The Ricoh Company, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational imaging and electronics company. It was founded by the RIKEN zaibatsu on 6 February 1936 as Riken Sensitized Paper. Ricoh's headquarters are located in Ricoh Building in Tokyo. Ricoh produces electronic products cameras and office equipment such as printers, fax machines, offers Software as a Service document management applications such as DocumentMall, RicohDocs, GlobalScan, Print&Share and offers Projectors. In the late 1990s through early 2000s, the company grew to become the largest copier manufacturer in the world. During this time, Ricoh acquired Savin, Lanier, Rex-Rotary, Nashuatec, IKON and most IBM Printing Systems Division / Infoprint Solutions Company. Although the Monroe brand was discontinued, products continue to be marketed worldwide under the remaining brand names. In 2006, Ricoh acquired the European operations of Danka for $210 million; these operations continue under the Infotec brand. The company was founded in 1936. Before relocating to Chūō, Ricoh was first in Tokyo.
In 2006 Ricoh's headquarters moved to the Ricoh Building, a 25-story building in the Ginza area in Chūō. During the 1960s and 1970s Ricoh made wrist watches for both the Japanese domestic market and international markets entering into a partnership with Hamilton Watch Company, for the creation of the Ricoh Hamilton Electric watch. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ricoh was the primary manufacturer of Pitney-Bowes copiers, they have manufactured copiers for Toshiba, fax machines for AT&T Corporation and Omnifax, as well as a wide variety of equipment for numerous other companies including duplicators for AB Dick. They manufactured the Ricoh 2A03 8-bit processor used in the Nintendo Entertainment System. In 2003 Ricoh bought naming rights to the CNE Coliseum in Toronto. In 2004 Ricoh acquired Hitachi Printing Solutions, Ltd creating a new company, Ricoh Printing Systems, Ltd. In 2005 Ricoh bought the naming rights to the stadium/entertainment complex, home to Coventry City Football Club now called the Ricoh Arena.
In September 2005 Ricoh launched its newly designed logo for the Ricoh brand. The logo used before had been introduced in 1986. In November 2006, Ricoh announced the integration of the head office of Ricoh Europe B. V. in Amstelveen, with NRG's European headquarters in London, United Kingdom. This was completed on April 1, with the former NRG HQ in London becoming the Strategic HQ and the former REBV HQ in Amstelveen becoming the Operational HQ; this mirrors a similar process which took place in the US with Lanier and Ricoh USA. This integration was the first step within each country in Europe. A single country organization was created in Austria on July 1, 2007, the UK integration being in process and integration taking place in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. On January 25, 2007, Ricoh announced purchase of IBM Printing Systems Division for $725 million and investment in a 3-year joint venture to form the new Ricoh subsidiary, InfoPrint Solutions Company, with a 51% share. In February 2008, Ricoh partnered with PrinterOn to set up two new HotSpot printers: The SP C410DN-KP color printer and the SP 4100N-KP monochrome printer which allows Wi-Fi enabled users to print documents from any location.
On August 27, 2008, Ricoh announced its intentions of acquiring IKON Office Solutions for $1.6 billion and that year, on November 1, Ricoh completed the acquisition. In May 2011, Ricoh announced a cut of 10,000 jobs worldwide up to March 2014 from the current 40,000 workers in Japan and 68,900 others overseas; the company would shift 15,000 workers to areas with more growth potential. Japanese optical glass-maker Hoya Corporation said on July 1, 2011, it would sell its Pentax camera business to Ricoh, in a deal the Nikkei business daily said was worth about 10 billion yen. On July 29, 2011, Hoya transferred its Pentax imaging systems business to a newly established subsidiary called Pentax Imaging Corporation. On October 1, 2011, Ricoh acquired all shares of Pentax Imaging Corp. and renamed the new subsidiary Pentax Ricoh Imaging Company, Ltd. On October 1, 2011, Ricoh announced the establishment of Pentax Ricoh Imaging Company, LTD. On August 1, 2013, the company name was changed to Ricoh Imaging Company Ltd.
On January 8, 2016, Ricoh India stated they partnered with Siemens to offer digital lifecycle management software. On July 19, 2016, Ricoh India admitted to an estimated ₹1,123 crore accounting fraud. CEO and Managing Director Manoj Kumar, Chairman Tetsuya Takano have resigned from Ricoh India as a result. On January 18, 2017, Ricoh Limited announced the acquisition of Avanti Computer Systems, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, a leading provider of Print MIS targeted for the production print market; the acquisition enabled Ricoh to further expand the value its production print workflow delivers to customers, as well as to help improve management efficiency and productivity of customers in the production printing market. The Ricoh Group has sales and support and research and development operations in nearly 180 countries, it has its world headquarters in Tokyo and regional headquarters in Japan, the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific. Americas Regional HeadquartersRicoh USA, Inc. located in Malvern, PA, USA, covers the United States and Canada while Ricoh Latin America, located in South Florida, covers the Latin American countries Europe Regional HeadquartersRicoh International B.
V. located in Amstelveen, the
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
ASCII was a monthly released microcomputer magazine in Japan, published by ASCII Corporation from 1977. It targeted for business users who used a personal computer in their home and office, but it sometimes introduced computer games and computer musics, it was known as the Monthly ASCII written along with the title from Vol. 2 No. 4, distinguish with the Weekly ASCII founded in 1997. The ASCII was rebranded as the Business ASCII in 2008, ceased in 2010, its news website and the Weekly ASCII are continuing as in 2016. The LOGiN, a computer game magazine, was first published as an extra issue of the ASCII in 1982, the Famitsu was branched from the LOGiN. In 1976, NEC released the TK-80, a single-board computer kit, it became popular among hobbyists in Japan. Kazuhiko Nishi joined foundation of the first Japanese microcomputer magazine I/O as an editor when he was a student at the Waseda University; the I/O served information for assembled microcomputer systems with a few video game columns. Growing the video game market, it was shifted to a video game magazine.
Against it, Nishi considered. On April 1977, Nishi left the company, borrowed money from his grandmother and visited the West Coast Computer Faire held in San Francisco, he realized the difference between Japan and the United States. "In Japan, the TK-80 just caused a microcomputer craze. While in the United States, it seems the beginning of the personal computer revolution; each persons try to face a personal computer, based on their own identity," he said. On May 24, 1977, Nishi founded ASCII Publishing Corporation with his friends, Keiichiro Tsukamoto and Akio Gunji, they published the ASCII as a microcomputer magazine for business. The first issue was sold 5,000 copies, it became one of the most popular computer magazine in 1980s in Japan. In 1999, the magazine reached its largest circulation of 170,000 copies. ASCII.jp
Joe Belfiore is a Corporate Vice President in the Experiences and Devices division at Microsoft. He manages the "Essential Products Group" and is responsible for the design and software product definition of Windows 10, Microsoft Edge, OneNote, Mobility Experiences for Android/iOS,and Microsoft News, his team drives Microsoft's efforts in Education and in working with third-party developers who write applications for Windows and Microsoft 365. Since 2013, he's been responsible for the Windows 10 product, earned a number of awards for the flexible-design capability that enables Surface devices and other Windows PCs to act as 2-in-1s. Windows 10 earned him kudos as Stuff magazine's #16 innovator of the year for 2015 and in May 2013, he was recognized by Business Insider as the #10 Best Designer in Technology. A frequent speaker, Joe keynoted Microsoft's Build 2018 as well as appearing at many other Microsoft events. He's been a TED speaker, featured speaker at "The Future of Storytelling" Summit, Qualcomm's industry conference, in 2010 he was interviewed by Walt Mossberg at All Things D conference.
In the summer of 2013, Belfiore was named the leader of the "PC/Tablet/Phone" vertical within the Operating Systems Group at Microsoft, responsible for delivering Windows 10 on PCs, Tablets and Phones. This group updated the Windows desktop experience and created the Cortana digital assistant, created the "Continuum" feature set, which enables 2-in-1 PCs to transform between "PC Mode" and "Tablet Mode". After returning from a leave-of-absence in 2016, Belfiore resumed his work on Windows 10 and announced many new features at Build 2017, including cross-platform features enabling "Windows PCs to love all your devices" -- including iOS and Android phones. Prior to Windows 10, Belfiore spent six years leading Program Management for the Windows Phone team, where he led the effort to create the "Metro" design language, Live Tiles and many other aspects of Windows Phone. Before moving to the Operating Systems Group team, Belfiore was vice president of Zune Software and Service and VP of the Windows eHome Division where he negotiated a deal with US Cable companies to enable PCs to consume and broadcast digital TV signals around the home.
Prior to those roles, Belfiore spent ten years as the leader of the Windows User Experience team, where he managed user interface design for Windows 95, owned the Internet Explorer user experience during IE3 and IE4, was responsible for all aspects of the Windows XP User Experience. He started at the company in 1990 as a program manager on OS/2. Prior to Microsoft, he studied Computer Science at Stanford University. Joe Belfiore is known for being the founder of the non-stop 24- to 48-hour treasure hunt The Game, run in the San Francisco Bay and Seattle areas. At TED 2004 in Monterey, CA he delivered a TED Talk on "The Game" where he caused the cell phones of most audience members to ring, leaving them with a trail of clues to solve at the TED conference. In Fall 2015, Belfiore announced that he would take a 9-month leave of absence from Microsoft to travel around the world with his family aboard the MV World Odyssey as part of "Semester at Sea", an educational program for college undergrads.
He and his family blogged about their trip at http://belfiore.land. While on this leave of absence, Joe Belfiore was noted for using an iPhone, as well as a Galaxy S7, as two of his primary-use phones
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
MSX is a standardized home computer architecture, announced by Microsoft on June 16, 1983. It was conceived and marketed by Kazuhiko Nishi vice-president at Microsoft Japan and director at ASCII Corporation. Nishi conceived the project as an attempt to create unified standards among various home computing system manufacturers of the period. MSX systems were popular in several other countries, it is difficult to determine how many MSX computers were sold worldwide, but 5 million MSX-based units were sold in Japan alone. Despite Microsoft's involvement, few MSX-based machines were released in the United States. Before the great success of Nintendo's Family Computer, MSX was the platform for which major Japanese game studios such as Konami and Hudson Soft produced video games; the Metal Gear series, for example, was first written for MSX hardware. The exact meaning of the "MSX" abbreviation remains a matter of debate. In 2001, Kazuhiko Nishi recalled that many assumed it was derived from "Microsoft extended", referring to the built-in Microsoft Extended BASIC adapted by Microsoft for the MSX system.
However, he said, the team's original definition was "Machines with Software eXchangeability". In the early 1980s, most home computers manufactured in Japan such as the NEC PC-6001 and PC-8000 series, Fujitsu's FM-7 and FM-8, Hitachi's Basic Master featured a variant of the Microsoft BASIC interpreter integrated into their on-board ROMs; the hardware design of these computers and the various dialects of their BASICs were incompatible. Other Japanese consumer electronics firms such as Panasonic, Casio, Yamaha and Sanyo were searching for ways to enter the new home computer market. Nishi proposed MSX as an attempt to create a single industry standard for home computers. Inspired by the success of VHS as a standard for video cassette recorders, many Japanese electronic manufacturers along with GoldStar and Spectravideo built and promoted MSX computers. Any piece of hardware or software with the MSX logo on it was compatible with MSX products of other manufacturers. In particular, the expansion cartridge form and function were part of the standard.
Nishi's standard was built around the Spectravideo SV-328 computer. The standard consisted of several off-the-shelf parts; this was a choice of components, shared by many other home computers and games consoles of the period, such as the ColecoVision home computer, the Sega SG-1000 video game system. To reduce overall system cost, many MSX models used a custom IC known as "MSX-Engine", which integrated glue logic, 8255 PPI, YM2149 compatible soundchip and more, sometimes the Z80 CPU; however all MSX systems used a professional keyboard instead of a chiclet keyboard, driving the price up compared to the original SV-328. These components alongside Microsoft's MSX BASIC made the MSX a competitive, though somewhat expensive, home computer package. On 27 June 1983, the MSX was formally announced during a press conference, a slew of big Japanese firms declared their plans to introduce machines; the Japanese companies avoided the intensely competitive U. S. home computer market, in the throes of a Commodore-led price war.
Only Spectravideo and Yamaha marketed MSX machines in the U. S. Spectravideo's MSX enjoyed little success, Yamaha's CX5M model, built to interface with various types of MIDI equipment, was billed more as a digital music tool than a standard personal computer. During the 1980s, Europe became the largest computer games market in the world, the popular Commodore 64, Atari 8-bit, Sinclair ZX Spectrum computers dominated. By the time the MSX was launched in Europe, several more popular 8-bit home computers had arrived, it was far too late to capture the crowded European 8-bit computer market. A problem for some game software developers was that the method by which MSX-1 computers addressed their video RAM could be quite slow compared to systems that gave direct access to the video memory. This, the fact that the different features the MSX-1's video chip had to compensate for the slower video access were not efficiently used while porting software, made the MSX-1 appear slower when running ported games.
Some minor compatibility issues plagued ported Spectrum games. For example, the Toshiba HX-10 machine was unable to read certain key combinations at the same time, preventing the Spectrum "standard" of "Q, A, O, P steering", whereas machines by other manufacturers worked fine. Games tended to use the MSX-1 joystick port or used MSX's official arrow keys and space bar, or offered the option to choose other keys with which to control the program, solving the problem. A larger problem was that the designers of the MSX standard bank switching protocol did not prescribe to hardware manufacturers in which banks the cartridges and, more the RAM should be found. Moreover, the MSX's BIOS did not provide this information either, thus requiring programmers to implement complex routines to "find" these resources. Pr
IBM Personal Computer
The IBM Personal Computer known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, was introduced on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture, within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, software proliferated. "IBM compatible" became an important criterion for sales growth. International Business Machines, one of the world's largest companies, had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market in 1982. In the late 1970s the new personal computer industry was dominated by the Commodore PET, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Tandy Corporation's TRS-80, various CP/M machines.
With $150 million in sales by 1979 and projected annual growth of more than 40% in the early 1980s, the microcomputer market was large enough for IBM's attention. Other large technology companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, Data General had entered it, some large IBM customers were buying Apples, so the company saw introducing its own personal computer as both an experiment in a new market and a defense against rivals and small. In 1980 and 1981 rumors spread of an IBM personal computer a miniaturized version of the IBM System/370, while Matsushita acknowledged that it had discussed with IBM the possibility of manufacturing a personal computer for the American company; the Japanese project, codenamed "Go", ended before the 1981 release of the American-designed IBM PC codenamed "Chess", but two simultaneous projects further confused rumors about the forthcoming product. Data General and TI's small computers were not successful, but observers expected AT&T to soon enter the computer industry, other large companies such as Exxon, Montgomery Ward and Sony were designing their own microcomputers.
Xerox produced the 820 to introduce a personal computer before IBM, becoming the second Fortune 500 company after Tandy to do so, had its Xerox PARC laboratory's sophisticated technology. Whether IBM had waited too long to enter an industry in which Tandy and others were successful was unclear. An observer stated that "IBM bringing out a personal computer would be like teaching an elephant to tap dance." Successful microcomputer company Vector Graphic's fiscal 1980 revenue was $12 million. A single IBM computer in the early 1960s cost as much as $9 million, occupied one quarter acre of air-conditioned space, had a staff of 60 people; the "Colossus of Armonk" only sold through its own sales force, had no experience with resellers or retail stores, did not introduce the first product designed to work with non-IBM equipment until 1980. Another observer claimed that IBM made decisions so that, when tested, "what they found is that it would take at least nine months to ship an empty box"; as with other large computer companies, its new products required about four to five years for development.
IBM had to learn how to develop, mass-produce, market new computers. While the company traditionally let others pioneer a new market—IBM released its first commercial computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC in 1951, but within five years had 85% of the market—the personal-computer development and pricing cycles were much faster than for mainframes, with products designed in a few months and obsolete quickly. Many in the microcomputer industry resented IBM's power and wealth, disliked the perception that an industry founded by startups needed a latecomer so staid that it had a strict dress code and employee songbook; the potential importance to microcomputers of a company so prestigious, that a popular saying in American companies stated "No one got fired for buying IBM", was nonetheless clear. InfoWorld, which described itself as "The Newsweekly for Microcomputer Users", stated that "for my grandmother, for millions of people like her, IBM and computer are synonymous". Byte stated in an editorial just before the announcement of the IBM PC: Rumors abound about personal computers to come from giants such as Digital Equipment Corporation and the General Electric Company.
But there is no contest. IBM's new personal computer... is far and away the media star, not because of its features, but because it exists at all. When the number eight company in the Fortune 500 enters the field, news... The influence of a personal computer made by a company whose name has come to mean "computer" to most of the world is hard to contemplate; the editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: "I want to see personal computing take a giant step." Desktop sized programmable calculators by HP had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972. In 1972–1973 a team led by Dr. Paul Friedl at the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Po