SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit, or sometimes up to 8 integrated circuits. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on symbols represented in the binary number system; the integration of a whole CPU onto a single or a few integrated circuits reduced the cost of processing power. Integrated circuit processors are produced in large numbers by automated metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication processes, resulting in a low unit price. Single-chip processors increase reliability because there are many fewer electrical connections that could fail; as microprocessor designs improve, the cost of manufacturing a chip stays the same according to Rock's law.

Before microprocessors, small computers had been built using racks of circuit boards with many medium- and small-scale integrated circuits. Microprocessors combined this into a few large-scale ICs. Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have since rendered other forms of computers completely obsolete, with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers; the complexity of an integrated circuit is bounded by physical limitations on the number of transistors that can be put onto one chip, the number of package terminations that can connect the processor to other parts of the system, the number of interconnections it is possible to make on the chip, the heat that the chip can dissipate. Advancing technology makes more powerful chips feasible to manufacture. A minimal hypothetical microprocessor might include only an arithmetic logic unit, a control logic section; the ALU performs addition and operations such as AND or OR.

Each operation of the ALU sets one or more flags in a status register, which indicate the results of the last operation. The control logic retrieves instruction codes from memory and initiates the sequence of operations required for the ALU to carry out the instruction. A single operation code might affect many individual data paths and other elements of the processor; as integrated circuit technology advanced, it was feasible to manufacture more and more complex processors on a single chip. The size of data objects became larger. Additional features were added to the processor architecture. Floating-point arithmetic, for example, was not available on 8-bit microprocessors, but had to be carried out in software. Integration of the floating point unit first as a separate integrated circuit and as part of the same microprocessor chip sped up floating point calculations. Physical limitations of integrated circuits made such practices as a bit slice approach necessary. Instead of processing all of a long word on one integrated circuit, multiple circuits in parallel processed subsets of each data word.

While this required extra logic to handle, for example and overflow within each slice, the result was a system that could handle, for example, 32-bit words using integrated circuits with a capacity for only four bits each. The ability to put large numbers of transistors on one chip makes it feasible to integrate memory on the same die as the processor; this CPU cache has the advantage of faster access than off-chip memory and increases the processing speed of the system for many applications. Processor clock frequency has increased more than external memory speed, so cache memory is necessary if the processor is not to be delayed by slower external memory. A microprocessor is a general-purpose entity. Several specialized processing devices have followed: A digital signal processor is specialized for signal processing. Graphics processing units are processors designed for realtime rendering of images. Other specialized units exist for video machine vision. Microcontrollers integrate a microprocessor with peripheral devices in embedded systems.

Systems on chip integrate one or more microprocessor or microcontroller cores. Microprocessors can be selected for differing applications based on their word size, a measure of their complexity. Longer word sizes allow each clock cycle of a processor to carry out more computation, but correspond to physically larger integrated circuit dies with higher standby and operating power consumption. 4, 8 or 12 bit processors are integrated into microcontrollers operating embedded systems. Where a system is expected to handle larger volumes of data or require a more flexible user interface, 16, 32 or 64 bit processors are used. An 8- or 16-bit processor may be selected over a 32-bit processor for system on a chip or microcontroller applications that require low-power electronics, or are part of a mixed-signal integrated circuit with noise-sensitive on-chip analog electronics such as high-resolution analog to digital converters, or both. Running 32-bit arithmetic on an 8-bit chip could end up using more power, as the chip must execute software with multiple instruct

2010–11 Arsenal F.C. season

The 2010–11 season was Arsenal Football Club's 19th season in the Premier League. The team were within one point of league leaders Manchester United at the end of February, but a run of just one league win throughout the entire of March and April ended their challenge. Arsenal's attempts to win the Champions League were ended once again by Barcelona, being beaten 4–3 on aggregate at the round of 16 stage after defeating them 2–1 at home, whilst hopes of winning the FA Cup were ended in the sixth round following a 2–0 defeat to Manchester United; the team came closest to silverware in the League Cup, reaching the final, only to concede a Birmingham City winner in the 89th minute. 21 May: Striker Marouane Chamakh joins Arsenal on a free transfer from Bordeaux on a "long-term contract". 1 June: Midfielder Aaron Ramsey signs a new "long-term" deal with Arsenal. 1 June: Defenders Mikaël Silvestre and William Gallas leave Arsenal after failing to agree contract extensions. 8 June: Philippe Senderos joins Fulham on a free transfer.

7 July: Arsenal confirm the signing of French central defender Laurent Koscielny on a "long-term contract for an undisclosed fee" from Lorient. 21 July: Striker Eduardo joins Shakhtar Donetsk for an undisclosed fee after spending three years at Arsenal. 28 July: Defender Sol Campbell leaves Arsenal to join Newcastle United. 6 August: Arsenal captain Cesc Fàbregas commits his future to the club stating that he "will be 100 percent focused on playing for Arsenal", ending speculation that he will move to FC Barcelona in the current transfer window. 14 August: Arsenal manager Arsène Wenger signs a contract extension that will keep him at the club until June 2014. 26 August: French defender Sébastien Squillaci joins Arsenal from Sevilla FC on a three-year contract for £3.5 million. 1 November: Midfielder Jack Wilshere signs a new "long-term" deal with Arsenal. 11 November: Goalkeeper Wojciech Szczęsny signs a new "long-term" deal with Arsenal. 25 November: Midfielder Aaron Ramsey is sent on loan to Nottingham Forest for his recovery.

The deal lasted until 3 January 2011. 31 December: Arsène Wenger confirms that defender Emmanuel Eboué signed a new "long-term" deal with Arsenal "one or two months ago". 1 January: Striker Ryo Miyaichi joins the club from Japan. 27 February: Arsenal lose to Birmingham City 1–2 in the League Cup Final at Wembley Stadium. On-form striker Robin van Persie damages knee ligament while scoring Arsenal's equaliser and is expected to miss at least three weeks. 11 April - Arsenal Holdings plc, the club's parent company, confirms that Stan Kroenke, who owns 29.9% of its shares, has agreed to purchase those of Danny Fiszman and Nina Bracewell-Smith to increase his shareholdings to 63%. This triggers a mandatory offer for the remaining shares, as required by the Takeover Code, an offer that values the club at £731 million, one that the club's directors recommend fellow shareholders to accept. * - Lehmann made 199 appearances during his first spell at Arsenal between 2003 and 2008. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Total spending: £12,000,000+ Total income: £6,800,000+ Spending £12 millionIncome £6.8 millionNet expenditure £5.2 million Source: Arsenal F. C. Last updated: 22 May 2011Source: Match reports in Competitive matchesOnly competitive matches = Number of bookings. Supplier: Nike / Sponsor: Fly Emirates Nike released a new set of kits for the 2010-11 season. Home: After the controversial home kit of the last two seasons which ditched Arsenal's iconic white sleeves, the club returned to their traditional design; the kit was inspired by the home kits used in 1970s. Away: Arsenal's away kit combined the club's traditional yellow away colour with maroon, a shade similar to the club's original kits; the kit featured maroon V-neck with maroon shorts and hooped socks. Keeper: Arsenal goalkeepers wore four different kits throughout the season; the most conspicuous feature of the kits were the black zig-zags on the arms, based on the template Nike used in 2010 for its main clubs.

The primary kit was grey, while the alternatives were black and pink. Updated to match played 11 May 2010Source: Arsenal F. C. Updated to match played 22 May 2011Source: Competitions Last updated: 7 August 2010Source: Arsenal F. C. Last updated: 22 May 2011Note: Premier League fixture not listed due to copyright. Results will be shown. Source: Arsenal F. C. Last updated: 8 March 2011Source: Arsenal F. C. Last updated: 12 March 2011Source: Arsenal F. C. Last updated: 27 February 2011Source: Arsenal F. C. 2010–11 in English football List of Arsenal F. C. seasons Arsenal 2010-11 on statto.com

Facial muscles

The facial muscles are a group of striated skeletal muscles supplied by the facial nerve that, among other things, control facial expression. These muscles are called mimetic muscles; the facial muscles are just under the skin muscles. They originate from the surface of the skull bone, insert on the skin of the face; when they contract, the skin moves. These muscles cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles’ action line; the facial muscles are supplied with each nerve serving one side of the face. In contrast, the nearby masticatory muscles are supplied by the mandibular nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve; the facial muscles include: Occipitofrontalis muscle Temporoparietalis muscle Procerus muscle Nasalis muscle Depressor septi nasi muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Corrugator supercilii muscle Depressor supercilii muscle Auricular muscles Orbicularis oris muscle Depressor anguli oris muscle Risorius Zygomaticus major muscle Zygomaticus minor muscle Levator labii superioris Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle Depressor labii inferioris muscle Levator anguli oris Buccinator muscle MentalisThe platysma is supplied by the facial nerve.

Although it is in the neck and can be grouped with the neck muscles by location, it can be considered a muscle of facial expression due to its common nerve supply. The stylohyoid muscle and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are supplied by the facial nerve, but are not considered muscles of facial expression; the facial muscles are derived from the second branchial/pharyngeal arch. An inability to form facial expressions on one side of the face may be the first sign of damage to the nerve of these muscles. Damage to the facial nerve results in facial paralysis of the muscles of facial expression on the involved side. Paralysis is the loss of voluntary muscle action; this damage can occur with a stroke, Bell palsy, or parotid salivary gland cancer because the facial nerve travels through the gland. The parotid gland can be damaged permanently by surgery or temporarily by trauma; these situations of paralysis not only inhibit facial expression but seriously impair the patient’s ability to speak, either permanently or temporarily.

Masticatory muscles Facial Action Coding System Modiolus ARTNATOMY: Anatomical Basis of Facial Expression Learning Tool lesson1 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Facial muscles at PracticeAnatomy