The numerous fish were a source of food for Native Americans. Within several decades of settlement, native peoples were forced into reservations.
During the latter days of the California Gold Rush, increasing numbers of miners working the Klamath River and its tributaries. Conflict and introduced diseases left indigenous tribes with only 10% of their original population, steamboats operated briefly on the large lakes of the upper basin, contributing to the growth of towns such as Klamath Falls, before they were replaced by railroads in the late 19th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the basin became a productive agricultural region. In the 1960s, the Klamath River was targeted by much larger, one of these projects, the Klamath Diversion, would have reversed the entire flow of the Klamath River to supply farms and urban areas in central and southern California. Today, the Klamath is a recreational river as well as an important source of water for agriculture. It includes many of the longest free-flowing stretches of river in California, however and diversions in the upper basin have often caused water quality issues in the lower half of the river.
Environmental groups and native tribes have proposed changes to water use in the Klamath Basin. The proposal has been endorsed by the U. S. Department of the Interior but has not been authorized by the United States Congress. Upper Klamath Lake, filling a valley at the foot of the eastern slope of the southern High Cascades, is the source of the Klamath River. Its headstreams, begin over 100 miles away—as far as Crater Lake National Park, the Klamath River issues from Klamath Lake at Klamath Falls as a short 1-mile stream known as the Link River, which flows into 18-mile long Lake Ewauna, formed by Keno Dam. Below the dam the river flows west, passing the mostly dry Lower Klamath Lake bed, the Klamath River enters California, where it passes through three more hydroelectric plants and turns south near the town of Hornbrook towards Mount Shasta
Cornwall is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, Cornwall has a population of 551,700 and covers an area of 3,563 km2. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and this area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, there is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter and few Roman remains have been found. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline, china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century, the area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate.
Extensive stretches of Cornwalls coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. Some people question the present constitutional status of Cornwall, and a nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly. On 24 April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people will be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The modern English name Cornwall derives from the concatenation of two ancient demonyms from different linguistic traditions, Corn- records the native Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word kernou is cognate with the English word horn. -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, the Ravenna Cosmography first mentions a city named Purocoronavis in the locality.
This is thought to be a rendering of Duro-cornov-ium, meaning fort of the Cornovii. The exact location of Durocornovium is disputed, with Tintagel and Carn Brea suggested as possible sites, in times, Cornwall was known to the Anglo-Saxons as West Wales to distinguish it from North Wales. The name appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 891 as On Corn walum, in the Domesday Book it was referred to as Cornualia and in c.1198 as Cornwal. Other names for the county include a latinisation of the name as Cornubia, the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods and it continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. The Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and future of life in the universe, extraterrestrial life and life on Earth. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, the origin and early evolution of life is an inseparable part of the discipline of astrobiology. Although speculation is entertained to give context, astrobiology concerns itself primarily with hypotheses that fit firmly into existing scientific theories. The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang,13.8 billion years ago, according to the panspermia hypothesis, microscopic life—distributed by meteoroids and other small Solar System bodies—may exist throughout the universe. According to research published in August 2015, very large galaxies may be favorable to the creation. Nonetheless, Earth is the place in the universe humans know to harbor life. The search for evidence of habitability and organic molecules on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA and ESA objective. Astrobiology is etymologically derived from the Greek ἄστρον, constellation, star, βίος, life, the synonyms of astrobiology are diverse, the synonyms were structured in relation to the most important sciences implied in its development and biology.
A close synonym is exobiology from the Greek Έξω, external, Βίος, life, the term exobiology was coined by molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg. Another term used in the past is xenobiology, a used in 1954 by science fiction writer Robert Heinlein in his work The Star Beast. The term xenobiology is now used in a more specialized sense, to mean biology based on foreign chemistry, since alternate chemistry analogs to some life-processes have been created in the laboratory, xenobiology is now considered as an extant subject. While it is an emerging and developing field, the question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe is a verifiable hypothesis, though once considered outside the mainstream of scientific inquiry, astrobiology has become a formalized field of study. Planetary scientist David Grinspoon calls astrobiology a field of philosophy, grounding speculation on the unknown. NASAs interest in exobiology first began with the development of the U. S, in 1959, NASA funded its first exobiology project, and in 1960, NASA founded an Exobiology Program, which is now one of four main elements of NASAs current Astrobiology Program.
NASAs Viking missions to Mars, launched in 1976, included three biology experiments designed to look for metabolism of present life on Mars, a particular focus of current astrobiology research is the search for life on Mars due to its proximity to Earth and geological history. Missions specifically designed to search for current life on Mars were the Viking program, the Viking results were inconclusive, and Beagle 2 failed minutes after landing. In late 2008, the Phoenix lander probed the environment for past and present planetary habitability of microbial life on Mars, in November 2011, NASA launched the Mars Science Laboratory mission carrying the Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars at Gale Crater in August 2012. The Curiosity rover is currently probing the environment for past and present planetary habitability of microbial life on Mars, the European Space Agency is currently collaborating with the Russian Federal Space Agency and developing the ExoMars astrobiology rover, which is to be launched in 2018
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air. Water vapor is the state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog, higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in an index table or humidex. The amount of vapor that is needed to achieve saturation increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a parcel of water becomes lower it will not reach the point of saturation without adding or losing water mass. The differences in the amount of vapor in a parcel of air can be quite large. For example, a parcel of air that is near saturation may contain 28 grams of water per cubic meter of air at 30 °C, there are three main measurements of humidity, absolute and specific. Absolute humidity is the content of air expressed in gram per cubic meter. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that temperature, specific humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel.
Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapor present in a given volume of air. It does not take temperature into consideration, absolute humidity in the atmosphere ranges from near zero to roughly 30 grams per cubic meter when the air is saturated at 30 °C. Absolute humidity is the mass of the vapor, divided by the volume of the air and water vapor mixture. The absolute humidity changes as air temperature or pressure changes and this makes it unsuitable for chemical engineering calculations, e. g. for clothes dryers, where temperature can vary considerably. Mass of water per unit volume as in the equation above is defined as volumetric humidity. Because of the confusion, British Standard BS1339 suggests avoiding the term absolute humidity. Units should always be carefully checked, many humidity charts are given in g/kg or kg/kg, but any mass units may be used. The field concerned with the study of physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures is named psychrometrics
Lost Gardens of Heligan
The Lost Gardens of Heligan, near Mevagissey in Cornwall, are one of the most popular botanical gardens in the UK. The gardens are typical of the 19th century Gardenesque style with areas of different character, the gardens were created by members of the Cornish Tremayne family from the mid-18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and still form part of the familys Heligan estate. The gardens were neglected after the First World War and restored only in the 1990s, the gardens have Europes only remaining pineapple pit, warmed by rotting manure, and two figures made from rocks and plants known as the Mud Maid and the Giants Head. The place name, properly pronounced hLIGn, and not the commonly heard HEL-i-gun, is derived from the Cornish word helygen, the Lost Gardens of Heligan completely surround Heligan House and its private gardens. They lie some 1.5 mi to the north-west of, and about 250 ft above, the fishing village of Mevagissey. The gardens are 6 mi by road from the town and railway station of St Austell and are principally in the parish of St Ewe.
The northern part of the gardens, which includes the main ornamental and vegetable gardens, are higher than the house. The areas of the gardens to the west and these areas are much wilder and include the Jungle and the Lost Valley. The Heligan estate was bought by the Tremaynes in the 16th century, and earlier members of the family were responsible for Heligan House. However, the extensive gardens now open to the public were largely the result of the efforts of four successive squires of Heligan. The first plan shows a predominantly parkland estate, with the site of todays Northern Gardens occupied by a field. The second plan shows the development of shelter belts of trees surrounding the gardens, and the shape of the Northern Gardens, the Mellon Yard. By the 1920s, Jack Tremaynes love of Italy, which had inspired the Italian Garden, led him to set up permanent home there. The house was tenanted for most of the 20th century, used by the US Army during the Second World War, against this background, the gardens fell into a serious state of neglect, and were lost to sight.
After the childless death of Jack Tremayne, the Heligan estate came under the ownership of a trust to the benefit of members of the extended Tremayne family. One of these, John Willis, lived in the area and was responsible for introducing record producer Tim Smit to the gardens, a group of fellow enthusiasts and he decided to restore the garden to its former glory, and eventually leased them from the Tremayne family. The gardens are now leased by a company owned by their restorers, philip McMillan Browse, fruit and herbs. ISBN 0-906720-40-0 Heligan Manor Gardens Project, A Brief History and Guide to Heligan, ivor J. Herring,400 years of Tremaynes at Heligan
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
The Southern Hemisphere is the half sphere of Earth which is south of the equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and its surface is 80. 9% water, compared with 60. 7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32. 7% of Earths land. Due to the tilt of Earths rotation relative to the Sun, September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole is in the middle of the southern hemispherical region, Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much land, water heats up. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect, the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic.
Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique species or Nothofagus. The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and, increasingly. Approximately 800,000,000 humans live in the Southern Hemisphere and this is due to the fact that there is significantly less land in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Africa Antarctica Asia Australia South America Zealandia Media related to Southern Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, interpretation and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes