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Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research is the research subsidiary of Microsoft. It was formed in 1991, with the intent to advance state-of-the-art computing and solve difficult world problems through technological innovation in collaboration with academic and industry researchers; the Microsoft Research team employs more than 1,000 computer scientists, physicists and mathematicians, including Turing Award winners, Fields Medal winners, MacArthur Fellows, Dijkstra Prize winners. Between 2010 and 2018, 154,000 AI patents were filed worldwide, with Microsoft having by far the largest percentage of those patents, at 20%. Research labs in most companies are focused on R&D efforts to directly improve their own future products. However, the primary mission of Microsoft Research is to perform fundamental science and engineering research with the intent of publishing top-tier academic papers in computer science and a few related fields. Microsoft Research includes the core Microsoft Research labs and Microsoft Research AI, Microsoft Research NeXT, other incubation efforts all directed by corporate vice president Peter Lee.

Microsoft research is categorized into the following broad areas: Algorithms and theory Communication and collaboration Computational linguistics Computational science Computer vision Computer systems and networking Data mining and management Economics and computational economics Education Gaming Graphics and multimedia Hardware and devices Health and well-being Human–computer interaction Machine learning and artificial intelligence Mobile computing Quantum computing Search, information retrieval, knowledge management Security and privacy Social media Social sciences Software development Tools and languages Speech recognition and dialog systems Technologies for emerging marketsMicrosoft Research sponsors the Microsoft Research Fellowship for graduate students. Microsoft has research labs around the world including the following non-exhaustive list: Microsoft Research Redmond was founded on the Microsoft Redmond campus in 1991, it is headed by Donald Kossmann. The bulk of research on the Redmond, Washington campus focuses on research areas such as theory, artificial intelligence, machine learning and networking, privacy, HCI, wearable technologies.

Microsoft Research Cambridge was founded in the United Kingdom in 1997 by Roger Needham and is headed by Christopher Bishop. Antony Rowstron and Abigail Sellen are Deputy Directors and the Director of Innovation is Haiyan Zhang; the Cambridge lab conducts basic computer science research on a wide variety of topics, including machine learning and information retrieval, maintains close ties to the University of Cambridge and the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. Microsoft Research Asia was founded in Beijing in November 1998. Microsoft Research Asia has expanded and grown into a world-class research laboratory with more than 230 researchers and developers and more than 300 visiting scientists and students, whose focus includes natural user interfaces, next-generation multimedia, data-intensive computing and online advertising, computer science fundamentals. Microsoft Research India is headed by Sriram Rajamani. Microsoft Research Station Q, located on the campus of the University of California, Santa Barbara, was founded in 2005.

Station Q's collaborators explore theoretical and experimental approaches to creating the quantum analog of the traditional bit—the qubit. The group is led by Michael Freedman. Microsoft Research New England was established in 2008 in Cambridge, Massachusetts by Jennifer Chayes adjacent to the MIT campus; the New England lab builds on Microsoft's commitment to collaborate with the broader research community and pursues new, interdisciplinary areas of research that bring together core computer scientists and social scientists to understand and enable the computing and online experiences of the future. Microsoft Research New York City was established on May 3, 2012. Jennifer Chayes serves as Managing Director of this location as well as the New England lab, with researchers from both labs working in concert; the New York City lab collaborates with academia and other Microsoft Research labs to advance the state of the art in computational and behavioral social sciences, computational economics and prediction markets, machine learning, information retrieval.

Microsoft Research Montreal was established after the acquisition of Maluuba by Microsoft in 2017. Jennifer Chayes serves as Managing Director of this location as well as the New England and New York City labs; the Montreal lab collaborates with academia and other Microsoft Research labs to advance the state of the art in natural language processing, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Microsoft Research Silicon Valley, located in Mountain View, was founded in August 2001 and closed in September 2014. Silicon Valley research focused on distributed computing and included security and privacy, fault-tolerance, large-scale systems, computer architecture, Internet search and services, related theory. Microsoft Research invests in multi-year collaborative joint research with academic institutions at Barcelona Supercomputing Center, INRIA, Carnegie Mellon University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, São Paulo Research Foundation, the Microsoft Research Centre for Social NUI and others.

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Bill Garnaas

Wilford Benjamin Garnaas was an American football player who played three seasons with the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. He attended Marshall High School in Minneapolis and played college football at the University of Minnesota, he was an All-American in 1941. He was drafted by the Chicago Cardinals as an offensive back in the sixth round of the 1944 NFL Draft. In three years as a Steeler, Bill was a backup quarterback and returned kicks. Garnaas is featured on a 1948 Bowman Football Card. Just Sports Stats Bill Garnaas at Find a Grave

Opposition to the partition of India

Opposition to the partition of India was widespread in British India in the 20th century and it continues to remain a contentious issue in South Asian politics. Most individuals of the Hindu and Sikh faiths were opposed to the partition of India, as were many Muslims in that country. Pashtun politician Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan of the Khudai Khidmatgar viewed the proposal to partition India as un-Islamic and "contrary to the history of Muslims in the subcontinent, who had for over a millennium considered India their homeland." Mahatma Gandhi opined that "Muslims were sons of the same soil of India. They argued that the economic development of Muslims would be hurt if India was partitioned, seeing the idea of partition as one, designed to keep Muslims backward, they expected "Muslim-majority provinces in united India to be more effective than the rulers of independent Pakistan in helping the Muslim minorities living in Hindu-majority areas." Deobandis pointed to the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, made between the Muslims and Qureysh of Mecca, that "promoted mutual interaction between the two communities thus allowing more opportunities for Muslims to preach their religion to Qureysh through peaceful tabligh."

Deobandi scholar Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani argued for a united India in his book Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam, promulgating the idea that different religions do not constitute different nationalities and that the proposition for a partition of India was not justifiable, religiously. Khaksar Movement leader Allama Mashriqi opposed the partition of India because he felt that if Muslims and Hindus had lived peacefully together in India for centuries, they could do so in a free and united India. Mashriqi saw the two-nation theory as a plot of the British to maintain control of the region more if India was divided into two countries that were pitted against one another, he reasoned that a division of India along religious lines would breed fundamentalism and extremism on both sides of the border. Mashriqi thought that "Muslim majority areas were under Muslim rule, so if any Muslims wanted to move to these areas, they were free to do so without having to divide the country." To him, separatist leaders "were power hungry and misleading Muslims in order to bolster their own power by serving the British agenda."The Deccan Herald, in an article titled The tragedy of Partition, argued that: The Muslim and the non-Muslim population lived together since centuries on the Indian soil and harmoniously, without any major conflict.

It was clear that if a separate Muslim nation-state was formed, it could not contain all or most, Indian Muslims. And there would be many non-Muslims in it. No amount of social engineering could separate India’s Muslims from non-Muslims, it was not possible. The Indian Muslims did not speak one major language. A Punjabi Muslim had little in common with a Muslim in Bengal or in Malabar, except, of course, religion. There was no single language. For centuries, Indian Muslims shared the culture of the region along with non-Muslims; the second claim, that Indian Muslims were fundamentally different from non-Muslims, was more absurd. Syncretism had been an important feature of Indian culture since early times. Culture and language were based on region, more than religion, and so a Bengali Muslim had much more in common with a Bengali Hindu than with a Punjabi Muslim. Considerable cultural diversity existed within Muslims and multiple connections existed between Muslims and non-Muslims, it was not possible to draw a dividing line, either of territory or of culture, between India’s Muslims and non-Muslims.

After it occurred, critics of the partition of India point to the displacement of fifteen million people, the murder of more than one million people, the rape of 75,000 women to demonstrate the view that it was a mistake. All India Azad Muslim Conference All-India Jamhur Muslim League All India Momin Conference All India Muslim Majlis All India Shia Political Conference Anjuman-i-Watan Baluchistan Indian National Congress Jamiat Ahl-i-Hadis Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Khaksar Movement Khudai Khidmatgar Krishak Praja Party Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam Sind United Party Unionist Party Abul Kalam Azad Abdul Matlib Mazumdar Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Allah Bakhsh Soomro Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Altaf Hussain Fazl-i-Hussain Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan Khwaja Abdul Majid Khwaja Atiqullah Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi Mahatma Gandhi Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Maulana Attaullah Shah Bukhari Markandey Katju Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani Maulana Abul Ala Maududi Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Shaukatullah Shah Ansari Sheikh Abdullah Shibli Nomani Sikandar Hayat Khan Ubaidullah Sindhi Saadat Hasan Manto opposed the partition of India, which he saw as an "overwhelming tragedy" and "maddeningly senseless".

The literature he is remembered for is about the partition of India. Darul Uloom Deoband In The Nation, Kashmiri Indian politician Markandey Katju has advocated the reunification of India with Pakistan under a secular government, he stated that the cause of the partition was the divide and rule policy of B

Anything (Edyta Górniak song)

“Anything” is the second single from Edyta Górniak's self-titled second studio album. The song was produced by Christopher Neil; the single was released in Belgium. It had some success in Spain; the maxi single of "Anything" includes a cover of A-Ha's song "Hunting High and Low", available as a bonus track only on the Japanese edition of the album. The single cover includes pictures by photographer Marlena Bielińska. Anything That's The Way I Feel About You Anything That's The Way I Feel About You Hunting High and Low The music video for "Anything" was directed by Phil Griffin; the video starts with Edyta singing in a black room. Edyta is dancing with a group of dancers in front of her lover. In the next scene she is sitting at the edge of a bed. Next Edyta dances once again with her dancers. In the next scene Edyta is sitting on the floor in front of her sitting lover in a room with a red floor and white and red walls and he kiss her after a time. Afterwards different scenes were repeat and Edyta is shown hugged and lying close to her lover in bed or sitting on a chair behind her lover.

The video ends with a close-up view of Edyta


Eoazhdarcho is a genus of azhdarchoid pterodactyloid pterosaur named in 2005 by Chinese paleontologists Lü Junchang and Ji Qiang. The type species is Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis; the genus name combines a Greek eos, "dawn" with the name of the genus Azhdarcho, with the implication it was an early related form of the latter. The specific name refers to the ancient region Liaoxi; the fossil was found in the Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang, China. The genus is based on holotype GMN-03-11-02, a partial skeleton and lower jaw, is distinguished from other pterosaurs by the proportions of its bones; the metacarpals are elongated but the cervical vertebrae and hind limbs are not. It was small by azhdarchoid standards, with a wingspan of about 1.6 meters. Its describers first assigned Eoazhdarcho to the Azhdarchidae in a basal position, compared it to Azhdarcho. However, in 2006 they published a cladistic analysis, determining that several forms, among them Eoazhdarcho, were united in a natural group, a separate clade that could be set apart from an Azhdarchidae proper.

In 2008 that clade was by Lü, Unwin and colleagues named the Chaoyangopteridae — the sister group of the Azhdarchidae within a much larger Azhdarchoidea — with Eoazhdarcho as one of the members. List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research Eoazhdarcho in The Pterosauria


Youlton is a village and civil parish in Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. It is situated 5 miles south-west of Easingwold and 11 miles from York; the population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census was less than 100. Details are included in the civil parish of North Yorkshire; the rights to the manor in the village used to belong to Oxford. Amongst the previous landowners were the de Ros family. Youlton Hall was used by King James I as an overnight stop between Edinburgh; the village is within the Malton parliamentary constituency. It lies within the Tollerton ward of Hambleton District Council and the Easingwold electoral district of North Yorkshire County Council; the village lies midway between the River Kyle. Local roads link the village with Alne, North Yorkshire, to the north and Great Ouseburn to the west. Media related to Youlton at Wikimedia Commons