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Microfiber is synthetic fiber finer than one denier or decitex/thread, having a diameter of less than ten micrometres. This is smaller than the diameter of a strand of silk, itself about 1/5 the diameter of a human hair; the most common types of microfibers are made from polyesters, polyamides, or a conjugation of polyester and polypropylene. Microfiber is used to make mats and weaves for apparel, industrial filters, cleaning products; the shape and combinations of synthetic fibers are selected for specific characteristics, including softness, absorption, water repellency and filtering capabilities. Production of ultra-fine fibers dates back to the late 1950s, using melt-blown spinning and flash spinning techniques. However, only fine staples of random length could be manufactured and few applications could be found. Experiments to produce ultra-fine fibers of a continuous filament type were made subsequently, the most promising of which were run in Japan during the 1960s by Dr. Miyoshi Okamoto, a scientist at Toray Industries.

Okamoto's discoveries, together with those of Dr. Toyohiko Hikota, resulted in many industrial applications. Among these was Ultrasuede, one of the first successful synthetic microfibers, which found its way onto the market in the 1970s. Microfiber's use in the textile industry expanded. Microfibers were first publicized in the early 1990s in Sweden and saw success as a product in Europe over the course of the decade. Microfiber fabric is used for athletic wear, such as cycling jerseys, because the microfiber material wicks moisture away from the body, keeping the wearer cool and dry. Microfiber is very elastic, making it suitable for undergarments. Microfiber can be used to make tough soft-to-the-touch materials for general clothing use used in skirts and jackets. Microfiber fabric can be used for making bathrobes, swim trunks, other clothing that can be worn for aquatic activities such as swimming. Microfiber can be made into Ultrasuede, an animal-free imitation suede leather-like product, cheaper and easier to clean and sew than natural suede leather.

Microfiber is used to make many accessories that traditionally have been made from leather: wallets, backpacks, book covers, cell phone cases, coin purses. Microfiber fabric is lightweight and somewhat water repellent, so it makes a good substitute. Another advantage of Microfiber fabric is that it can be coated with various finishes or can be treated with antibacterial chemicals. Fabric can be printed with various designs, embroidered with colored thread, or heat-embossed to create interesting textures. In cleaning products, microfiber can be a blend of polyester and polyamide, it can be either a woven product or a non woven product, the latter most used in limited use or disposable cloths. In the highest-quality fabrics for cleaning applications, the fiber is split during the manufacturing process to produce multi-stranded fibers. A cross section of the split microfiber fabric under high magnification would look like an asterisk; the split fibers and the size of the individual filaments make the cloths more effective than other fabrics for cleaning purposes.

The structure traps and retains the dirt and absorbs liquids. Unlike cotton, microfiber leaves no lint, the exception being some micro suede blends, where the surface is mechanically processed to produce a soft plush feel. For microfiber to be most effective as a cleaning product for water-soluble soils and waxes, it should be a split microfiber. Non-split microfiber is little more than a soft cloth; the main exception is for cloths used for facial cleansing and for the removal of skin oils and mosquito repellents from optical surfaces such as cameras and eyeglasses wherein higher-end proprietary woven, 100% polyester cloths using 2 µm filaments, will absorb these types of oils without smearing. Microfiber, used in non-sports-related clothing and other applications isn't split because it isn't designed to be absorbent, just soft; when buying, microfiber may not be labelled to designate. One way to determine what microfiber it is, is to run the cloth over the palm of the hand. A split microfiber can be either heard or felt.

Another way is to pour a small amount of water on a hard flat surface and try to push the water with the microfiber. If the water is pushed rather than being absorbed, it's not split microfiber. Microfiber can be electrostatically charged for special purposes like filtration. Microfiber products used for consumer cleaning are constructed from split conjugated fibers of polyester and polyamide. Microfiber used for commercial cleaning products includes many products constructed of 100% polyester. Microfiber products have exceptional ability to absorb oils, are not hard enough to scratch paintwork unless they have retained grit or hard particles from previous use. Due to hydrogen bonding, microfibre cloth containing polyamide absorbs and holds more water than other types of fibres. Microfiber is used by car detailers to handle tasks such as removing wax from paintwork, quick detailing, cleaning interior, cleaning glass, drying; because of their fine fibers which leave no lint or dust, microfiber towels are used by car detailers and enthusiasts in a similar manner to a chamois leather.

Microfiber is used in many professional cleaning applications, for example in mops and cleaning cloths. Although microfiber mops cost more

John Paisley (CIA officer)

John Arthur Paisley was a former official of the Central Intelligence Agency. When Paisley was two-years-old, his father left the family, he was raised by his grandparents. Paisley served in the CIA from 1963 to 1974. During his career, he was involved in Soviet operations. Paisley retired as deputy director in the Office of Strategic Research, the branch that monitored Soviet military movements and nuclear capabilities. Around 1976, Paisley and Maryann separated. In December 1977 and March 1978, he attended two five-day "personal awareness" seminars conducted by Lifespring. According to Paisley's psychiatrist, Paisley began attending individual and group psychotherapy sessions in April. On September 24, 1978, Paisley disappeared after setting sail on the Chesapeake Bay with his sloop Brillig. On October 1, his body was found floating in the Bay near the mouth of the Patuxent River with a gunshot wound to his head and a weighted dive belt around his waist, his boat was found the previous week run aground.

Shortly after his death, the psychiatrist stated Paisley was to attend a group therapy session in Chevy Chase, Maryland on September 26 with his estranged wife to discuss the failure of their marriage. He speculated that due to personal developments Paisley may have been experiencing "feelings of loss and abandonment". Due to the circumstances of Paisley's death and press speculation, the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence opened an inquiry in order to determine if his death was due to his activities with the CIA. After a two year investigation and three public statements, the SSCI reported that it “found no information to support the allegations that Mr. Paisley’s death was connected in some way to involvement in foreign intelligence or counterintelligence matters.”In 1989, Crown Publishers put out Widows, a book by William R. Corson, Susan B. Trento, Joseph J. Trento that stated the CIA failed to properly investigate the deaths of Paisley and two other CIA officials, Nicholas Shadrin and Ralph Sigler.

The authors state that the body discovered in the Chesapeake Bay was not Paisley's. John Barth's 1982 Sabbatical: A Romance

Christian Beullac

Christian Beullac was a French politician best known for leading the ministries of education and social affairs. After secondary education in Nice and at the Champollion lycée in Grenoble, he went to the École polytechnique in 1943 and entered the Corps des ponts et chaussées, he qualified from the École supérieure d'électricité and the Institut d'études politiques de Paris. His career began in 1949, he was, assistant to the Director of Electricity at the Industry Ministry, rapporteur for the energy commission of the 2nd Plan and attached to the Industry Minister's cabinet for energy questions. In 1955, he joined the Renault Group, holding various posts: director-general for production, industrial director general, assistant general director and general director. Called into the government by Raymond Barre, prime minister at the time, he was Minister of Social Affairs from 1976 to 1978. Following the French general election of 1978, he accepted the national education portfolio. He, in 1979, reorganised the training of teachers.

Spread over three years, this training had to be organised jointly by schools and the universities and sanctioned by a university diploma. He established the Projets d’Action Culturelles, Techniques et Éducatives which were the first steps towards the autonomy of educational establishments; the PACTEs became Projet d’Action Éducative. Beullac created the CNPRU aimed at professionalising universities. From 1981 to 1986, he was a director of Euréquip. Minister of Labour in Raymond Barre's first government. Minister of Labour in Raymond Barre's second government. Minister of Education in Raymond Barre's third government

1991 Currie Cup Central A

The 1991 Currie Cup Central A was the second division of the Currie Cup competition, the premier domestic rugby union competition in South Africa. This was the 53rd season since the competition started in 1889; the 1990 season was the last edition of the Currie Cup Division B. Instead, the second tier was changed to a Currie Cup Central Division, which had a four-team Division A and a four-team Division B. Northern Free State and Western Transvaal were relegated from the 1990 Currie Cup Division A to the Central A division. Eastern Transvaal and Western Province League moved to the Central A division. Border were promoted from the 1991 Currie Cup Central B to the 1992 Currie Cup Central A. Eastern Transvaal were relegated from Currie Cup Central A to the 1992 Currie Cup Central B. However, following the merger of all rugby governing bodies in South Africa, Western Province League were dissolved and Eastern Transvaal retained their place in Currie Cup Central A. There were four participating teams in the 1991 Currie Cup Central A competition.

These teams played each other twice over the course of the season, once away. Teams received two points for one points for a draw; the winner of the Central A competition played off against the winner of the Central B competition for the Bankfin Cup. In addition, all the Currie Cup Central A teams played in the 1991 Currie Cup / Central Series; the winner of the Central A competition played off against the winner of the Central B competition for the Bankfin Cup. The 1991 Bankfin Cup was shared between Western Transvaal; as a result of the play-offs, Border were promoted to the 1992 Currie Cup Central A competition, while Eastern Transvaal were relegated to the 1992 Currie Cup Central B competition. 1991 Currie Cup 1991 Currie Cup / Central Series 1991 Currie Cup Central B 1991 Currie Cup Central / Rural Series 1991 Currie Cup Rural C 1991 Currie Cup Rural D 1991 Lion Cup

Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri

Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri was an Indian writer. Mubarakpuri was born in Husainabad, a village one mile deep to the north side of Mubarakpur, Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Mubarakpuri began his studies at home with the Quran under the tutelage of his grandfather and uncle, he began studies in Arabic and Persian after being admitted to Madrasa Arabia Dar-ut-Taleem. He moved on to Madrasah Ihyaaul Uloom in Mubarakpur after being admitted there in 1954. Two years after that he joined Madrasa Faiz-e-Aam Maunath Bhanjan for further studies. Upon completion of his seven years of studies, he acquired the Fadilat degree and passed multiple exams to receive the Maulvi and Alim Certification. Mubarakpuri went on to teach for the next 28 years in various universities and schools in India until he was offered a position at the Islamic University of Al Madinah al-Munawarah, he served several years at the Islamic University of Madinah. Mubarakpuri compiled seventeen books in Urdu and Arabic. Several books were translated including: Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum.

When the Moon Split. History of Makkah Al-Mukaramah. History of Madinah Al-Munawarah. Abridged Tafsir Ibn Kathir

M√ľnster Cathedral

Münster Cathedral or St.-Paulus-Dom is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Münster in Germany, is dedicated to St Paul. It is counted among the most significant church buildings in Münster and, along with the City Hall, is one of the symbols of the city; the cathedral stands in the heart of the city, on a small hill called Horsteberg, encircled by the Roggenmarkt and Rothenburg streets and by the Münstersche Aa river. This area, which contains the Domplatz and surrounding buildings, was the old Domburg. Today the cathedral is the parish church for this area. West of the cathedral lies the bishop's palace and part of the old curia complex along with the current cathedral chapter; the cathedral had two predecessors. The first cathedral stood to the north of the current cathedral; the imposing westwerk with its nearly identical towers was built as part of the second cathedral around 1192 and was incorporated into the current building. As a result, the cathedral is a mixture of styles, combining the Romanesque westwerk, old choir and west towers with the Gothic nave, high choir and ring of chapels.

Each of the cathedral buildings served as the cathedral church of the Diocese of Munster, but each had additional functions, at least at times. The original Carolingian cathedral was the Collegiate church for a cloister founded by Liudger, with the monks living under the rule of Chrodegang; each cathedral served as a parish church for the whole of Munster. As a result of the foundation of further parish churches, the parish district of the cathedral was reduced to the Old Domburg and Domimmunität in 1090. In the first half of the thirteenth century, the Church of St Jacobi was built on the Domplatz. With the completion of this church, the cathedral, under construction, lost its function as a parish church entirely. Since the demolition of St Jacobi in 1812, the cathedral regained its role as the parish church for the Old Domburg and Domimmunität; the cathedral contains the tomb of the former Bishop of Munster, Clemens August Graf von Galen who became a Cardinal shortly before his death in 1946 and was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

The current St. Paulus Dom is, in fact, the third cathedral of the diocese of Munster, it was built between 1225 and 1264 and was preceded first by a Carolingian cathedral and second by an Ottonian cathedral. An overview of the three cathedral buildings follows: The first cathedral was created after the appointment of Liudger as Bishop of Munster in 805, it is therefore known as the Dom des heiligen Ludgerus Dom. It was long assumed that the first cathedral was a smaller church because of the history of the foundation by Tibus. Only in 1904 did Savel suggest that the original cathedral was a three-naved basilica, he calculated its width using the northern stairs of the Domplatz and came to a figure of around 20 metres. Further understanding was brought by the 1936 excavations by Wieschebrink, the director of the diocesan museum; these revealed that the first cathedral stood on the site of the cloisters and Domherrenfriedhof. From the remains of the foundations, it was possible to conclude that the northern side aisle was about 8.3 meters wide, including the outer walls and foundations of the buttresses.

Assuming that the nave was double the width of the side aisle, the first cathedral would have been 27.6 metres wide in total. Based on the excavations, the length is estimated to have been 31.2 metres. In the northwestern corner of the building, Wieschebrink found additional foundations of a rectangular wall, which were 2 metres thick – thicker than the rest of the walls. From these remains he concluded; the Ludgerus-Dom stood north of the current cathedral where the cloisters, Domherrenfriedhof and sacristry are located today. It was only demolished in the fourteenth century, well after the completion of the third cathedral. It, outlived the second, Ottonian cathedral entirely; until its demolition, the Ludgerus Dom remained unaltered. After the consecration of the second cathedral, it was left unused for a hundred years. At this time, part of the southwestern corner was demolished for the construction of a chapel, at the order of Bishop Dodo. Only with the foundation of the Collegiate Stift of the Old Dom by Bishop Burchard did the Ludgerus Dom regain a function: the chapter used it as a choir.

On 18 August 1377, Bishop Floris van Wevelinkhoven, the two churches side-by-side blocked the light and ordered the demolition of the Ludgerus Dom. After its demolition, the so-called "Alte Dom" was erected northwest of the original cathedral; this building replaced the Ludgerus Dom as the choir of the chapter. The second cathedral was built to the south of the first one, it was located on the site of the current cathedral. The date of the second cathedral's construction is not certain. Art historian Max Geisberg argued that the second cathedral was built during the reign of Bishop Dodo between 967 and 993; this position was supported by the fact that other important cathedral buildings had a west transept in the 10th and early 11th centuries. This transept was reused in the construction of the third and current cathedral. In view of this presumed construction under the Ottonian dynasty, the second cathedral is referred to as the Ottonian Cathedral; the diocese of Munster assumed that the second cathedral was built in