A car platform is a shared set of common design and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and types of cars from different, but somewhat related marques. It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development of products by basing those products on a smaller number of platforms; this further allows companies to create distinct models from a design perspective on similar underpinnings. A basic definition of a platform in cars, from a technical point of view, includes: underbody and suspensions — where the underbody is made of front floor, engine compartment and frame. Key mechanical components that define an automobile platform include: The floorpan, which serves as a foundation for the chassis and other structural and mechanical components Front and rear axles and the distance between them - wheelbase Steering mechanism and type of power steering Type of front and rear suspensions Placement and choice of engine and other powertrain componentsPlatform sharing is a product development method where different products and the brand attached share the same components.
The purpose with platform sharing is to reduce the cost and have a more efficient product development process. The companies gain on reduced procurement cost by taking advantage of the commonality of the components. However, this limits their ability to differentiate the products and imposes a risk of losing the tangible uniqueness of the product; the companies have to make a trade-off between reducing their development costs and the degree of differentiation of the products. One of the first car companies to use this product development approach was General Motors for in 1908. General Motors used a single chassis for certain class of model across most of its brands like Chevrolet, Buick and Oldsmobile. Chrysler Corporation would use the same for Plymouth and DeSoto and Dodge cars. Ford followed the same principle for Mercury in US markets; the chassis unit was common with many shared mechanical components while the Exterior styling and Interior trims were designed according to its individual brand and category.
In recent years for Monocoque chassis, the Vehicle platform-sharing combined with advanced and flexible-manufacturing technology enable automakers to reduce product development and changeover times, while modular design and assembly allow building a greater variety of vehicles from one basic set of engineered components.. Shown below is the Nissan MS platform where vehicles ranging from 5-door hatchback, sedan to compact SUV and Minivan were built on common floor panel and many shared various functional assemblies such as engine and chassis components. Many vendors refer to this as vehicle architecture; the concept of product architecture is the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components. The use of a platform strategy provides several benefits: Greater flexibility between plants, Cost reduction achieved through using resources on a global scale, Increased utilization of plants, Reduction of the number of platforms as a result of their localization on a worldwide basis.
The car platform strategy has become important in new product development and in the innovation process. The finished products have to be responsive to market needs and to demonstrate distinctiveness while — at the same time — they must be developed and produced at low cost. Adopting such a strategy affects the development process and has an important impact on an automaker's organizational structure. A platform strategy offers advantages for the globalization process of automobile firms; because the majority of time and money by an automaker is spent on the development of platforms, platform sharing affords manufacturers the ability to cut costs on research and development by spreading the cost of the R&D over several product lines. Manufacturers are able to offer products at a lower cost to consumers. Additionally, economies of scale are increased. A "platform" was a shared chassis from a previously-engineered vehicle, as in the case for the Citroën 2CV platform chassis used by the Citroën Ami and Citroën Dyane, Volkswagen Beetle frame under the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia.
But these two manufacturers made vastly different category of vehicles under using the same chassis design at different years though the primary vehicle was still in production. In the USA platform sharing has been a common practice since the 1960s, when GM used the same platform in the development of the Pontiac LeMans, the Buick Skylark, the Chevrolet Chevelle, the Oldsmobile Cutlass. In the 1980s, Chrysler's K-cars all wore a badge with the letter "K" to indicate their shared platform. In stages, the "K" platform was extended in wheelbase, as well as use for several of the Corporation's different models. GM used similar strategies with its "J" platform. Subsequently GM introduced its "A" bodies for the same four divisions using the same tread width/wheelbase of the "X" body platform, but with larger body work to make the cars seem larger, with larger trunk compartments, they were popular through the 1980s, primarily. Cadillac started offering a "J" body model called the Cimarron, a much gussied up version of the other four brands' platform siblings.
A similar strategy applied to what is known as the N-J-L platform, arguably the most prolific of GM's efforts on one platform. Once more, GM's four lower level divis
Hot rods are old, classic or modern American cars with large engines modified for faster speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. For example, some claim. Other origin stories include replacing the engine's camshaft or "rod" with a higher performance version. Hot rods were favorites for greasers The term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as "hot-rodded amplifier". There are various theories about the origin of the term "hot rod"; the common theme is that "hot" related to "hotting up" a car, which means modifying it for greater performance. One theory is that "rod" means roadster, a lightweight 2-door car, used as the basis for early hot rods. Another theory is that "rod" refers to camshaft, a part of the engine, upgraded in order to increase power output. In the early days, a car modified for increased performance was called a "gow job"; this term morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. The term "hot rod" has had various uses in relation to performance cars.
For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in its vehicle emissions regulations, refers to a hot rod as any motorized vehicle that has a replacement engine differing from the factory original. The predecessors to the hotrod were the modified cars used in the Prohibition era by bootleggers to evade revenue agents and other law enforcement. Hot rods first appeared in the late 1930s in southern California, where people raced modified cars on dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles, under the rules of the Southern California Timing Association, among other groups; this gained popularity after World War II in California, because many returning soldiers had received technical training. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight. Engine swaps involved fitting the Ford flathead V8 engine into a different car, for example the common practice in the 1940s of installing the "60 horse" version into a Jeep chassis. Typical modifications were removal of convertible tops, bumpers, and/or fenders.
Wheels and tires were changed for improved handling. Hot rods built before 1945 used'35 Ford wire-spoke wheels. After World War II, many small military airports throughout the country were either abandoned or used, allowing hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Drag racing had tracks as long as 1 mi or more, included up to four lanes of racing simultaneously; as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, to provide venues for safe racing. The National Hot Rod Association was founded in 1951, to take drag racing off the streets and into controlled environments. In the'50s and'60s, the Ford flathead. Many hot rods would upgrade the brakes from mechanical to hydraulic and headlights from bulb to sealed-beam. A typical mid-1950s to early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, powered by a Ford or Mercury flathead, with an Edelbrock intake manifold and Collins magneto, Halibrand quick-change differential. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts.
As hot rodding became more popular and associations catering to hot rodders were started, such as the magazine Hot Rod, founded in 1948. As automobiles offered by the major automakers began increasing performance, the lure of hot rods began to wane. With the advent of the muscle car, it was now possible to purchase a high-performance car straight from the showroom; however the 1973 Oil Crisis caused car manufacturers to focus on fuel efficiency over performance, which led to a resurgence of interest in hot rodding. As the focus shifted away from racing, the modified cars became known as "street rods"; the National Street Rod Association began hosting events. By the 1970s, the 350 cu in small-block Chevy V8 was the most common choice of engine for hot rods. Another popular engine choice is the Ford Windsor engine. During the 1980s, many car manufacturers were reducing the displacements of their engines, thus making it harder for hot rod builders to obtain large displacement engines. Instead, engine builders had to modify the smaller engines to obtain larger displacement.
While current production V8s tended to be the most frequent candidates, this applied to others. In the mid-1980s, as stock engine sizes diminished, rodders discovered the 215 cu in aluminum-block Buick or Oldsmobile V8 could be modified for greater displacement, with wrecking yard parts; this trend was not limited to American cars. There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden; the hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: hot rodders. There is a contemporary movement of traditional hot rod builders, car clubs and artists who have returned to the roots of hot rodding as a lifestyle; this includes a new breed of traditional hot rod builders and styles, as well as classic style car clubs. Events like GreaseOrama feature the greaser lifestyle. Magazines like Ol' Skool Rodz and Gals, Rat-Rods and Rust Queens cover events and people. Author Tom Wolfe was
In economics, cargo or freight refers to goods or produce being conveyed – for commercial gain – by water, air or land. Cargo was a shipload. Cargo now covers all types of freight, including that carried by train, truck, or intermodal container; the term cargo is used in case of goods in the cold-chain, because the perishable inventory is always in transit towards a final end-use when it is held in cold storage or other similar climate-controlled facility. Multi-modal container units, designed as reusable carriers to facilitate unit load handling of the goods contained, are referred to as cargo, specially by shipping lines and logistics operators. Aircraft ULD boxes are documented as cargo, with associated packing list of the items contained within; when empty containers are shipped each unit is documented as a cargo and when goods are stored within, the contents are termed as containerised cargo. Seaport terminals handle a wide range of maritime cargo. Automobiles are handled at many ports and are carried on specialized roll-on/roll-off ships.
Break bulk cargo is material stacked on pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined worldwide as containerization has grown. One way to secure break bulk and freight in intermodal containers is by using Dunnage Bags. Bulk cargo, such as salt, oil and scrap metal, is defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. Bulk cargoes are not handled as individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. Alumina, gypsum and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes. Neo-bulk cargo comprises individual units that are counted as they are loaded and unloaded, in contrast to bulk cargo, not counted, but that are not containerized. Containers are the fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide. Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts and manufacturing components to shoes and toys to frozen meat and seafood. Project cargo and the heavy lift cargo include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, wind turbines, military equipment, any other oversized or overweight cargo, too big or too heavy to fit into a container.
Air cargo known as air freight, is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Manufacturers started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well. There are many commercial aircraft suitable for carrying cargo such as the Boeing 747 and the bigger An‑124, purposely built for easy conversion into a cargo aircraft; such large aircraft employ quick-loading containers known as unit load devices, much like containerized cargo ships. The ULDs are located in the front section of the aircraft. Most nations own and utilize large numbers of military cargo aircraft such as the C‑17 Globemaster III for logistical needs. Popular commercial aircraft transformed to a cargo aircraft such as Saab 340A is designed for high revenue and profitability in short / medium haul operations. Trains are capable of transporting a large number of containers. Trains are used for the transportation of water, grain, steel and coal, they are used because they can carry a large amount and have a direct route to the destination.
Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road when carried in bulk or over long distances. The main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. For this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Rail freight is subject to transshipment costs, since it must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another. Practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these costs; when transporting point-to-point bulk loads such as cement or grain, with specialised bulk handling facilities at the rail sidings, rail mode of transport remains the most convenient and preferred option. Many governments are trying to encourage shippers to use trains more because of the environmental benefits. Many firms, like Parcelforce, R+L Carriers transport all types of cargo by road. Delivering everything from letters to houses to cargo containers, these firms offer fast, sometimes same-day, delivery. A good example of road cargo is food, as supermarkets require deliveries daily to replenish their shelves with goods.
Retailers and manufacturers of all kinds rely upon delivery trucks, be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans. These smaller road haulage companies strive for the best routes and prices to ship out their products. Indeed, the level of commercial freight transported by smaller businesses is a good barometer of healthy economic development as it is these types of vehicles that move and transport anything, including couriers transporting parcel and mail. You can see the different weights of vehicles that are used to move cargo around. Freight is organized into various shipment categories before it is transported. An item's category is determined by: the type of item being carried. For example, a kettle could fit into the category'household goods'. How large the shipment is, in terms of both item size and quantity. How long the item for delivery will be in transit. Shipments are categorized as household goods, express and freight shipments: Household goods include furniture and similar items.
Small business or personal items like envelopes are considered overnight expres
The AMC Matador is an automobile model line built and marketed by American Motors Corporation from 1971 to 1978. The Matador came in two generations: 1971 to 1973, a major redesign from 1974 to 1978; the second-generation four-door sedan and station wagon models were classified as full-size cars and did not share the distinctive styling of the Matador coupe, introduced in 1974. Factory-backed AMC Matador hardtops and coupes competed in NASCAR stock car racing with drivers that included Mark Donohue and Bobby Allison winning several races; the new Matador coupe was featured in The Man with the Golden Gun, a James Bond film released in 1974. Matadors were a popular vehicle for police, they were featured in many television shows and movies during the 1970s. The Matador became AMC's largest automobile following the discontinuation of its flagship, the AMC Ambassador, built on the same platform. Premium trim "Oleg Cassini" and "Barcelona" versions of the Matador coupe were positioned in the personal luxury car market segment.
Matadors were marketed under the Rambler marque in foreign markets, as well as assembled under license agreements with AMC that included Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos, as well as built in right-hand-drive versions by Australian Motor Industries. The Matador replaced the AMC Rebel, marketed since 1967. With a facelift and a new name, the AMC Matadors were available as a two-door hardtop as well as a four-door sedan and station wagon; the Matador was based on AMC's "senior" automobile platform shared with the full-size Ambassador line. The sedan and wagon models "offered excellent value and were popular", including as a prowl car. Matadors were offered to fleet buyers with various police and other heavy-duty packages. Government agencies, military units, police departments in the U. S. equipped Matador wagons with 360 cu in or 401 cu in V8 engines. The Matador received a redesign in 1974, in part to meet new safety and crash requirements, as well as a different model "to contend with the bull market for plush mid-size coupes that sprang up after the end of the muscle car era".
American Motors advertising assured that the new Matador was not just a name change and facelift, but in reality it was the 1970 Rebel restyled with a longer front clip. The 1971 model year Matadors acquired a more substantial front end look for all three body designs: two-door hardtop, four-door sedan, station wagon; the AMC Matador shared its basic body design from the firewall back with the Ambassador, built on the same platform, but had a longer wheelbase and front-end sheetmetal, a formal grille and luxurious trim, as well as more standard equipment that included air conditioning. Externally the 1971 model retained the same trunk lid chrome strip and rear-corner chrome garnishes as the 1970 Rebel; the rear bumper was the same as the 1970 Rebel but with a new tail light lens assembly of three-in-line square lenses with rounded corners. Interior wise, it shared the same dash, instrument cluster, steering wheel, arm rests as the 1970 Rebel. Reused was the 1967–1970 Rebel "Weather Eye" fan-heat control unit.
The 1971 model came with a split-bench front seat with individual fold-down center arm rests for passenger and driver seats. While "Matador" may have been a move away from connotations of the Confederacy inspired by the rise of the civil rights movement, it did not help solve the obscurity problem, as AMC adopted a "what's a Matador" advertising campaign; this self-disparaging marketing campaign "turned the styling of anonymity into an asset." Consumer-research polls conducted by AMC found it meant excitement to consumers. However, American Motors ran into problems in Puerto Rico, where "matador" has connotations of "killer" on the island where bullfighting was abolished when the U. S. took its control. The Matador station wagons had available rear-facing third-row bench seats, increasing total seating from six to eight passengers. In addition, all wagons included roof racks and two-way tailgates that opened when the rear windows were down either from the top to serve as an extended flat surface, with the load floor, or to swing open like a regular door hinged on the left side.
The Matador came with a number of V8 engines. Transmissions for the Matador included the Borg-Warner sourced "Shift-Command" three-speed automatic, a column-shifted three-speed manual and a floor-shifted four-speed manual. Continuing in the muscle car market segment, the "Machine" was moved from being a distinct 1970 AMC Rebel model to the new Matador only as a performance package option for two-door hardtops. However, the options could be ordered individually making it possible to equip the equivalent of a "Go Package" on a four-door Matador sedan or station wagon; the 1971 "Go Package" Matador two-door lacked the optional bold red and blue striping of its AMC Rebel-based predecessor, had no special identification or badging. Less known than the 1970 original, around 50 Matador Machines were produced for 1971; the package featured 15 × 7-inch slot-styled steel wheels with white-lettered "polyglass" belted tires, dual exhaust system, a heavy-duty handling package, power disk brakes, a choice of either a 360 cu in or the 401 cu in V8 engine with either a four-speed manual or a three-speed automatic transmission.
In 1972 the innovative AMC Buyer Protection Plan was introduced. This was 12,000 miles bumper-to-bumper warranty. American Motors started with an emphasis on quality and durability by focusing on its component sourcing, improving production that included reducing the nu
The Opel Omega is an executive car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel between 1986 and 2003. The first generation, the Omega A, superseded the Opel Rekord, was voted European Car of the Year for 1987, was available as a saloon or estate; the second generation, the Omega B, was manufactured from 1993 to 2003. Rebadged variants of the Omega were marketed worldwide, including in North America as the Cadillac Catera, in Great Britain as the Vauxhall Omega and South America as the Chevrolet Omega. Reengineered versions were manufactured in Australia since 1988 as the Holden Commodore since 1999, which were in turn exported to South America as the Chevrolet Omega and the Middle East as the Chevrolet Lumina. Production of the Omega was discontinued in 2003, with no direct replacement, apart from the Australian reengineered versions that carried on until 2006 as a sedan and 2007 in other guises. After vacating the executive car segment, Opel tried to fill the market void with "expensive" versions of the existing Vectra and Signum ranges.
In the United Kingdom, Vauxhall reentered the market segment in 2007 with the VXR8. The original Omega went into production in September 1986, as a replacement for the final version of the Opel Rekord, in production since 1978. Sales began in November; the body was designed as an evolution of the previous Opel design theme engineered more towards aerodynamics in view of higher fuel prices and the general drive towards more fuel efficiency. The result was a remarkable drag coefficient of 0.28. The whole development program cost two billion Deutschmarks; the UK market version of the final generation of Rekord had been marketed as the Vauxhall Carlton, this nameplate was retained for the new car. Late in 1986, it was voted European Car of the Year for 1987, ahead of the highly-acclaimed new versions of the Audi 80 and BMW 7 Series. Compared to the Rekord, the Omega featured many modern technological advances, which were new to Opel in general, if not to the volume segment European automotive market.
These included electronic engine management, ABS, on board computer, air conditioned glove compartment and the fashionable LCD instrument cluster. More the Omega came with a self diagnose system, whose output could be read by appropriately equipped authorised service stations. All the Omega models used a longitudinally-mounted engine with a rear-wheel drive setup, with a five speed manual transmission or four speed automatic transmission; the engine range consisted of 1.8 L, 2.0 L and 2.4 L four cylinder units to 2.6 L, 3.0 L, 3.0 L-24v six cylinder units. The 1.8 L and 2.0 L four cylinder petrol engines were all based on the Family II design, whilst the six cylinder units and the 2.4 L four cylinder were based on the older Opel CIH family. In Brazil, the car was sold as the Chevrolet Omega and powered by 2.0 L I4 or 3.0 L I6 Opel engines until 1994. Since the discontinuation of the Omega A in Germany, General Motors do Brasil needed new engines to continue production and the 2.0 L I4 was replaced by 2.2 L I4 engine, the 3.0 L I6 was replaced by 4.1 L Chevrolet Straight-6 engine C41GE, tuned by Lotus and equipped with multi port fuel injection.
The Chevrolet Omega was produced until 1998. The four basic trim levels were LS, GL, GLS and CD; the base LS was intended for the fleet market, with the sedan unavailable to individual customers in some markets. The LS Caravan was available as a panel van with rear side windows covered, with body coloured foil rather than replaced by solid panels. For the year of 1991, the Omega A was afforded a facelift, which encompassed slight alterations to front and rear fascias, as well as interior materials and additional sound dampening; the until base 1.8 L engine was dropped. The LS and GLS trim levels were dropped, while the CD was joined by Club and CD Diamant; this options package was introduced in 1988, could be added onto the GLS, LS and CD trim version. It included alloy wheels, metallic paint, tinted windows, stereo with cassette player, various leather trim in the interior, as well as a painted grille and door mirrors, it sold well and the package was kept after the facelift and a similar system with the same name was used for the Omega B.
The Omega 3000 was the sports version of the Omega A model range. It featured twelve valve engine, which produced 177 bhp. Other modifications from the base model included a lowered suspension and limited slip differential, as well as different fascias and a rear spoiler; the car had a top speed of 220 km/h, accelerated from 0–100 km/h in 8.8 seconds. In 1989, the Omega 3000 was upgraded; the engine now had 24 valves, two overhead camshafts, a variable intake manifold. It used a more advanced engine control unit. Power increased to 204 bhp, which increased top speed to 240 km/h, 0–100 km/h time dropped to 7.6 seconds. In countries where the car was sold as a Vauxhall, the Omega 3000 was called the Carlton GSi 3000; this was limited series model produced together with Irmscher. It was built so Opel could compete in the DTM; the car had a three litre straight-6 producing 230 bhp. The car accelerated from 0–100 km/h in 7.5 seconds and had a top speed of 249 km/h
Personal luxury car
Personal luxury car is a car classification for American luxury coupés and convertibles produced from 1952–2007. The cars prioritised styling and a high level of interior features. Prior to the late 1970s, personal luxury cars were large, rear-wheel drive vehicles powered by large V8 engines; as a result of the downsizing trend in the American automotive industry since the late 1970s, many personal luxury cars have been produced as mid-size cars with six-cylinder engines and front-wheel drive. The popularity of the personal luxury car was increased by the sales success of the 1958 Ford Thunderbird, due to being lengthened from a two-seat car to a four-seat car; the Thunderbird was sold for eleven generations up until the 2005 model year. The longest running model of personal luxury car was the Cadillac Eldorado, produced for 50 years, beginning with the 1953 model year. By the 21st century, the personal luxury market had disappeared as consumers migrated to other market segments; the body style was a two-door coupé or convertible, with either no rear seat or a small rear seat not intended for regular use by adults.
Personal luxury cars were designed for the comfort and convenience, so they were highly equipped with interior features that were either optional or not available on other models. Although they used large engines, overall performance was blunted by the mass of the car; the cars were mass-produced and shared major mechinical components with other models from the manufacturer, in order to reduce production costs. The styling of 1950s personal luxury cars has been described as a "baroque excess". Amongst the first personal luxury cars were the Cadillac Eldorado, Buick Roadmaster Skylark, Oldsmobile 98 Fiesta and Packard Caribbean. All four models were powered by V8 engines; the Eldorado was based on the Cadillac Series 62 and cost US$7,750 twice the price of a base model Series 62. It represented 0.5% of Cadillac's total sales in 1953. The Buick Roadmaster Skylark was priced at over US$5,000, an increase of 50% compared to the standard Buick Roadmaster convertible. There were 1,690 Skylarks sold over its two years of production.
The Oldsmobile 98 Fiesta was released in the final year of production for the third-generation Oldmobile 98. Priced at US$5,715, there were 458 Fiesta; the Packard Caribbean's production total for 1953 was 750 cars. The Ford Thunderbird, released in 1955, was marketed as a "personal car" and is credited with playing a key role in the creation of the personal luxury car segment; the first-generation Thunderbird was a two-seat car with a V8 engine, suspension, designed for comfort instead of handling and available in convertible and roadster body styles. The 1955 Imperial Newport was a two-door hardtop built on a platform shared with the less expensive Chrysler New Yorker and Chrysler Windsor; the Continental Mark II was released by Ford for the 1956 model year. It was produced in the two-door hardtop body style and standard equipment included power steering, power brakes, power windows, power seats, power vent windows, leather interior and a tachometer; the only option was air conditioning for $595.
With a price of US$10,000, the cost was equivalent to a Rolls-Royce and 3,012 Mark IIs were sold from 1955 to 1957. The 1958 Ford Thunderbird added a rear seat, in response to Ford's market research that the two-seat layout of the first generation was limiting sales; the convertible body style remained, however the roadster body style was replaced by a two-door hardtop. Sales totalled 200,000 over three years and the Thunderbird received the 1958 Motor Trend Car of the Year award; the first model to appear as a result of the marketplace success of the Thunderbird was the 1962 Studebaker Avanti. The Avanti featured an optional supercharged engine and front disc brakes, it was marketed as "America's only 4 passenger high-performance personal car". The company built 4,647 Avantis before production ended in 1963; the first mainstream personal luxury car from General Motors was the 1963 Buick Riviera, which began life as the Cadillac LaSalle XP-715 concept car. However, General Motors management was not interested in the XP-715 concept for Cadillac and offered it up to a competition between interested divisions.
Buick won based on its marketing presentation. Total sales for the 1963–1965 model years was 112,244. AMC's first personal luxury car was the intermediate-sized 1965 Rambler Marlin; the Marlin was described as "unusual, distinctive and in a class by itself". The 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado became the first front-wheel drive personal luxury car; the Toronado provided the platform for the Cadillac Eldorado to switch to front-wheel drive the following year. Up until 1967, personal luxury cars were grouped together with muscle cars and pony cars as the "specialty cars" classification. Rather than marketing to broad income classes as with their standard models, each of these car classes was targeted by the automakers to smaller and more specific market niches while offering long lists of options to satisfy consumer demands for individuality. For 1967, the Rambler Marlin moved from a mid-size to a full size platform as a "larger 3+3 family coupe designed to appeal to the market’s trend toward bigger cars with more appointments."
For 1967, the Ford Thunderbird was released, moving further upmarket and with a four-door pillarless hardtop body style being added. The Continental Mark III two-door coupe was introduced for the 1969 model year as the flagship