Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States; each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. The Klan used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were exaggerated by both friends and enemies; the first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South by using violence against African-American leaders; each chapter was autonomous and secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed through federal law enforcement.
Members made their own colorful, costumes: robes and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities. The second Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy took a pro-Prohibition stance, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church; this second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others, it declined in the half of the 1920s. The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center; as of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK; the first Klan was founded in Pulaski, sometime between December 1865 and August 1866 by six former officers of the Confederate army as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the largely defunct Sons of Malta. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan," according to Albert Stevens in 1907.
The name is derived from the Greek word kuklos which means circle. The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. McCord of Pulaski. According to The Cyclopædia of Fraternities, "Beginning in April, 1867, there was a gradual transformation... The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein, they had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on innocent lines, found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all — that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do."Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement promoting resistance and white supremacy during the Reconstruction Era. For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Tennessee; as a secret vigilante group, the Klan targeted their allies. In 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, which were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives. It weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens". Historian George C. Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South, he says: the Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective – the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. After the Klan was suppressed, similar insurgent paramilitary groups arose that were explicitly directed at suppressing Republican voting and turning Republicans out o
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in a walled indoor arena. Indoor soccer, as it is most known in the United States and Canada, was developed in these two countries as a way to play soccer during the winter months, when snow would make outdoor play difficult. In those countries, gymnasiums are adapted for indoor soccer play. In other countries the game is played in either indoor or outdoor arenas surrounded by walls, is referred to by different names. Indoor soccer has different regulations from other versions of association football designed for indoor play, such as futsal and five-a-side football. Unlike futsal, played on wooden or ceramic surfaces, indoor soccer is played on synthetic turf. Indoor soccer courts are delimited by walls instead of lines, there are no player throw-ins. FIFA, the international body that oversees international association football competitions, does not sanction the synthetic turf version of indoor soccer, having developed its own code of indoor football.
Indoor soccer is most popular in the United States and Mexico, with several amateur and professional leagues functioning. While internationally less popular than futsal, indoor soccer is played at the league level in many countries outside North America; the World Minifootball Federation is the governing body of indoor soccer at the international level, having replaced the International Fast Football Federation. The term minifootball, coined in Europe, has been adopted by the WMF as a standard international name for the sport. Indoor soccer is played throughout the world; the international federation dedicated to promoting the sport is the World Minifootball Federation based in the Czech Republic. The WMF replaced the International Fast Football Federation, based in Mexico and the United States. There are regional federations who govern the sport including: African Minifootball Federation, Asian Minifootball Confederation, Confederacion Panamericana de Minifutbol, European Minifootball Federation, Oceania Minifootball Federation.
During its existence, FIFRA organized several indoor soccer tournaments for national teams, including the Indoor Soccer World Championship. The only edition of this tournament took place in Mexico in 1997. No other indoor soccer world championship was held until 2015, when the WMF organized the first WMF World Cup in the United States; the second WMF World Cup took place in Tunisia in 2017. A world cup for Under-21 players was held in Prague with the Czech team taking the title. Star Sixes, an indoor six-a-side football tournament for national teams from around the world, was held in the O2 Arena in London in 2017. Held outside the auspices of the WMF, this tournament featured players which participated in the association football national teams of their home countries. A total of twelve teams participated, with France winning the title, it is intended to make Star Sixes a recurring event. A second edition took place with England winning the title. Indoor soccer is a common sport in the United States and Canada, with both amateur and professional leagues, due to the short season for outdoor soccer in Canada and the Northern United States, the ubiquity of arenas built for ice hockey and basketball which can be converted to indoor soccer.
It is popular in Northern Canada due to the unplayable outdoor conditions and its appearance in the Arctic Winter Games. Indoor soccer or futbol rapido has become a popular sport in Mexico, being included as part of the Universiada and the CONADEIP, in which university school teams from all over Mexico compete. In Mexico, "indoor" soccer fields are built outdoors. In 2012 an eight-team indoor soccer league was launched, which consists of former professional association football players from Liga MX. Indoor soccer is known in Brazil with several current regional leagues. Formal national leagues have formed in Bolivia, Uruguay and Peru. However, the most common variation of indoor soccer played in Brazil is Futsal. Indoor soccer is played in several European countries. In the United Kingdom, Masters Football is the most well-known competition. Tournaments among Masters teams are played. In Spain, some over-30 ex-professionals represent their clubs in the Liga Fertiberia which plays a five-a-side variant.
There is a European indoor soccer federation known as the European Minifootball Federation. EMF organize the European Minifootball Championship every year and in recent years countries have established official national minifootball associations to help them further organize and develop it. EMF organize variations of six-a-side football and this could come in different shapes and sizes from a large custom-built facility with multiple pitches or an 11-a-side pitch temporarily split into smaller pitches; this is not to be confused with the term used in Russia and some other former Soviet countries, where the term mini-fo
The Kentucky Colonels were a member of the American Basketball Association for all of the league's nine years. The name is derived from the historic Kentucky colonels; the Colonels won the most games and had the highest winning percentage of any franchise in the league's history, but the team did not join the NBA in the 1976 ABA–NBA merger. The downtown Louisville Convention Center was the Colonels' original venue for the first three seasons before moving to Freedom Hall for the remaining seasons, beginning with the 1970–71 schedule; the Kentucky Colonels were only one of two ABA teams, along with the Indiana Pacers, to play for the entire duration of the league without relocating, changing its team name, or folding. The Colonels were the only major league franchise in Kentucky since the Louisville Breckenridges left the National Football League in 1923; the Louisville-based Colonels started their time in the ABA as a colorful franchise, not just because of their bright chartreuse green uniforms.
Among the things they were known for was their "mascot" Ziggy, a prize-winning Brussels Griffon dog, owned by original team owners Joe and Mamie Gregory. They were famous for publicity stunts, their most famous coming in 1968 when Penny Ann Early, the first licensed female horse racing jockey, was signed to appear in an ABA game; the early color of their franchise began to wane during the 1970–71 season, when they signed another Wildcat star in All-American Dan Issel. They dropped the chartreuse green uniforms in favor of a blue and white scheme similar to that of the Wildcats. Another abnormality to the Colonels uniform change was that the players' last names on the back had only the first letter capitalized, as opposed to all capital letters, which are universally featured on the back of nearly every professional or collegiate basketball uniform which names on the back of jerseys are featured. Issel's signing helped. Despite an average record in the regular season, they made a serious run at the 1971 ABA championship.
They fell just short and lost to the Utah Stars in seven games. They proved to be better in 1971, with the signing of Artis Gilmore. Gilmore's signing would help make the Colonels a legitimate powerhouse for years to come; the Colonels won 68 games in his rookie campaign under coach Joe Mullaney. Yet, in the playoffs, they were upset by the New York Nets in the first round. Kentucky recovered and made another championship run during the 1972–73 playoffs, but lost a physical series to the Indiana Pacers in 7 games, 4 games to 3. After the season, the franchise was nearly moved out-of-state to Cincinnati, but was purchased by John Y. Brown, Jr. a future Kentucky governor who owned Kentucky Fried Chicken for years. Brown helped increase interest in the team, looked to improve its on-court performance by hiring popular ABA coach Babe McCarthy, but after they were swept in the second round of the playoffs by the Nets, Brown gave McCarthy his walking papers. For the 1974–75 season, Brown hired Hubie Brown, a former NBA assistant coach, to give them that championship.
Unlike the past year, the Colonels would not be denied. After a torrid finish to the regular season, which saw them win 23 of 26 games, they ripped through the playoffs, beat their nemesis, the Indiana Pacers, in a dominant 4 games to 1 victory to win the 1975 ABA championship. Gilmore grabbed an amazing 31 rebounds in the final game; that same season the Golden State Warriors won the NBA Title. Colonels owner, John Y. Brown, offered the NBA Champs a million dollars to play a one-game world championship; the Warriors and the NBA refused. The celebration of the 1975 season ended when John Y. Brown, Jr. dealt Dan Issel to the ABA's new Baltimore Claws franchise for financial reasons. They acquired all-star Caldwell Jones to replace him. Jones was dealt mid-season for young Maurice Lucas. Hubie managed to make the team competitive, but they lost in the postseason to the Denver Nuggets in 7 games. Kentucky was one of the league's most talented teams, had one of its best fan bases, but during the ABA's talks of merging with the NBA, the Colonels were not a favorite to change leagues.
As a result, John Y. Brown, Jr. was forced to fold the Colonels. Brown would indeed get an NBA franchise: he purchased the Buffalo Braves in 1976 traded it for the Boston Celtics two years later. Colonels players were distributed to other teams in a dispersal draft, with Artis Gilmore being drafted first by the Chicago Bulls. Maurice Lucas went on to be an all-star for the Portland Trail Blazers and Louie Dampier, who ended up being the all-time leader in points and assists, ended his career as a sixth man for the San Antonio Spurs. Coach Hubie Brown went on to coach the Atlanta Hawks for five seasons after the merger before being fired; the Colonels won 448 games in the ABA, more than any other franchise. The Colonels' overall regular season record was 448–296; the Colonels' playoff record was 55–46. Only the Indiana Pacers won more ABA playoff games. On March 6, 1967, the American Basketball Association awarded the franchise that became the Kentucky Colonels to Don Regan f
Jerry O'Neil Lawler, better known as Jerry "The King" Lawler, is an American professional wrestler and color commentator signed to World Wrestling Entertainment under the company's legends program. Prior to joining WWE in 1992, he wrestled in numerous territories, winning numerous championships, including many world championships, throughout his career. Lawler is a one-time AWA World Heavyweight Champion and a three-time WCWA World Heavyweight Champion, he unified the titles by defeating Kerry Von Erich at Superclash III, forming the USWA Unified World Heavyweight Championship, a championship which he held 28 times. Lawler has held more recognized championships than any professional wrestler in history, though he has never won any championships in WWE having wrestled sporadically whilst providing color commentary, since joining the company. In 2007, Lawler was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame. While working in Memphis, Tennessee, as a disc jockey, Lawler's artistic ability attracted the attention of local wrestling promoter Aubrey Griffith.
The two made an agreement in which Lawler would give Griffith free publicity in exchange for free wrestling training. Lawler debuted as a wrestler in 1970, won his first championship in September 1971 by winning a battle royal, he soon won the NWA Southern Tag Team Championship under the managerial service of Sam Bass with partner Jim White. In 1974, Lawler began feuding with Jackie Fargo, his trainer and mentor; this led to a match for the NWA Southern Heavyweight Championship. On July 24, 1974, Lawler won the belt and the title of "King of Wrestling." During 1975, Lawler teamed with a variety of partners such as Mr Wrestling II, Don Greene, Bob Orton, Jr. He won the NWA Macon Tag Team Championship twice during this period. While Lawler began his career as a heel, he became a face after splitting from Bass at the end of 1974. On November 12, 1979, while working in the Continental Wrestling Association, Lawler defeated Superstar Billy Graham to become the CWA World Champion. In 1980, coming off the back end of a feud with The Fabulous Freebirds, his career was put on hold due to a broken leg, but he returned to the ring after several months.
In 1982, Lawler began a notorious feud with comedian Andy Kaufman. At the time, Kaufman wrestled women as part of his skits and had declared himself the Intergender Heavyweight Champion. On April 5, who had taken exception to the skits, wrestled Kaufman in Memphis. During the course of the match, Lawler delivered two piledrivers to his opponent, sending him to the hospital. On July 29, Lawler slapped Kaufman in the face on an episode of Late Night with David Letterman. Kaufman responded by throwing his coffee on Lawler. Years Lawler appeared as himself in the Kaufman biopic Man on the Moon. Lawler claimed that not only was his entire feud with Kaufman staged, but the two were very good friends. On March 7, 1983, Lawler won the AWA International Championship by defeating Austin Idol.. On May 30, 1983, Bill Dundee defeated Jerry Lawler for the AWA Southern Heavyweight Championship; the feud escalated and on June 6, 1983, the two met in a Loser Leaves Town Match for the title, in which Lawler won. Lawler defeated Ken Patera on July 25 to begin his second reign as the International Champion.
Lawler became the NWA Mid America Champion on April 12, 1984, when he defeated Randy Savage for the title. In 1985, Lawler traveled to Japan, where he won the Polynesian Pacific title on January 25, 1986, he returned to the United States, where he defeated Bill Dundee on July 29, 1986, to begin a new reign as the AWA International Champion. Lawler feuded with Tommy Rich, Austin Idol, Paul E. Dangerously throughout early 1987; the animosity began after controversy over an AWA World Championship title shot involving Nick Bockwinkel. During the feud, the trio defeated Lawler in a steel cage match and cut his hair, which caused a riot in the Mid-South Coliseum. Lawler won the AWA World Heavyweight Championship from Curt Hennig on May 9, 1988. During his reign, Lawler feuded with World Class Championship Wrestling's Champion Kerry Von Erich, he defeated Von Erich on December 1988, at Superclash III to unify the two titles. Soon after, Lawler's issues with Verne Gagne led to his departure from the AWA.
In 1992, while working in the United States Wrestling Association, Lawler teamed with Jeff Jarrett a feud against The Moondogs. The feud between Jarrett/Lawler and The Moondogs was voted the 1992 PWI Feud of the Year by Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Lawler began his WWF career in December 1992 as an announcer on Superstars. From 1993 to 1995, he feuded with the rest of the Hart family; the feud began at King of the Ring when Lawler interrupted Hart's victory ceremony and attacked Bret. Lawler claimed that he was the only true king in the World Wrestling Federation, the two were scheduled to wrestle at SummerSlam to settle the dispute. At the event, Lawler came to the ring on crutches and claimed that he could not wrestle because of injuries suffered in a car accident. Hart faced Lawler's "court jester", Doink the Clown instead, beat him by submission. Lawler attacked Hart, revealing that he was not injured. Hart refused to release the Sharpshooter; as a result, the referee reversed the decision and awarded the title of "Undisputed King of the World Wrestling Federation" to Lawler.
The two would continue to work throughout the fall on the house show circuit, including in steel cages. In a form of cross-promotion, Lawler engaged in a bitter feud with Vince McMahon (who at the time was never acknowledged as the ac
The Memphis Pyramid known as the Great American Pyramid referred to as the Pyramid Arena and locally referred to as The Pyramid, was built as a 20,142-seat arena located in downtown Memphis, in the U. S. state of Tennessee, at the banks of the Mississippi River. The facility was built in 1991 and was owned and operated jointly by the city of Memphis and Shelby County, its structure plays on the city's namesake in Egypt, known for its ancient pyramids. It has base sides of 591 feet; the Memphis Pyramid has not been used as a sports or entertainment venue since 2004. In 2015, the Pyramid re-opened as a Bass Pro Shops "megastore", which includes shopping, a hotel, restaurants, a bowling alley, an archery range, with an outdoor observation deck adjacent to its apex; the "Great American Pyramid" was conceived by Mark C. Hartz, a Memphis artist in about 1954; the project included three pyramids located on the south bluffs of Memphis overlooking the Mississippi River. The largest of the three would have been two-third scale of the Great Pyramid of Giza near Memphis, Egypt.
The project languished for three decades until Mark's younger son, Memphian Jon Brent Hartz, resurrected the concept. Mark C. Hartz, well known for his architectural renderings, rendered a new bronze glass-glazed pyramid. After years of negotiations, the younger Hartz's concept was adopted by entrepreneur John Tigrett as a symbol for the city of Memphis; the groundbreaking ceremony was held on September 15, 1989 and the building was opened on November 9, 1991. The construction of the building was managed by Sidney Shlenker, part owner of the Denver Nuggets and several entertainment companies, who Tigrett had brought to Memphis to develop tourist attractions in the building. There were plans for a shortwave radio station broadcasting Memphis music, an observation deck with an inclinator along the side of the building, a Hard Rock Cafe, a music museum, a theme park on Mud Island along with other things. However, the plans were scrapped because of a fallout between Tigrett and Shlenker and the latter's financial difficulties.
The Pyramid was the home court for the University of Memphis men's basketball program, for the National Basketball Association's Memphis Grizzlies. However, both teams left The Pyramid in November 2004 to move into the newly built FedExForum, it was home to the Memphis Pharaohs of the AFL. The arena hosted the 1993 Great Midwest Conference Men's and Women's basketball tournaments, the 1994 and 1997 Southeastern Conference men's basketball tournament, the 1996 and 2000 Conference USA men's basketball tournament, the 2003 Conference USA women's basketball tournament, it held the first and second rounds of the NCAA Tournament in 1995, 1997, 2001. Singer Mary J. Blige performed at the arena in September 1997 during her Share My World Tour; the Pyramid was the site in 1999 of the WWF St. Valentine's Day Massacre: In Your House pay-per-view, it hosted the boxing mega-fight between Lennox Lewis and Mike Tyson in 2002, which Lewis won by a knockout in the eighth round. From 2002 to 2006, the annual Church of God in Christ international holy convocations were held here.
In 2002, the arena hosted a concert. Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band performed what is reputed to be the last concert in the Pyramid, on February 3, 2007. Filmmaker Craig Brewer used the building as a sound stage for his film Black Snake Moan in late 2005. On the Pyramid's opening night, the arena floor flooded because of inadequate drainage pumps, causing stage hands to sandbag the entire perimeter to preserve the electrical runs under the stage; the death bell for the arena sounded. The Pyramid was thought to be more than suitable for an NBA team, but it was discovered that it needed to be upgraded in order to be a viable NBA arena; the cost of upgrading to NBA standards made it more practical to build a new arena. As a result, the $250 million FedExForum was built and opened in 2004; the City of Memphis's contract with the Grizzlies forbade the use of The Pyramid without the team's approval, as a result, it went dark. A committee headed by Memphis businessman Scott Ledbetter studied possible uses of the arena in 2005, considered such uses as converting the arena into a casino, an aquarium, a shopping mall, or an indoor theme park.
In November 2006, Congressman-Elect Steve Cohen suggested that he would attempt to open a "Mid-American branch" of the Smithsonian Institution in the building. However, these plans were never realized. In the end, the Ledbetter committee on the building's future recommended that it be used for "destination retail" which would create more jobs and new tax revenues. In October 2005, media speculation began to focus on an aquarium or a Bass Pro Shops superstore as the most long-term tenants of the arena. In 2008, the city and Bass Pro Shops reached a "tentative" agreement, short on details, but based on an intent to develop the then-abandoned structure. On June 30, 2010, after 5 years of negotiating, Bass Pro and the City of Memphis signed an agreement for a 55-year lease for a Bass Pro Shops megastore. In addition, the redevelopment plans include revitalizing the Pinch District, the neighborhood east of the Pyramid; the city invested $30 million and hired O. T. Marshall Ar