A shotgun house is a narrow rectangular domestic residence, usually no more than about 12 feet wide, with rooms arranged one behind the other and doors at each end of the house. It was the most popular style of house in the Southern United States from the end of the American Civil War through the 1920s, alternate names include shotgun shack, shotgun hut, shotgun cottage, and in the case of a multihome dwelling, shotgun apartment. A railroad apartment is somewhat similar, but instead of each opening onto the next room. Though initially as popular with the class as with the poor. Some of these houses are being bulldozed as part of urban renewal, others are saved and renovated in areas that undergo gentrification. Several variations of shotgun houses allow for features and space. The oldest shotgun houses were built without indoor plumbing, and this was added later. Double-barrel or double shotgun houses consist of two sharing a central wall, allowing more houses to be fit into an area. Camelback shotgun houses include a floor at the rear of the house.
In some cases the floor plan is changed during remodeling to create hallways. New Orleans architectural historian Samuel Wilson, Jr. influentially suggested that shotgun-style houses originated in the Creole suburbs of New Orleans in the early 1800s, Vlach claimed the name may have originated from a Dahomey Fon area term to-gun, which means place of assembly. The description, probably used in New Orleans by Afro-Haitian slaves, may have been misunderstood, vlachs theory behind the earlier African origin is tied to the history of New Orleans. In 1803 there were 1,355 free blacks in the city, by 1810 blacks outnumbered whites 10,500 to 4,500. As many of both the builders and inhabitants were Africans by way of Haiti, Vlach maintained it is only natural they modeled the new homes after ones they left behind in their homeland. Many surviving Haitian dwellings of the period, including about 15 percent of the stock of Port-au-Prince. The style was built there by 1832, though there is evidence that houses sold in the 1830s were built 15 to 20 years earlier. A simpler theory is that they are the typical floor plan popular in the rural south.
It was used so frequently that some southern cities estimate that, even today, after the Great Depression few shotgun houses were built, and existing ones went into decline
As a comprehensive design and art movement it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in arts and architectural design it has continued with numerous revivals. The American Craftsman style developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement going on since the 1860s, while the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian over-decorated aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts styles American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. In the late 1800s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. They succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 10 objects made by 160 craftsmen, half of whom were craftswomen. The exhibitions success led to the formation of The Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897, with a mandate to “Develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts.
”The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, and on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was expanded into a credo which read. It hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, in China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. The movements name American Craftsman came from the magazine, The Craftsman, founded in 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are not only to changes in taste and style. The middle-class housewife of the era would not have domestic servants and would be doing much if not all of the housework herself, as well as watching the children.
These added roles made it important that the kitchen be integrated into the house with easy sight lines to the common areas of the main floor as well as to the back yard. Another common design development arising from the class-shift of the time was the built-in breakfast nook in the kitchen, the Victorian kitchen of the previous era was separated from the family view and daily routine. It typically had a table at which the servants would eat after the family meal was served. The Victorian kitchen had no place for a family member to sit, eat. Again, as the housewife of the Craftsman era was now preparing the family meals, the Victorian kitchen gave way to one designed as the heart of the familys daily life. The breakfast nook often placed under a window or in its own bay provided a place for the family to gather at any time of the day or evening, particularly while food was being prepared
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1872 by Charles H. Taylor, it was held until 1973. The company was acquired in 1993 by The New York Times Company, in 2011, a BostonGlobe. com subscription site was launched. In 2013, the newspaper and websites were purchased by John W. Henry, the Boston Globe has been awarded 26 Pulitzer Prizes since 1966, and its chief print rival is the Boston Herald. The Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, the first issue was published on March 4,1872, and cost four cents. Originally a morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, in 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, in 1964, Tom Winship succeeded his father, Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a local paper into a regional paper of national distinction.
He served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications. It continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor, in 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, Boston. com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Consistently ranked among the top ten websites in America, it has won numerous national awards. Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, and was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31,2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bushs use of signing statements made national news, the Boston Globe has consistently been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. The Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics, on April 2,2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings. Some of the cost savings include reducing union employees pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, the Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs, among buy-outs and layoffs, it swept out most of the part-time employees in the editorial sections. The papers other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3,2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give the government 60-days notice that it intended to close the paper
Drainage in New Orleans
Drainage in New Orleans, has been a major concern since the founding of the city in the early 18th century, remaining an important factor in the history of New Orleans today. Much of the area between these bodies of water is at or below sea level, and no longer has a natural outlet for flowing surface water. As such, virtually all rainfall occurring within this area must be removed through either evapotranspiration or pumping, flood threats to metropolitan New Orleans include the Mississippi River, Lake Pontchartrain, and natural rainfall. Artificial levees have been built to keep out rising river and lake waters but have had the effect of keeping rainfall in. New Orleans was originally built on natural levees along the Mississippi River that were a result of deposits left from the rivers annual floods. The site chosen for New Orleans had many advantages, because it sits where distance between the river and Lake Pontchartrain is shortest, Louisiana Indians had long used the area as a depot and market for goods carried between the two waterways.
The narrow strip of land aided rapid troop movements, the first artificial levees and canals were built in early colonial times. They were erected to protect New Orleans against routine flooding from the Mississippi River, the back of town away from the river originally drained down into the swamps running toward Lake Pontchartrain. Flooding from the side was rare and less severe as most of the old town had been built on high ground along the riverfront. As the city grew, demand for more land encouraged expansion into lower areas more prone to periodic flooding. For most of the 19th century most residential buildings were raised up at least a foot above street level, in the 1830s state engineer George T. Dunbar proposed an ambitious system of underground drainage canals beneath the streets. The goal was to drain water by gravity into the low lying swamps, supplementing this with canals and mechanical pumps. The first of the steam engine powered drainage pumps, adapted from a ships paddle wheel.
However, only a few of Dunbars plans were implemented as the panic of 1837 largely ended major systematic improvements for a generation. In 1859 surveyor Louis H. Pilié improved the drainage canals, four large steam draining machines were built to push water through the canals into the lake. In 1871, some 36 miles of canals were built in the city for both improved drainage and small vessel shipping within town. However, despite efforts, at the end of the 19th century it was still common for water to cover streets from curb to curb after rainstorms. In 1893, the city government formed the Drainage Advisory Board to come up with solutions to the citys drainage problems
Streetcars in New Orleans
Streetcars in New Orleans, Louisiana have been an integral part of the citys public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century. The longest of New Orleans streetcar lines, the St. Charles Avenue line, is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, the streetcars are operated by the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority. There are currently five operating lines in New Orleans, The St. Charles Avenue Line, the Riverfront Line, the Canal Street Line. The St. Charles Avenue Line is the line that has operated continuously throughout New Orleans streetcar history. All other lines were replaced by bus service in the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. Preservationists were unable to save the streetcars on Canal Street, but were able to convince the city government to protect the St. Charles Avenue Line by granting it historic landmark status, in the 20th century, trends began to favor rail transit again. A short Riverfront Line started service in 1988, and service returned to Canal Street in 2004,40 years after it had shut down.
Service on a portion of the Canal Street line was restored in December of that year, with the remainder of the line, on December 23,2007, the Regional Transit Authority extended service from Napoleon Avenue to the end of historic St. Charles Avenue. On June 22,2008 service was restored to the end of the line at South Carrollton Avenue & South Claiborne Avenue and those first operations included inter-city and suburban railroad lines, and horse-drawn omnibus lines. The first lines of city rail service were created by the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad, in the first week of January, the company opened its Poydras-Magazine horse-drawn line on its namesake streets, the first true street railway line in the city. Then a horse-drawn line to the suburb of Lafayette, which was centered on Jackson Avenue and that line ended in the 1840s, but the Lafayette and Carrollton lines continued, eventually becoming the Jackson and St. Charles streetcar lines. As the area upriver from the city began to be built up, additional lines were created by the New Orleans, on February 4,1850, lines were opened on Louisiana and Napoleon Avenues.
Like the Jackson line, these were horse- or mule-drawn cars, the Louisiana line was lightly patronized, and was discontinued in 1878. The Napoleon line continued into the next century, up until about 1860, omnibus lines provided the only public transit outside the area serviced by the New Orleans and Carrollton RR. The need was felt for a true street railway service. Toward this end, the New Orleans City RR was chartered on June 15,1860. The first line and Esplanade, opened June 1,1861, followed in succession by the Magazine and Prytania, Canal and Dauphine. Despite the beginnings of war, the opened and continued service on its new lines
Orleans Parish School Board
New Orleans Public Schools is the public school system that serves all of New Orleans, United States. Instead, all public schools operating under the RSD umbrella within Orleans Parish are, as of the Fall of 2014, the headquarters of the OPSB is in the West Bank neighborhood of Algiers, while the RSDs New Orleans office is on Poydras Street in the CBD. NOPS served approximately 65,000 students pre-Katrina, for decades prior to Hurricane Katrinas landfall, the OPSB-administered system was widely recognized as the lowest performing school district in Louisiana. In Katrinas immediate aftermath, an overwhelmed Orleans Parish School Board asserted that the system would remain closed indefinitely. The Louisiana Legislature took advantage of this abdication of local leadership, the Recovery School District had been created in 2003 to allow the state to take over failing schools, those that fell into a certain worst-performing metric. Five public schools in New Orleans had been transferred to RSD control prior to Katrina, charter school accountability is realized by the granting of renewable operating contracts of varying lengths permitting the closure of those not succeeding.
In October 2009, the release of school performance scores demonstrated continued growth in the academic performance of New Orleans public schools. By aggregating the scores of all schools in New Orleans to permit a comparison with pre-Katrina outcomes. This score represented a 6% increase over the equivalent 2008 metric, and a 24% improvement when measured against the equivalent pre-Katrina metric, the current RSD superintendent is Patrick Dobard, while the diminished, OPSB portion of NOPS has been led since 2015 by Henderson Lewis. According to the survey, clear majorities of parents and of voters overall did not want the Orleans Parish School Board to regain full control of the NOPS system. In the mid-1800s the German American community of New Orleans attempted to have the German language supplant French as a subject in school, the German Society made efforts to have German introduced into the school system. In 1910 the German language was added to the NOPS curriculum, making it a subject in high schools and, at the elementary school.
At the time, 10% of high school students selected German, in 1918, because of World War I propaganda, German was discontinued. The Deutsches Haus, the successor to the German society, made efforts to reintroduce German, German was discontinued in 1938 as World War II began. The board eventually acquiesced, and the increased funding to historically black schools to a level comparable to their white counterparts. Then came the national push for desegregation, particularly through the federal courts, racial barriers were dropped, and a new generation of African American leaders won most of the public offices in Orleans Parish. Fifty-three public schools opened in New Orleans for the 2006-2007 school year and this number included schools directly administered by the OPSB or the RSD, or schools chartered by the OPSB or the RSD. For the 2013-2014 school year, the Orleans Parish School Board directly administered 4 schools, the RSD directly administered 15 schools and supervised the 60 it chartered
Canal Street, New Orleans
Canal Street is a major thoroughfare in the city of New Orleans. Up until the early 1800s, it was the Creoles who lived in the Vieux Carré, after the Louisiana Purchase, a large influx of other cultures began to find their way into the city via the Mississippi River. A number of Americans from Kentucky and other Midwestern states moved into the city, along the division between these two cultures, a canal was planned. The canal was never built but the street took its place received the name. Furthermore, the median of the street known as the neutral ground. To this day, all medians of New Orleans streets are called neutral grounds, one end of Canal Street terminates at the Mississippi River. Canal Streets other terminus is in Mid-City at a collection of cemeteries, slightly offset from the Mid-City end is the beginning of Canal Boulevard, which extends to the shore of Lake Pontchartrain via the Lakeview neighborhood. Throughout its length, which runs east and west, serves as a line for cross streets running north and south.
The street has three lanes of traffic in both directions, with a pair of tracks in the center. Canal Streets downtown segment serves as the hub of the public transit system or RTA, with numerous streetcar. Canal Street is often said to be the widest roadway in America to have called a street. For more than a century, Canal Street was the shopping district of Greater New Orleans. Local department stores Maison Blanche, D. H, the department stores began as sellers of fabric and accessories, with extensive floor space and glass windows. As elevators and escalators allowed for multi-floor department stores, the stores were enlarged, cities — and it received a boost in 1983 with the completion of Canal Places retail component. However, national trends disfavoring downtown retail finally caught up with Canal Street — with a key assist from the economic depression of the mid-80s. One Canal Place has three levels which are occupied by The Shops at Canal Place. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, a fire inflicted heavy damage to the Saks Fifth Avenue store, the mall reopened in February 2006, and a completely-remodeled Saks reopened in November.
One Canal Place Office Tower is a Class A commercial office building managed by Corporate Realty and it is adjacent to the Westin New Orleans Hotel
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Dixie Brewing Company
The Dixie Brewing Company is a regional brewery founded in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1907. Its beer, currently contract-brewed, was brewed at what had been the remaining large volume brewery within the city of New Orleans. Dixie Brewing was founded by Valentine Merz, and began production in 1907, during Prohibition, they became the Dixie Beverage Company. In 1989, its owners filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, emerging reorganized in 1992 with a new line of speciality beers, Jazz Amber Light, Blackened Voodoo, and Crimson Voodoo. In 2005, the Dixie Brewery was severely damaged when Mid-City New Orleans flooded from the levee failure disaster during Hurricane Katrina, after the area was de-watered the brewery complex was looted with much of the equipment stolen. Despite early claims that the brewery would be restored, it remains off line as of December 2010, the brand remains in business, brewed under contract by breweries elsewhere. The building sits in the footprint of the new Department of Veterans Affairs hospital under construction in New Orleans Mid-City neighborhood.
Right now, what were doing is stabilizing the structure that were going to maintain, the design preserves and repairs the six- and four-story sections of the old brewery. Failla said a modern brick and glass structure will rise from behind the historic facade, Dixie is currently contract-brewed, though there are efforts to encourage local government support for the return of the Dixie Brewery. The brewery and/or its beer have been featured notably in films including RED, Southern Comfort, Steel Magnolias, Stone Cold and it is briefly mentioned in novels such American Psycho and A Confederacy of Dunces
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
The Pontchartrain Expressway is a parallel 6-lane section of Interstate 10 and U. S. Route 90 Business in New Orleans, Louisiana, U. S. A. The designation begins on I-10 near the Orleans–Jefferson parish line at the I-610 Split, the expressway follows I-10 into the Central Business District of New Orleans and follows US90 Bus. to the Crescent City Connection. The expressway takes its name from Pontchartrain Boulevard, for which the expressway overtook in some areas, the Pontchartrain name is derived from Lake Pontchartrain, which New Orleans northern border traverses. Construction of the Pontchartrain Expressway began in the 1950s and it would be incorporated into Interstate 10. I-10 enters Orleans Parish after crossing the 17th Street Canal, this is where the designation begins. At the vicinity of West End Boulevard/Florida Avenue exit, the turns to the southeast along the right-of-way for the former New Basin Canal which had been filled in between 1937 and 1947. The expressway continues along this right-of-way as I-10 until an interchange with U. S.90 in the CBD.
At this interchange, I-10 breaks off to the northeast and Business U. S.90 begins, the expressway continues southeast along the upriver side of the CBD as an elevated highway that leads to the Crescent City Connection. This section was completed by 1958 opening of the Crescent City Connection, the Business U. S.90 portion of the expressway was expanded in the mid 1980s to accommodate the second span of the Crescent City Connection which opened in 1988. This stretch of the expressway and the interchange of I-10. Reconstruction of the end of the expressway in the I-610 Split vicinity was undertaken in the late 1990s. The Norfolk Southern Railway has a crossing near the Metairie Cemetery between the City Park Avenue and West End Boulevard/Florida Avenue exits. The expressway dips down to 12 feet below sea level to allow for the line to pass overhead. This area once experienced flooding on a basis in heavy thunderstorms. The problem was so common, a meter was painted on the overpass support columns to warn drivers of the waters depth.
A new pumping station was completed adjacent to the expressway in 2004 to keep this area dry, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, this pumping station was overwhelmed and the railroad underpass and the entire I-610/West End Boulevard interchange was extensively flooded. In fact, the 17th Street Canal breach is about one mile north of this area and this flooding cut Orleans Parish off from most areas to the west, making the Crescent City Connection one of the few clear routes into the east bank of Orleans Parish. Areas under the elevated portions of the expressway in the CBD area saw flooding in the vicinity of the Superdome but for the most part remained dry and undamaged