Welton David Becket was an American modern architect who designed many buildings in Los Angeles, California. Becket was born in Seattle and graduated from the University of Washington program in Architecture in 1927 with a Bachelor of Architecture degree, he moved to Los Angeles in 1933 and formed a partnership with his University of Washington classmate Walter Wurdeman and Angelean architect Charles F. Plummer, their first major commission was the Pan-Pacific Auditorium in 1935, which won them residential jobs from James Cagney, Robert Montgomery, other film celebrities. Plummer died in 1939; the successor firm Wurdeman and Becket went on to design Bullock's Pasadena and a couple of corporate headquarters. Wurdeman and Becket developed the concept of "total design," whereby their firm would be responsible for master planning, interiors, fixtures, landscaping and menus, silverware and napkins. After Wurdeman's death in 1949, Becket formed Welton Becket and Associates and continued to grow the firm to the extent that it was one of the largest architectural offices in the world by the time of his death in 1969.
In 1987, his firm was acquired by Ellerbe Associates, the merged firm continued as Ellerbe Becket until the end of 2009, when it was acquired by AECOM. It is now known as an AECOM Company. Becket's buildings used unusual facade materials such as ceramic tile and stainless steel grillwork, repetitive geometric patterns, a heavy emphasis on walls clad in natural stone travertine and flagstone. With The Walt Disney Company and the United States Steel Corporation, Becket's firm co-designed Disney's Contemporary Resort, which opened in 1971 at Walt Disney World Resort; the Contemporary was designed as a 14-story steel A-frame with a monorail running through the building. Modular guest rooms were assembled, furnished equipped and their doors locked, on the ground lifted by crane and inserted into the frame. Welton Becket was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1952. Becket's sons, Welton MacDonald Becket & Bruce Becket, are practicing architects, as well as his nephew MacDonald G. Becket and granddaughter Alexandra Becket.
Becket's extensive list of credits includes: Pan-Pacific Auditorium, Los Angeles, 1935 Jones Dog & Cat Hospital, West Hollywood, California, 1938 Manila Jai Alai Building, Philippines, 1939 General Petroleum Building, Los Angeles, 1949 Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, 1953 Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, 1953 Parker Center, Los Angeles, 1955 Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles, Project Designer Lou Naidorf, 1956 Texaco Building on Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, 1957 Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, 1958 Hotel Tryp Habana Libre, Cuba, 1958 The Nile Ritz-Carlton, Cairo, Egypt, 1959 Sheraton Dallas Hotel, Dallas, 1959 100 California Street, San Francisco, 1960 Kaiser Center, Oakland, 1960 Grosmont Center, La Mesa CA, 1961 Christown Mall, Phoenix Arizona, 1961 Petersen Automotive Museum, Los Angeles, 1962 Walt Whitman Shops, Huntington Station, NY, 1962 Southern Cross Hotel, Australia, 1962 U. S. Embassy, Poland, 1963 Cinerama Dome, Los Angeles, 1963 Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Gateway West Building, Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Hartford National Bank, Hartford, CT 1963 McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, NV 1963 Phillips Petroleum Building, Bartlesville, OK 1964 Federal Building, Los Angeles, 1964 Los Angeles Music Center, Los Angeles, 1964 General Electric Pavilion, New York City, 1964 Pauley Pavilion at UCLA, Los Angeles, 1965 Santa Monica Shores Apartments, Santa Monica CA, 1967 Gulf Life Tower, Florida, 1967 Xerox Tower, New York, 1967 City Hall, Project Designer Marvin Taff, 1969 Equitable Life Building, Los Angeles, 1969 800 Wilshire, Los Angeles, 1970 PNC Plaza, Louisville, 1971 Beverly Wilshire Hotel expansion, Beverly Hills CA 1971 Disney's Contemporary Resort, Lake Buena Vista, 1971 Worcester Center, Worcester, MA, 1971 Chase Tower, Phoenix, 1972 Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New York, 1972 Regions Center, Birmingham, 1972 Glendale Central Library, Project Designer, Marvin Taff, 1973 100 Summer Street, Boston, 1974 Reunion Tower, Dallas, 1978 One Market Plaza, San Francisco, 1972 Orange Civic Center, Orange, 1963 Park Plaza Mall, Oshkosh, WI, 1970, now City Center a commercial business center for Oshkosh.
Interiors of the new Los Angeles International Airport, 1962 Oral history — Perkins quote Bigfloridacountry.com: Video clip of construction of the Contemporary Resort Bigfloridacountry.com: Contemporary Pictures MacDonald Becket papers, Welton Becket and Associates Welton Becket architectural drawings and photographs Welton Becket at Find a Grave
Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs is a desert resort city in Riverside County, United States, within the Coachella Valley. It is located 55 mi east of San Bernardino, 107 mi east of Los Angeles, 123 mi northeast of San Diego, 268 mi west of Phoenix, Arizona; the population was 44,552 as of the 2010 census. Palm Springs covers 94 square miles, making it the largest city in the county by land area. Golf, tennis, biking and horseback riding in the nearby desert and mountain areas are major forms of recreation in Palm Springs; the city is known for its mid-century modern architecture, design elements, arts and cultural scene. Palm Springs is a popular retirement destination, as well as a winter snowbird destination; the first humans to settle in the area were the Cahuilla people, 2,000 years ago. Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact, they spoke Ivilyuat, a dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were including Cahuilla Lion.
While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months. The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime; the Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries and seeds, they made tortillas from mesquite beans. While the Cahuillas spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was used during winter due to its natural hot springs. Native-American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz and Indian canyons; the Cahuilla’s irrigation ditches and house pits can be seen here. Ancient petroglyphs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon; the mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals. The Agua Caliente Reservation consists of 31,128 acres. Six thousand seven hundred acres are located by Downtown Palm Springs.
The Native American land is on long lease land and next to one of California’s high-end communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California. The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi"; when the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran desert. A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Amado, Lugu, Patencio and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames. Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass; the Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres, of which 6,700 acres lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners.
As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora to Alta California. With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American war, the region became part of the United States in 1848. One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand"; the earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs"; the first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.
Fourteen years the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles to the north, isolating the station. In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions. By 1885, when San Francisco attorney John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was in wide acceptance; the area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O. C. Miller, H. C. Campbell, James Adams, M. D. McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property, he asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886; the crops and irrigation syst
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He was referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies was a director of a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism, Mies went to the United States, he accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology, in Chicago. Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras, he created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920's and 1930's such as Richard Neutra. Mies strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space.
He called his buildings "bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era, he is associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details". Mies was born March 1886 in Aachen, Germany, he worked in his father's stone carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin, where he joined the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture, he worked alongside Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, also involved in the development of the Bauhaus. Mies served as construction manager of the Embassy of the German Empire in Saint Petersburg under Behrens. Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding "van der" and his mother's maiden name "Rohe" and using the Dutch "van der", because the German form "von" was a nobiliary particle restricted to those of genuine aristocratic lineage.
He began his independent professional career designing upper-class homes. In 1913, Mies married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist; the couple separated in 1918, after having three daughters: Dorothea, an actress and dancer, known as Georgia and Waltraut, a research scholar and curator at the Art Institute of Chicago. During his military service in 1917, Mies fathered a son out of wedlock. In 1925 Mies began a relationship with designer Lilly Reich that ended when he moved to the United States. Mies carried on a romantic relationship with sculptor and art collector Mary Callery for whom he designed an artist's studio in Huntington, Long Island, New York, he was rumored to have a brief relationship with Edith Farnsworth, who commissioned his work for the Farnsworth House. Marianne's son Dirk Lohan studied under, worked for, Mies. After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort, he joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age.
The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles. The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe; the aristocratic classical revival styles were reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than what they considered the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice, Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form, in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society.
Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut in 1921 with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstraße skyscraper, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930, he joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G, which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition, he was one of the founders of the architectural association De
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was a leading architect of the International Style. Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber, daughter of the Prussian politician Georg Schwarnweber. Walter's uncle Martin Gropius was the architect of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin and a follower of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, with whom Walter's great-grandfather Carl Gropius, who fought under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo, had shared a flat as a bachelor. In 1915 Gropius married Alma Mahler, widow of Gustav Mahler. Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916; when Manon died of polio at age 18, in 1935, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her.
Gropius and Mahler divorced in 1920. On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse Frank; the couple adopted a daughter together, Beate Gropius, known as Ati. Ise Gropius died on 9 June 1983 in Massachusetts. Walter's only sister Manon Burchard is the great-grandmother of the German film and theater actresses Marie Burchard and Bettina Burchard, of the curator and art historian Wolf Burchard. Gropius could not draw, was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908, after studying architecture in Munich and Berlin for four semesters, Gropius joined the office of the renowned architect and industrial designer Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school, his fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Dietrich Marcks. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
Although Gropius and Meyer only designed the facade, the glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflects function and Gropius's concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. The factory is now regarded as one of the crucial founding monuments of European modernism. Gropius was commissioned in 1913 to design a car for the Prussian Railroad Locomotive Works in Königsberg; this locomotive was unique and the first of its kind in Germany and in Europe. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. In 1913, Gropius published an article about "The Development of Industrial Buildings," which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America. A influential text, this article had a strong influence on other European modernists, including Le Corbusier and Erich Mendelsohn, both of whom reprinted Gropius's grain elevator pictures between 1920 and 1930.
Gropius's career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. He was drafted August 1914 and served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years and as a lieutenant in the signal corps. Gropius was awarded the Iron Cross twice after fighting for four years. Gropius like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius's career advanced in the postwar period. Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality, his recommendation for Gropius to succeed him led to Gropius's appointment as master of the school in 1919. It was this academy which Gropius transformed into the world-famous Bauhaus, attracting a faculty that included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, Otto Bartning and Wassily Kandinsky. In principle, the Bauhaus represented an opportunity to extend beauty and quality to every home through well designed industrially produced objects.
The Bauhaus program was experimental and the emphasis was theoretical. One example product of the Bauhaus was the armchair F 51, designed for the Bauhaus's directors room in 1920 – nowadays a re-edition in the market, manufactured by the German company TECTA/Lauenfoerde. In 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym "Mass." More notable for his functionalist approach, the "Monument to the March Dead," designed in 1919 and executed in 1920, indicates that expressionism was an influence on him at that time. In 1923, Gropius designed his famous door handles, now considered an icon of 20th-century design and listed as one of the most influential designs to emerge from Bauhaus. Gropius designed the new Bauhaus Dessau school building in 1925-26 on commission from the city of Dessau, he collaborated with Carl Fieger, Ernst Neufert and others within his private architectural practice. He designed large-scale housing projects in Berlin and Dessau in 1926–32 that were major contributions to the New Objectivity movement, including a contribution to the Siemensstadt project in Berlin.
Gropius moved to Berlin. Hannes Meyer to
Sir Denys Louis Lasdun, CH, CBE was an eminent English architect, the son of Nathan Lasdun and Julie. His best known work is the Royal National Theatre, on London's South Bank of the Thames, a Grade II* listed building and one of the most notable examples of Brutalist design in the United Kingdom. Lasdun studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, was a junior in the practice of Wells Coates. Like other Modernist architects, including Sir Basil Spence and Peter and Alison Smithson, Lasdun was much influenced by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, but there was a gentler, more classical influence, from the likes of Nicholas Hawksmoor. Lasdun's son is the author James Lasdun. Lasdun's grandfather, the Australia-based tobacconist Louis Abrahams, was an important patron of Frederick McCubbin, Arthur Streeton and other artists associated with the Heidelberg School art movement known as Australian Impressionism, his art collection was passed down to Lasdun. Before and after Second World War service in the army, Lasdun worked for a while with Berthold Lubetkin's Tecton practice, becoming a partner.
During this period he completed one private house in Paddington, in Le Corbusier's style. After the war, Lasdun worked with Lindsay Drake on the Hallfield Estate, planned by Lubetkin and Tecton in a similar patterned planned idiom to his Spa Green and Priory Green Estates. Lasdun's Hallfield School was the first clue to his mature style, in its use of bare concrete and angularity, as well as its more human scale. In the 1950s he was a partner with Jane Drew, Maxwell Fry and Lindsay Drake in Fry, Drew and Lasdun, his originality became more evident in his'cluster blocks' in Bethnal Green. These were a response to the critique of much post-war development for creating an isolating environment and discouraging community; the cluster blocks grouped flats around a central tower, tenants were intended to be able to pick out their own flats in the structure. The earlier blocks at Usk Street of 1954 were medium-sized, while the block Keeling House is high-rise. Keeling House was sold to a private developer by the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, is now a block of luxury flats.
Lasdun made an excursion into private housing with his St James' Flats in 1958, the plan of, derived from social housing models such as the Narkomfin Building. Lasdun completed what may be regarded as his breakthrough masterwork in the Royal College of Physicians building in Regents Park. Inserted into a nationally important Nash set-piece terrace of neoclassical form, the RCP projects a raised linear form perpendicular to the terrace to create a series of gardens and spaces around the building, with annexes for lecture hall and an historic timber panelled room preserved from the earlier Colleges. Using modern reinforced concrete technology and expressive structural methods, the volumes are made to'float in space' on the slimmest of supports to dissolve spatial boundaries between inside and out; the work makes implicit references to the work of the'high modernists' from le Corbusier and Mies to the'Scandinavian modernism' of Aalto and Jacobsen as well as the contemporary Brutalist aesthetics of the era, yet developing a personal idiom of opened cantilevered volumes, long perspectives, triangulated form, clarity of concept and structure, Lasdun's own.
This building, however, is finished in luxurious white Sicilian marble, Murano glass mosaic tiles, polished brass and black engineering brick, was one of the first post-War buildings to be awarded Grade I listing for national and international significance and influence on the work of others. Elements of Lasdun's most famous style, which combined cubic towers, bare concrete and jutting foyers, compared by some to Frank Lloyd Wright, can be found in his first educational buildings, the Fitzwilliam College and the Royal College of Physicians in Regent's Park, the latter of which compared favourably to the surrounding buildings by John Nash. More extensive was his design for the University of East Anglia; this consisted of a series of classrooms and laboratories connected by walkways, glazed residential quarters shaped like ziggurats. Following this acclaimed design Lasdun designed two buildings for the University of London, one for SOAS and another for the Institute of Education, controversial in its insertion into the previous street plan of squares and terraces, which it tried to replicate in a more Brutalist manner.
The expressed staircases make references to Wells Coates and Louis Kahn and Lasdun's masterplanning created a new public square. The building is now listed Grade II*; the most famous and disputed of the architect's work is his Royal National Theatre on London's South Bank. Prince Charles compared it to a nuclear power station but it was popular with other traditionalists, with John Betjeman writing Lasdun a letter in praise of its design. Lasdun designed the neighbouring IBM headquarters as a continuity with the theatre, his European Investment Bank in Luxembourg was similar. The last work produced by the firm in London was an office block called Milton Gate near the Barbican Estate, which in its use of green-tinted glazing represented a departure from his familiar bare concrete style. Lasdun was awarded the RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1977, his drawings and papers are available for consultation at the RIBA Drawings & Archives Collections. Despite the controversy of much of his work, most of Lasdun's surviving buildings are listed, although his 1958
Joseph Leopold Eichler was a 20th-century post-war American real estate developer known for developing distinctive residential subdivisions of Mid-Century modern style tract housing in California. He was one of the influential advocates of bringing modern architecture from custom residences and large corporate buildings to general public availability, his company and developments remain in Greater Los Angeles. Between 1949 and 1966, Joseph Eichler's company, Eichler Homes, built over 11,000 homes in nine communities in Northern California and homes in three communities in Southern California. Other firms worked with Eichler's company to build similar houses. Together, they all came to be known as Eichlers. During this period, Eichler became one of the nation's most influential builders of modern homes; the largest contiguous Eichler Homes development is "The Highlands" in San Mateo, built between 1956 and 1964. Joseph Eichler is considered by some to be a social visionary and commissioned designs for middle-class Americans.
One of his stated aims was to construct inclusive and diverse planned communities, ideally featuring integrated parks and community centers. Eichler established a non-discrimination policy and offered homes for sale to anyone of any religion or race. In 1958, he resigned from the National Association of Home Builders when they refused to support a non-discrimination policy. According to his son, Eichler was inspired by a short period of time when the family lived in a Frank Lloyd Wright–designed home in Hillsborough. Eichler was decided to try to produce similar designs. Joseph Eichler used well-known architects to design the homes themselves, he hired the respected architect and Wright disciple of sorts Robert Anshen of Anshen & Allen to design the initial Eichlers, the first prototypes were built in 1949. In years, Eichler built homes that were designed by other architects including by the San Francisco firm Claude Oakland & Associates and the Los Angeles firms of Jones & Emmons, A. Quincy Jones, Raphael Soriano.
Eichler homes are examples of Modernist architecture that has come to be known as "California Modern", feature glass walls, post-and-beam construction, open floorplans in a style indebted to Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. Eichler home exteriors featured flat and/or low-sloping A-framed roofs, vertical 2-inch pattern wood siding, spartan facades with clean geometric lines. One of Eichler's signature concepts was to "bring the outside in", achieved via skylights and floor-to-ceiling windows with glass transoms looking out on protected and private outdoor rooms, atriums and swimming pools. Of note is that most Eichler homes feature few, if any, front-facing windows. Many other architectural designs have large windows on all front-facing rooms; the interiors had numerous unorthodox and innovative features for the time period including: exposed post-and-beam construction. Models introduced the distinctive Eichler entry atriums, an open-air, enclosed entrance foyer designed to further advance the concept of integrating outdoor and indoor spaces.
Eichler homes were airy and modern in comparison to most of the mass-produced, middle-class, postwar homes built in the 1950s. At first, potential home buyers, many of whom were war-weary ex-servicemen and women seeking convention rather than innovation, were resistant to the innovative homes; the Northern California Eichler Homes are predominantly in San Francisco, Marin County, the East Bay towns of Walnut Creek, Oakland, Castro Valley, the San Francisco Peninsula towns of San Mateo, Redwood City, Palo Alto, Mountain View and San Jose. The Southern California Eichler Homes developments are in Thousand Oaks, Granada Hills and Palm Springs. Lucas Valley and Marinwood – Marin County, California The Terra Linda section – San Rafael, California 19th Avenue Park – San Mateo, California The Highlands – San Mateo, California - with over 700 Eichlers, this is the largest contiguous development of Eichler homes. Bay Vista, Treasure Isle, Marina Point Neighborhoods – Foster City, three separate neighborhoods that are all in close-proximity to each other and feature Eichler homes intermixed with other types of architecture.
Bay Vista is the largest tract in Foster City. Mills Estates – Burlingame, California Atherwood – Redwood City, California Ladera - Ladera, California - with 25 Eichlers built during 1951 using architectural designs by Jones & Emmons Monta Loma Neighborhood – Mountain View, California with 200 Eichler homes from 1954 in a tract called Fairview, this is a location with other mid-century home builders, Mackay Homes and Mardell Homes. Stanford University – Stanford, about 100 homes on Stanford land north of Page Mill Road and east of Junipero Serra Blvd. Palo Alto has more Eichler homes than any other city. Midtown – South Palo Alto, with many Eichler Homes, features a Swim and Tennis Club called "Eichler" on Louis Road just south of Greer Road. In south Palo Alto lies Greenmeadow, a tract planned and designed by Jones and Emmons, with landscaping by Thomas Church, recognized by the National Register of Historic Places, which created the Eichler Tract Comm
Ronchamp is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is located between the Jura mountains. Mining began in Ronchamp in the mid-18th century and had developed into a full industry by the late 19th century, employing 1500 people; the museum looks back at the miners' work, the techniques and tools they used, their social life. A collection of miners' lamps is on display; the chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, designed by Le Corbusier, is located in Ronchamp. The Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Haut, a shrine for the Catholic Church at Ronchamp was built for a reformist Church looking to continue its relevancy. Warning against decadence, reformers within the Church looked to renew its spirit by embracing modern art and architecture as representative concepts. Father Couturier, who would sponsor Le Corbusier for the La Tourette commission, steered the unorthodox project to completion in 1954; this work, like several others in Le Corbusier’s late oeuvre, departs from his principles of standardization and the machine aesthetic outlined in Vers une architecture.
In this project, the structural design of the roof was inspired by the engineering of airfoils. The chapel is a site-specific response. By Le Corbusier’s own admission, it was the site that provided an irresistible genius loci for the response, with the horizon visible on all four sides of the hill and its historical legacy for centuries as a place of worship; this historical legacy weaved in different layers into the terrain — from the Romans and sun-worshippers before them, to a cult of the Virgin in the Middle Ages, right through to the modern church and the fight against the German occupation. Le Corbusier sensed a sacral relationship of the hill with its surroundings, the Jura mountains in the distance and the hill itself, dominating the landscape; the nature of the site would result in an architectural ensemble that has many similitudes with the Acropolis, starting from the ascent at the bottom of the hill to architectural and landscape events along the way, before terminating at the sanctum sanctorum itself, the chapel.
The building itself is a comparatively small structure enclosed by thick walls, with the upturned roof supported on columns embedded within the walls. In the interior, the spaces left between the wall and roof, as well as asymmetric light from the wall openings serve to further reinforce the sacral nature of the space and buttress the relationship of the building with its surroundings. INSEE Official website of the Ronchamp village Official website of the Chapel of Ronchamp