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Microcline

Microcline is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassium-rich alkali feldspar. Microcline contains minor amounts of sodium, it is common in granite and pegmatites. Microcline forms during slow cooling of orthoclase. Sanidine is a polymorph of alkali feldspar stable at yet higher temperature. Microcline may be clear, pale-yellow, brick-red, or green; the chemical compound name is potassium aluminium silicate, it is known as E number reference E555. Microcline may be chemically the same as monoclinic orthoclase, but because it belongs to the triclinic crystal system, the prism angle is less than right angles, it is a ordered triclinic modification of potassium feldspar and is dimorphous with orthoclase. Microcline is identical to orthoclase in many physical properties, can be distinguished by x-ray or optical examination; when viewed under a polarizing microscope, microcline exhibits a minute multiple twinning which forms a grating-like structure, unmistakable. Perthite is either orthoclase with thin lamellae of exsolved albite.

Amazon stone, or amazonite, is a green variety of microcline. It is not found anywhere in the Amazon Basin, however; the Spanish explorers who named it confused it with another green mineral from that region. The largest documented single crystals of microcline were found in Devils Hole Beryl Mine, Colorado, US and measured ~50x36x14 m; this could be one of the largest crystals of any material found so far. Microcline is used for the manufacturing of porcelain; the chemical compound name is potassium aluminium silicate, it is known as E number reference E555. It was the subject in 2018 of a Call for technical and toxicological data from the EFSA. In 2008, it was the subject of a Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials from the EFSA. List of minerals Alkali feldspars U. Texas Mindat

Griffin v. Illinois

Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U. S. 12, was a case in which United States Supreme Court held that a criminal defendant may not be denied the right to appeal by inability to pay for a trial transcript. The petitioners and Crenshaw, were tried together and convicted of armed robbery in the Criminal Court of Cook County, Illinois. Illinois law gave every person convicted in a criminal trial a right of review by writ of error, but it was necessary for the defendant to furnish the appellate court with a bill of exceptions or report of proceedings at the trial certified by the trial judge, it was sometimes impossible to prepare such documents without a stenographic transcript of the trial proceedings, which are furnished free only to indigent defendants sentenced to death. Illinois law provided that "Writs of error in all criminal cases are writs of right and shall be issued of course." Under a separate Illinois law, indigent defendants could obtain a free transcript to obtain appellate review of constitutional questions, except for capital cases, not of other alleged trial errors such as admissibility and sufficiency of evidence.

Petitioners filed a motion in the trial court asking that in view of their inability to pay, a certified copy of the record, necessary for a complete bill of exceptions as required by Illinois law for a full appellate review, was to be furnished them without cost. After their conviction, they filed a motion in the trial court, asking that a certified copy of the entire record, including a stenographic transcript of the proceedings, be furnished them without cost, they alleged that they were "poor persons with no means of paying the necessary fees to acquire the Transcript and Court Records needed to prosecute an appeal...." They alleged that they were without funds to pay for such documents and that failure of the court to provide them would violate the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The factual allegations were not denied; the defendants filed a petition under the Illinois Post-Conviction Hearing Act, under which only questions arising under the State or Federal Constitution could be raised, to obtain a certified copy of the entire record for their appeal, alleging that there were manifest nonconstitutional errors in the trial that entitled them to have their convictions set aside on appeal, the only impediment to full appellate review was their lack of funds to buy a transcript, refusal to afford full appellate review because of their poverty was a denial of due process and equal protection.

The trial court dismissed their petition. The Supreme Court of Illinois affirmed on the ground that the petition raised no substantial state or federal constitutional question. On certiorari, the prisoners contended that the failure to provide them with the needed transcript violated the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution; the question presented was whether Illinois may with the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, administer the statute so as to deny adequate appellate review to the poor while granting such review to all others. The judgment was vacated and the cause remanded. Justice Black was joined by Warren and Clark. Black held that while the state court was not required by the federal constitution to provide appellate courts or a right to appellate review, because the state did grant appellate review at all stages of the proceedings, the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses protected the prisoners from invidious discriminations.

The court held that destitute defendants must be afforded as adequate appellate review as defendants who had enough money to buy the transcripts. It was held that the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment were violated by the state's denial of appellate review on account of a defendant's inability to pay for a transcript; the court remanded the order from the state supreme court. The court held that petitioner prisoners had to be afforded as adequate appellate review as defendants with money to buy transcripts. Frankfurter, while concurring in the judgment and also agreeing with the substantive holding, expressed the view that the court should not indulge in the fiction that the new rule announced by it has always been the law and therefore those who did not avail themselves of it in the past waived their rights. Burton, with Minton and Harlan, holding that the Federal Constitution does not invalidate state appellate proceedings because a required transcript has not been provided without cost to an indigent litigant upon his request.

Harlan, in a separate dissenting opinion expressed the view that the constitutional question tendered by the defendants should not have been decided, because the record did not present it in that clean-cut and unclouded form demanded for a decision of constitutional issues. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 351 Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U. S. 12 Text of Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U. S. 12 is available from: CourtListener Justia

Mecklenburg's Garden

Mecklenburg's Garden is a historic restaurant in the Corryville neighborhood of Cincinnati, United States. Its Italianate building constructed as a house, was built circa 1865, but it was converted into a restaurant by 1870. In its earliest years as a restaurant, it was run by John Neeb, who sold it to one of his employees in 1886; the new owner, Louis Mecklenburg, changed the name from "Mount Auburn Garden Restaurant" to "Mecklenburg's Garden," and converted it from a saloon to a German beer garden. During this time, Cincinnati was receiving massive numbers of German immigrants; as the years passed, Mecklenburg's Garden expanded to accommodate more diners. Patrons made heavy use of the walled outdoor eating area, shaded by awnings and featured trellises covered by grapevines. During the 20th century, the Garden underwent a series of changes. Under Prohibition, the leading element of its income was outlawed, but it continued to operate covertly as a speakeasy as well as a legal restaurant: patrons knew whether they could safely purchase alcohol based on the position of a ship model on a counter.

During the 1970s, the building underwent a structural restoration, around the time that it was owned by an ashram that, according to legend, made a failed attempt to convert the restaurant's kitchen staff. Although the restaurant closed multiple times during the late twentieth century, it reopened in 1996, has continued in operation until the present time. In recognition of its place in local history, Mecklenburg's Garden was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the building housing the restaurant is a rectangular structure, built of brick on a stone foundation. Besides the historic outdoor garden, the interior features several small dining rooms and a central pub area to accommodate patrons. Restaurant website

James Hope Grant

General Sir James Hope Grant, GCB, was a British Army officer. He served in the First Opium War, First Anglo-Sikh War, Indian Mutiny of 1857, Second Opium War. Grant was the fifth and youngest son of Francis Grant of Kilgraston and brother of Sir Francis Grant, President of the Royal Academy, he was uncle to sculptor Mary Grant. He entered the British Army in 1826 as cornet in the 9th Lancers, became lieutenant in 1828 and captain in 1835. In 1842 he was brigade-major to Lord Saltoun in the First Opium War, distinguished himself at the capture of Chinkiang, after which he received the rank of major and the CB. There is a popular apocryphal, story that he was selected by Saltoun because he wanted a'cellist to accompany him and Hope Grant was the only officer he could find who played the'cello. In the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845–1846 he took part in the battle of Sobraon, he was promoted brevet lieutenant-colonel and shortly afterwards to the same substantive rank. In 1854 he became brevet-colonel, in 1856 brigadier of cavalry.

He took a leading part in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny of 1857, holding for some time the command of the cavalry division, afterwards of a movable column of horse and foot. After rendering valuable service in the operations before Delhi and in the final assault on the city, he directed the victorious march of the cavalry and horse artillery dispatched in the direction of Cawnpore to open up communication with the commander-in-chief Sir Colin Campbell, whom he met near the Alambagh, who raised him to the rank of brigadier-general, placed the whole force under his command during what remained of the perilous march to Lucknow for the relief of the residency. After the retirement towards Cawnpore he aided in effecting there the total rout of the rebel troops, by making a detour which threatened their rear, he took part in the operations connected with the recapture of Lucknow, shortly after which he was promoted to the rank of major-general, appointed to the command of the force employed for the final pacification of India.

Before the work of pacification was quite completed he was created KCB. In 1859 he was appointed, with the local rank of lieutenant-general, to be Commander of British Troops in China and Hong Kong and to lead the British land forces in the Anglo-French expedition against China; the object of the campaign was accomplished within three months of the landing of the forces at Pei-tang. The Taku Forts had been carried by assault, the Chinese defeated three times in the open and Peking occupied. For his conduct in this, called the most successful and the best carried out of England's "little wars," he received the thanks of parliament and was gazetted GCB. In 1861 he was made appointed commander-in-chief of the Madras Army. On his return to England in 1865 he was made Quartermaster-General to the Forces at headquarters; the introduction of annual army manoeuvres was due to Sir James Hope Grant. In 1872 he was gazetted general, he died in London on 7 March 1875. He is buried in Grange Cemetery in Edinburgh.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Grant, Sir James Hope". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 354–355. Knollys, Henry, ed.. Incidents in the Sepoy War 1857-58. Compiled from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant, K. C. B.. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons. Knollys, Henry, ed.. Incidents in the China War of 1860. Compiled from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant G. C. B.. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons

Pentachlorophenol

Pentachlorophenol is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant. First produced in the 1930s, it is marketed under many trade names, it can be found as pure PCP, or as the sodium salt of PCP, the latter which dissolves in water. It can be biodegraded by some bacteria, including Sphingobium chlorophenolicum. PCP has been used as a herbicide, fungicide and disinfectant and as an ingredient in antifouling paint; some applications were in agricultural seeds, masonry, wood preservation, cooling-tower water and paper. Its use has declined due to slow biodegradation. Two general methods are used for preserving wood; the pressure process method involves placing wood in a pressure-treating vessel, where it is immersed in PCP and subjected to applied pressure. In the nonpressure process method, PCP is applied by spraying, dipping, or soaking. People may be exposed to PCP in occupational settings through the inhalation of contaminated workplace air and dermal contact with wood products treated with PCP.

General population exposure may occur through contact with contaminated environment media in the vicinity of wood-treatment facilities and hazardous-waste sites. In addition, some other important routes of exposure seem to be the inhalation of contaminated air, ingestion of contaminated ground water used as a source of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated food, dermal contact with soils or products treated with the chemical. Short-term exposure to large amounts of PCP can cause harmful effects on the liver, blood, nervous system, immune system, gastrointestinal tract. Elevated temperature, profuse sweating, uncoordinated movement, muscle twitching, coma are additional side effects. Contact with PCP can irritate the skin and mouth. Long-term exposure to low levels, such as those that occur in the workplace, can cause damage to the liver, kidneys and nervous system. Exposure to PCP is associated with carcinogenic and neurological effects; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity class classifies PCP in group B2.

Pentachlorophenol may be measured in urine as an index of excessive exposure. This is performed by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass-spectrometric detection. Since urine contains predominantly conjugated PCP in chronic exposure situations, prior hydrolysis of specimens is recommended; the current ACGIH biological exposure limits for occupational exposure to PCP are 5 mg/l in an end-of-shift plasma specimen and 2 mg/g creatinine in an end-of-shift urine specimen. PCP is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. Accumulation is not common, but if it does occur, the major sites are the liver, plasma protein and fat. Unless kidney and liver functions are impaired, PCP is eliminated from tissues and blood, is excreted unchanged or in conjugated form, via the urine. Single doses of PCP have half-lives in blood of 30 to 50 hours in humans. Biomagnification of PCP in the food chain is not thought to be significant due to the rapid metabolism of the compound by exposed organisms.

PCP has been detected in surface waters and sediments, drinking water, aquatic organisms and food, as well as in human milk, adipose tissue, urine. As PCP is used for its properties as a biocidal agent, considerable concern exists about adverse ecosystem effects in areas of PCP contamination. Releases to the environment are decreasing as a result of declining consumption and changing use methods. However, PCP is still released to surface waters from the atmosphere by wet deposition, from soil by run off and leaching, from manufacturing and processing facilities. PCP is released directly into the atmosphere via volatilization from treated wood products and during production. Releases to the soil can be by leaching from treated wood products, atmospheric deposition in precipitation, spills at industrial facilities, at hazardous waste sites. After PCP is released into the atmosphere, it decomposes through photolysis; the main biodegradative pathway for PCP is reductive dehalogenation. In this process, the compound PCP is broken down to tetrachlorophenols and dichlorophenols.

Another pathway is methylation to pentachloroanisole. These two methods lead to ring cleavage and complete degradation. In shallow waters, PCP is quickly removed by photolysis. In deep or turbid water processes and biodegradation take place. In reductive soil and sediments, PCP can be degraded within 14 days to 5 years, depending on the anaerobic soil bacteria that are present. However, adsorption of PCP in soils is pH dependent because it increases under acidic conditions and decreases in neutral and basic conditions. PCP can be produced by the chlorination of phenol in the presence of catalyst and a temperature up to about 191°C; this process does not result in complete chlorination and commercial PCP is only 84-90% pure. The main contaminants include other polychlorinated phenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; some of these species are more toxic than the PCP itself. In May 2015, countries which have signed the Stockholm Convention voted 90-2 to ban pentachlorophenol use.

The United States has not banned the chemical. PCP was used in New Zealand as a timber preservative and antisapstain treatment and it was no longer used after 1988, it was sold as a moss killer to the general public (by Shell

Woman Is the Future of Man

Woman Is the Future of Man is a 2004 South Korean film directed by Hong Sang-soo. The film was not a box-office hit, but was entered in the competition category of the 2004 Cannes Film Festival and received screenings at several other festivals; the title of the film is a translation of a line from a poem by Louis Aragon that the director saw printed on a French postcard. The plot revolves loosely around two old friends: Lee Mun-ho, a university art teacher and Kim Hyeon-gon, a graduate from an American film school who has returned to his home country. While having dinner in a restaurant, Kim convinces Lee to arrange a meeting between them and Kim's old girlfriend Park Seon-hwa. Unbeknownst to Kim, Lee had become involved in a relationship with her after Kim's departure to the United States; the three meet for a night of drinking, as past attractions reemerge. In the end, both self-centered men abandon Park. Woman Is the Future of Man was co-financed by South Korean production companies UniKorea and Miracin Korea, French producer Marin Karmitz's company MK2.

It was given a production budget of 1.3 million US$. It was the fifth feature-length film directed by Hong Sang-soo, who wrote the screenplay; the film was released in South Korea on May 5, 2004. It didn't enjoy a successful theatrical run; the film was screened alongside another South Korean film, Oldboy, at the competition category of the 2004 Cannes Film Festival, marking the first time that two films from the country were in the competition simultaneously. Yoo Ji-tae played parts in both films. Unlike Oldboy, Woman Is the Future of Man did not win any of the awards and met with a unenthusiastic reception, it was the third film of director Hong Sang-soo to be screened in Cannes, following The Power of Kangwon Province and Virgin Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, the first to be entered in the competition category. In 2005 Hong's next film, Tale of Cinema competed in Cannes; the film was screened at the Melbourne International Film Festival, the Vancouver International Film Festival, the New York Film Festival, the London Film Festival and the Pusan International Film Festival.

Critics gave mixed to positive reviews for the film. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 80%, based on 20 reviews, an average rating of 6.9/10. On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 63 out of 100, based on 8 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Manohla Dargis of The New York Times, reviewing the film during the New York Film Festival, called it "intellectually stimulating aesthetically bold", mentioned its suitability for an art-house crowd. Duane Byrge of The Hollywood Reporter was less positive, calling the film amateurish, a dud compositionally and accused the story of being plodding. Woman Is the Future of Man at the Korean Movie Database Woman Is the Future of Man on IMDb Woman Is the Future of Man at HanCinema Josh Ralske. "Woman is the Future of Man". Allmovie. Retrieved 2016-05-22