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Middle-earth peoples

The fictional peoples and races that appear in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy world of Middle-earth include the seven peoples or races listed in Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings: Elves, Dwarves, Ents and Trolls, as well as various spirits, the Valar and Maiar. Other beings inhabit Middle-earth whose nature is unclear, such as Tom Bombadil and his wife Goldberry; the Ainur were angelic spirits created by Eru Ilúvatar at the Beginning. The Ainur who subsequently entered the physical world of Middle-earth were the Valar, though that term came to refer to the mightiest among them. Lesser spirits were called the Maiar. Most of the Valar and Maiar withdrew from Middle-earth to the Undying Lands of Valinor, though some of the Maiar, such as the Wizards or Istari and the Dark Lord Sauron, assumed mortal forms to help or hinder the peoples of Middle-earth; the wizards of Middle-earth are lesser in power. Outwardly resembling Men but possessing much greater physical and mental power, they are called Istari by the Elves.

They were sent by the Valar to assist the people of Middle-earth to contest Sauron. The first three of these five wizards were known in the Mannish tongues of the Lord of the Rings series as Saruman "man of skill", Gandalf "elf of the staff", Radagast "tender of beasts". Tolkien never provided non-Elvish names for the other two; each wizard in the series had robes of a characteristic colour: white for Saruman, grey for Gandalf, brown for Radagast, sea-blue for Alatar and Pallando. Gandalf and Saruman play important roles in The Lord of the Rings, while Radagast appears only innocently helping Saruman to deceive Gandalf, who believes Radagast since he is honest, fortuitously alerting Gwaihir to rescue Gandalf again. Alatar and Pallando do not feature in the story, as they are said to have journeyed far into the east after their arrival in Middle-earth; as the Istari were Maiar, each one served a Vala in some way. Saruman was the servant and helper of Aulë, so learned much in the art of craftsmanship and metal-working, as was seen in the Third Age.

Gandalf was the servant of Manwë or Varda, but was a lover of the Gardens of Lórien, so knew much of the hopes and dreams of Men and Elves. Radagast, servant of Yavanna, loved the things of both animals and plants; as each of these Istari learned from their Vala, so they acted in Middle-earth. Demonic creatures of fire and shadow, Balrogs were fallen Maiar, they participated in the wars of the First Age of Middle-earth but were destroyed during the War of Wrath. By the Third Age, the only known remaining Balrog was "Durin's Bane," the Balrog of Moria, slain by Gandalf; the Free Peoples of Middle-earth were those races that had never fallen under the sway of the evil spirits Morgoth or Sauron. Four races were traditionally regarded as the free peoples of Middle-earth: Elves, Men and Ents. Speaking it was only the Men of the West who were Free People the descendants of the Dúnedain of the Isle of Númenor, as most Men of the East and South of Middle-earth became servants of Morgoth and Sauron over the ages.

The Ent Treebeard quotes lines from a traditional lay listing them First came the four, the free peoples Eldest of all, the elf-children Dwarf the delver, dark are his houses Ent the earthborn, old as mountains Man the mortal, master of horses After encountering the hobbits Merry and Pippin, he consents that hobbits are a fifth free people, adding a fifth line: Half-grown hobbits, the hole-dwellers The race of Dwarves preferred to live in mountains and caves, settling in places such as Erebor, the Iron Hills, the Blue Mountains, Moria in the Misty Mountains. Aulë the Smith created Dwarves. Dwarves worked precious metals throughout the mountains of Middle-earth; the seven different groups of Dwarf-folk originated in the locations where the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves first awoke before the First Age. The Petty-dwarves were smaller and more unsociable Dwarves of several houses, banished in ancient times, they were aggressive, fierce in battle. The Elves, or Firstborn, were the first of Eru's Children to awaken.

Born under the stars before the ascension of the Moon and the Sun, they retain a special love for light and an inner spirit endowed with unique gifts. They call themselves the Quendi, or "Speakers". Fair and fine featured and proud, immortal and strong and agile, they are the most blessed of the Free Peoples, they can see as well under starlight as a man at the height of day. They cannot become sick or scarred, but if an Elf should die, from violence or losing the will to live from grief, their spirit goes to the halls of Mandos, as they are bound to Arda and cannot leave until the world is broken and remade. Elven skill and agility is legendary: for instance, walking atop freshly fallen snow without leaving a trace of their passing. On a clear day they can detail up to 100 miles; these gifts come at great cost, though: they are bound to Fate and hated by Morgoth. No other race cursed more than the Quendi; the Quendi were sundered after the awakening and many sub-groups a

Reptiles (magazine)

Based in Irvine, Reptiles magazine is a North American magazine dedicated to the reptile and amphibian pet hobby, specializing in the keeping and breeding of these animals. Fancy Publications BowTie Inc. launched the magazine in October 1993. After a year of publishing bimonthly, Reptiles went monthly in December 1994 due to increasing popularity of the magazine. Tips and information on keeping and breeding different herps make up the bulk of an issue’s feature articles, but other article topics include field herping and amphibian health and current trends in the hobby. Many contests are held for readers, as well, sponsored by a variety of reptile product manufacturers who provide prizes. Although popular pet animals, such as bearded dragons, corn snakes, red-eared sliders, leopard geckos, crested geckos, Pac Man frogs, ball pythons, red-footed tortoises and many other common species appear in the magazine, Reptiles publishes articles about less kept animals, such as Asian box turtles, Aldabra giant tortoises, various types of chameleons, black headed pythons, venomous snakes and crocodilians.

Reptiles articles are written for a broad range of reptile enthusiasts, from the novice hobbyist to the veteran herpetoculturist. Respected reptile experts and breeders in the industry have written for the magazine. Past authors include Bob Applegate, Brian Barczyk and Tracy Barker, R. D. Bartlett, Bob Clark, Tom Crutchfield, Linda Davison, Philippe de Vosjoli, Dante Fenolio and Richard Fife, Ken Foose, Russ Gurley, Bert Langerwerf, Jeff Lemm and Kathy Love, Kimberly Kay Lucas, Dr. Douglas Mader, Bob Mailloux, Kevin McCurley, Sean McKeown, Gerold Merker, John Murphy, Patrick Nabors, Terry Phillip, Louis Porras, Peter Pritchard, Philip A. Purser, Allen Repashy, Don Soderberg, Robert Sprackland, Jeremy Stone, Ron Tremper, Ernie Wagner, Rico Walder, Trooper Walsh and Romulus Whitaker. A reptile or amphibian species is featured on the cover, though Slash and Mark O'Shea were both cover subjects due to interviews they provided. A two-part interview with Steve Irwin, the Crocodile Hunter, appeared in the October and November 1999 issues.

In February 2013, BowTie's magazine titles, including Reptiles, were purchased by I-5 Publishing, LLC. Other magazines published by BowTie that are now being published by I-5 include Cat Fancy, Dog Fancy and Horse Illustrated. In December 2013 the website of Reptiles was launched. Official website

List of moths of Australia (Yponomeutidae)

This is a list of the Australian moth species of the family Yponomeutidae. It acts as an index to the species articles and forms part of the full List of moths of Australia. Atteva albiguttata Atteva charopis Turner, 1903 Atteva megalastra Meyrick, 1907 Atteva niphocosma Turner, 1903 Prays amblystola Turner, 1923 Prays autocasis Meyrick, 1907 Prays calycias Meyrick, 1907 Prays inscripta Meyrick, 1907 Prays nephelomima Meyrick, 1907 Prays parilis Turner, 1923 Prays tyrastis Meyrick, 1907 The following species belongs to the subfamily Praydinae, but has not been assigned to a genus yet. Given here is the original name given to the species when it was first described: Eriocottis euryphracta Meyrick, 1893 Anoista insolita Turner, 1939 Charicrita citrozona Meyrick, 1913 Charicrita orthonina Turner, 1927 Charicrita sericoleuca Turner, 1923 Chionogenes drosochlora Chionogenes isanema Chionogenes trimetra Meyrick, 1913 Lissochroa argostola Turner, 1923 Litaneutis sacrifica Meyrick, 1913 Niphonympha oxydelta Nymphonia zaleuca Meyrick, 1913 Opsiclines leucomorpha Orsocoma macrogona Meyrick, 1921 Palleura nitida Turner, 1926 Spaniophylla epiclithra Turner, 1917 Teinoptila interruptella Sauber, 1902 Xyrosaris acroxutha Turner, 1923 Xyrosaris dryopa Meyrick, 1907 Yponomeuta internellus Yponomeuta liberalis Yponomeuta myriosema Yponomeuta paurodes Meyrick, 1907 Yponomeuta pustulellus Zelleria aphrospora Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria araeodes Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria callidoxa Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria citrina Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria cremnospila Lower, 1900 Zelleria cryptica Meyrick, 1913 Zelleria cyanoleuca Zelleria cynetica Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria euthysema Turner, 1923 Zelleria hemixipha Lower, 1900 Zelleria isopyrrha Meyrick, 1921 Zelleria malacodes Turner, 1939 Zelleria memorella Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria mystarcha Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria orthopleura Turner, 1923 Zelleria panceuthes Turner, 1923 Zelleria proterospila Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria pyroleuca Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria sigillata Meyrick, 1893 Zelleria stylograpta Meyrick, 1907 The following species belongs to the subfamily Yponomeutinae, but has not been assigned to a genus yet.

Given here is the original name given to the species when it was first described: Amblyzancla araeoptila Turner, 1939 Yponomeutidae at Australian Faunal Directory

KTA Advocates

KTA Advocates is a Ugandan law firm headquartered in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. It is a private legal practice firm founded in 2009, it is a discreet law firm established in 2009 with a strong network of contacts. Justus Karuhanga, the firm's founding senior partner, in particular has a high profile having acted as a legal advisor to the president of Uganda. Edgar Tabaro, the firm's business development partner, is the Justice and Constitutional Affairs minister of Toro Kingdom and serves as a board member and legal brain for Uganda Communications Authority. Kenneth Muhangi, the firms Technology & Intellectual Property Partner, lectures cyber law & Intellectual Property, consults for the Ministry of ICT on Innovation & worked on the e-justice project of the Judiciary of Uganda; the firm as a whole is renowned for its expertise in intellectual property and telecommunications, broadcasting and IT. Kampala Uganda Law Society East African Law Society Institute of Corporate Governance of Uganda Center for Arbitration and Dispute Resolution KTA Advocates was established as a law firm and duly registered and certified by the Law Council of the Ugandan Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs in 2009 by Justus Karuhanga, Edgar Tabaro and Edwin Tabaro.

Since its inception, the Firm has handled a number of noteworthy transactions for multinational corporations, financial institutions and non-government organisations and related agencies, private businesses and individuals in Uganda and globally. Airtime dealers v Uganda Telecom In 2010, KTA represented Ugandan airtime dealers, in a contentious matter in which they took Uganda Telecom to court for breach of distributorship agreements; the dealers demanded for Shs15 billion for an out of court settlement. Sylvia Nabiteeko Katende v Bank of Uganda In 2010, KTA represented Nabiteeko, a senior lecturer at Makerere University, in a case in which she sued Bank of Uganda for using her artistic works on the Shs20,000 note without her consent; this particular suit was valued at Shs1 above. Elamin v Abu Dhabi Group & Others In 2012, KTA represented Abdul Rahman Elamin in a case in which the Ugandan businessman sued the Abu Dhabi royal family's business entities over the three per cent shares allotted to him in Warid Telecom.

The minority shareholder sued the firm over unpaid shares which were valued at $3.7 million. Below are some of the firm's notable clients: KTA specializes in the following disciplines: The 2014 IFLR1000's financial and corporate law firm rankings show that KTA is a notable financial and corporate law firm in Uganda. Law Development Centre Uganda Law Society Official Website IFLR1000: The Guide to the World's Leading Financial Law Firms


Winmark Corporation is an American franchisor of five retail businesses that specialize in buying and selling used goods. The company is based in Minnesota. Winmark was founded in 1988 as Play It Again Sports Franchise Corporation by Ron Olson and Jeffrey Dahlberg after they purchased the Play It Again Sports franchise rights from Martha Morris, they renamed the company to Grow Biz International Inc. in June 1993. Grow Biz went public in August 1993. In 2000, John Morgan replaced Dahlberg as CEO and renamed the company to Winmark in 2001. Morgan rescued Winmark from the verge of bankruptcy by selling financially failing franchise concepts and stores and replacing the management team; the company's strategy was to move from owning stores itself to having franchisees own all the stores. Winmark Corporation owns five franchise-based retail companies that focus on used goods: Music Go Round, Once Upon a Child, Plato's Closet, Play It Again Sports, Style Encore. Winmark owned but subsequently sold four franchise-based retailed companies: Computer Renaissance, Disc Go Round, It's About Game, ReTool.

Its subsidiary Wirth. Around 2013, research company IBISWorld reported that in the used goods outlet market, Goodwill Industries was first with a 21.5% share, Winmark was second with nearly 6%, The Salvation Army was third with nearly 4%. In 2016, Winmark had a $1 billion market share in the $17 billion resell industry through its 1,170 franchisees. Ron Olson and Jeffrey Dahlberg started a consulting firm, Franchise Business Systems, in 1986. Olson had been the president of R. J. Brandon Galleries and Dahlberg had been the chief executive officer of his father Kenneth H. Dahlberg's company, Dahlberg Inc.. Martha Morris was an initial customer of Dahlberg's consulting company. Morris, who started Play It Again Sports in 1983 in Uptown, had purchased camping and backpacking supplies, found out she was not interested in camping, decided to sell her used goods, she had attempted to sell a costly used backpack through making ads and visiting a sports shop, where an employee told her, "We don't sell used equipment."

Morris decided to start her own store since she believed other people might have used sports equipment they would like to sell. Morris expressed a desire to make her idea a franchise. Although Olson and Dahlberg were first concerned about the idea's outlook for success, their worries disappeared after they dropped by her outlet a Saturday morning and found a line of 10 customers before Morris' store had opened, their strategy to captivate franchisees was to add urbanity to something they called a "garage sale-looking environment" but not harm the initial idea. Olson and Dahlberg realized they preferred to be the owners of a company instead of be advisers. Morris sold her Play It Again Sports franchise rights to Olson and Dahlberg in 1988, she sold her stores to them in 1990. Play It Again Sports became Winmark's first division; the company was incorporated as Play It Again Sports Franchise Corporation in 1988 and was renamed to Grow Biz International Inc. in June 1993. It went public in August 1993.

The company was listed on NASDAQ as GBIZ. In 1995, a significant number of the company's franchises were on Entrepreneur's annual "Franchise 500" list. In 2001, Grow Biz was renamed to Winmark Corporation. Winmark Corporation is based in Minnesota. In March 2000, John Morgan took over as CEO from Jeff Dahlberg. By a year after joining the company as CEO, Morgan rescued Winmark from the precipice of bankruptcy by introducing stringent review of franchisee finances, shuttering failing Play It Again Sports stores, appointing his own people to executive and board positions. Morgan chose Steve Briggs, at Valspar, as the company's president, he selected as board members Kirk MacKenzie, whom he had worked with at Winthrop Resources, Paul Reyelts, the chief financial officer at Valspar. In June 2000, Winmark sold its corporate headquarters building to Koch Trucking; the company had lost $350,700 in 2000. Morgan said in a 2009 interview with the Star Tribune about the state of Winmark before he joined, "The company was good at selling franchises, but it was still losing money."

Around 2002, Winmark sold the franchises Computer Renaissance and Disc-Go-Round. In 2011, Winmark was ranked the 11th company on Forbes's "The Top 20 Small Public Companies In America". Around 2013, research company IBISWorld found that in the used goods outlet market, Goodwill Industries was first with a 21.5% share, Winmark was second with nearly 6%, The Salvation Army was third with nearly 4%. In 2016, the company had a $1 billion market share in the $17 billion resell industry through its 1,170 franchisees. In February 2016, President Brett Heffes was chosen as Winmark's next CEO, succeeding John Morgan, who became the executive chairman. According to a 2014 article in The Toronto Star, Morgan holds the most shares in the company. Winmark Corporation owns five franchise-based retail companies that focus on used goods: Music Go Round, Once Upon a Child, Plato's Closet, Play It Again Sports, Style Encore. Winmark sold four franchise-based retailed companies: Computer Renaissance, Disc Go Round, It's About Game, ReTool.

The cost to become a franchisee in 2009 wa

Rukn al-Din Khurshah

Rukn al-Dīn Khurshāh or Rukn al-Dīn Khwarshāh ‎ was the son of ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III and the 27th Isma'ili Imam. He was the fifth and final Nizari Isma'ili Imam who ruled at Alamut; the Imam was the eldest son of Imam ʿAla al-Din Muhammad and succeeded his murdered father to the Imamate in 1255. Imam Rukn al-Din engaged in a long series of negotiations with the invading Mongols, under whose leadership Alamut Castle was surrendered to the Mongol Empire marking the end of the order of Assassins in Persia Ruknuddin Hasan, surnamed Khurshāh or Khwarshāh was born in 627 AH/1230 CE, he is known as Kahirshah. When he was still a child, his father had declared him as his successor. Persian historian Ata-Malik Juvayni tried to adulterate the Nizari line of Imamate, but at one place he curiously writes, "And today, the leader of the heretics of Alamut traces his descent from this son."His father, Imam ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad had taken due care of rudiments of his formal education at home under personal care.

When he grew young, his father designated him his deputy to investigate few cases of disorders in some castles, with an instruction to obey his orders as his own. In 653/1255, before his father's death, he is reported to have visited Syria with a letter of his father. Strict protection had been given to Rukn, wherever he went, a small unit of armed men accompanied him as security guards, it is related that he stayed more than a year in the castles of Rudbar and Kohistan for making fresh administrative fabric, thus the enemies of the Ismailis smacked of exaggerations that his relation had been deteriorated with his father. Three days having assumed the Imamate, Rukn sent an army which his father had ordered against Shal-Rud in the district of Khalkhal; the Ismaili forces occupied the castle after a small fighting. In 1256, Rukn al-Din commenced a series of gestures demonstrating his submission to the Mongols. In a show of his compliance and at the demand of Hulagu Khan, Rukn al-Din began the dismantling process at Alamut Castle and Lambsar Castle, removing towers and battlements.

However, as winter approached, Hulagu took these gestures to be a means of delaying his seizure of the castles and on 8 November 1256 the Mongol troops encircled the Maymundiz fortress and residence of the Imam. After four days of preliminary bombardment with significant casualties for both sides, the Mongols assembled their mangonels around the castle in preparation for a direct siege. There was still no snow on the ground and the attacks proceeded, forcing Rukn al-Din to declare his surrender in exchange for his and his family's safe passage. After another bombardment, Rukn al-Din descended from Maymundiz on 19 November. In the hands of Hulagu, Rukn al-Din was forced to send the message of surrender to all the castles in the Alamut valley. At the Alamut fortress, the Mongol prince Balaghai led his troops to the base of the castle, calling for the surrender of the commander of Alamut, Muqaddam al-Din, it was decreed that should he surrender and pledge his allegiance to the Khagan within one day, the lives of those at Alamut would be spared.

Muqaddam al-Din was reluctant and wondered if the Imam's message of surrender was an act of duress. In obedience to the Imam and his men descended from the fortress, the Mongol army entered Alamut and began its demolition. Many of the other fortresses had complied, therefore not only would Muqaddam's resistance have resulted in a direct battle for the castle, but the explicit violation of the instructions of the Imam, which would impact on the Ismaili commander's oath of total obedience to the Imam; when Rukn al-Din arrived in Mongolia with promises to persuade the prevailing Ismaili fortresses to surrender, Möngke Khan no longer believed the Imam to be of use. En route back to his homeland, Rukn al-Din was put to death in 1256, he was succeeded by his son Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad. Alamut Alamut Castle Lambsar Castle Nizari Ismaili state List of Ismaili imams Fatimids Isma'ilism Nizari Aga Khan Ruknuddin Khurshah Rukn al-Din Khurshah in Encyclopedia Iranica