Central Valley (California)
The Central Valley is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U. S. state of California. It is 40 to 60 miles wide and stretches 450 miles from north-northwest to south-southeast, inland from and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast, it covers 18,000 square miles, about 11% of California's total land area. The valley is bounded by the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges to the west, it is California's single most productive agricultural region and one of the most productive in the world, providing more than half of the fruits and nuts grown in the United States. More than 7 million acres of the valley are irrigated via an extensive system of reservoirs and canals; the valley has many major cities, including the state capital Sacramento. The Central Valley watershed comprises over a third of California, it consists of three main drainage systems: the Sacramento Valley in the north, which receives well over 20 inches of rain annually. The Sacramento and San Joaquin river systems drain their respective valleys and meet to form the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, a large expanse of interconnected canals, stream beds, sloughs and peat islands.
The delta empties into the San Francisco Bay, ultimately flows into the Pacific. The waters of the Tulare Basin never flow to the ocean, though they are connected by man-made canals to the San Joaquin and could drain there again if they were to rise high enough; the valley encompasses all or parts of 18 Northern California counties: Butte, Glenn, Kings, Merced, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Tehama, Yuba and the Southern California county of Kern. The Central Valley is known to residents as "the Valley." Older names include "the Great Valley," a name still seen in scientific references, "Golden Empire," a booster name, still referred to by some organizations. The Central Valley is outlined by the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi mountain ranges on the east, the California Coast Ranges and San Francisco Bay on the west; the broad valley floor is carpeted by vast agricultural regions, dotted with numerous population centers. Subregions and their counties associated with the valley include: North Sacramento Valley Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin South San Joaquin There are four main population centers in the Central Valley, each equidistant from the next, from south to north: Bakersfield, Fresno and Redding.
While there are many communities large and small between these cities, these four cities act as hubs for regional commerce and transportation. About 6.5 million people live in the Central Valley today, it is the fastest growing region in California. There are 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas and 1 Micropolitan Statistical Area in the Central Valley. Below, they are listed by μSA population; the largest city is the state capital Sacramento, followed by Fresno. The following metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas listed from largest to smallest: The flatness of the valley floor contrasts with the rugged hills or gentle mountains that are typical of most of California's terrain; the valley is thought to have originated below sea level as an offshore area depressed by subduction of the Farallon Plate into a trench further offshore. The San Joaquin Fault is a notable seismic feature of the Central Valley; the valley was enclosed by the uplift of the Coast Ranges, with its original outlet into Monterey Bay.
Faulting moved the Coast Ranges, a new outlet developed near what is now San Francisco Bay. Over the millennia, the valley was filled by the sediments of these same ranges, as well as the rising Sierra Nevada to the east; the one notable exception to the flat valley floor is Sutter Buttes, the remnants of an extinct volcano just to the northwest of Yuba City, 44 miles north of Sacramento. Another significant geologic feature of the Central Valley lies hidden beneath the delta; the Stockton Arch is an upwarping of the crust beneath the valley sediments that extends southwest to northeast across the valley. The Central Valley lies within the California Trough physiographic section, part of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System; the "Central Valley grassland" is the Nearctic temperate and subtropical grasslands and shrub lands ecoregion, once a diverse grassland containing areas of desert grassland, savanna, riverside woodland, several types of seasonal vernal pools, large lakes such as now-dry Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake.
However, much of the Central Valley environment
Covelo is a census-designated place in Mendocino County, United States. Covelo is located 14 miles east-northeast of Laytonville, at an elevation of 1,398 feet; the population was 1,255 at the 2010 census, up from 1,175 at the 2000 census. 405 acres of Covelo is part of the Round Valley Indian Reservation. Covelo is located at 39°47′35″N 123°14′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 7.1 square miles, 99.40% of it land, 0.60% of it water. Covelo is the location of the Covelo American Viticultural Area. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Covelo has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. Covelo has a four-season climate, with the dry part of the year during summer and the rainy part in the winter. Winters are mild in Covelo. Although snow falls on the nearby mountains such as Anthony Peak in the winter, it falls in the valley. Diurnal temperature variation is strong year round, albeit the most severe in summer.
During winters, the variation still results in frequent air frosts. Covelo began with the opening of the town's first store; the post office opened in 1870. Some sources claim. However, there is no village in Switzerland by that name. Covelo may be a misspelling of Covolo, a fort in Pederobba, Italy, near Switzerland; the 2010 United States Census reported that Covelo had a population of 1,255. The population density was 175.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Covelo was 611 White, 14 African American, 475 Native American, 10 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 49 from other races, 96 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 163 persons; the Census reported that 1,247 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 8 were institutionalized. There were 481 households, out of which 148 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 146 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 81 had a female householder with no husband present, 56 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 70 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 148 households were made up of individuals and 53 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59. There were 283 families; the population was spread out with 339 people under the age of 18, 105 people aged 18 to 24, 320 people aged 25 to 44, 299 people aged 45 to 64, 192 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. There were 542 housing units at an average density of 75.9 per square mile, of which 314 were owner-occupied, 167 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 791 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 456 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,175 people, 442 households, 301 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 164.9 people per square mile.
There were 512 housing units at an average density of 71.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 50.21% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 40.26% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 1.96% from other races, 6.21% from two or more races. 8.09 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 442 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 20.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.17. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $27,639, the median income for a family was $31,875. Males had a median income of $21,146 versus $17,014 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $12,628. About 17.1% of families and 27.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.4% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Covelo is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Covelo is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Round Valley Elementary and Round Valley High School serve as the town's schools. There is Eel River Charter School. Michelle Lambert, pop singer Joseph M. Long, chairman and co-founder of Longs Drugs Stores, raised in Covelo
Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Wilderness
The Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Wilderness is a federally designated wilderness area in the Yolla Bolly Range of the southern Klamath Mountains and the Inner Northern California Coast Ranges, in Northern California. The wilderness area is located northeast of Covelo, 45 miles west of Red Bluff and Interstate 5, east of Garberville and U. S. Route 101, it is within sections of eastern Mendocino County, western Tehama County, Trinity County. The Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Wilderness was created by the Wilderness Act of 1964, with an original land area of 170,195 acres, it was enlarged by the California Wilderness Act of 1984, again by the Northern California Coastal Wild Heritage Wilderness Act of 2006, for a present-day total of 180,877 acres. Most of the area is managed by the US Forest Service and is within three national forest boundaries, the: Mendocino National Forest, Shasta-Trinity National Forest and Six Rivers National Forest; the remaining 7,879 acres is managed by the Bureau of Land Management.
The name is a combination of: a phrase from the Native American Wintun language of the region's Wintun peoples, Yo-la meant snow-covered, Bo-li meant high peak. Elevations range from 2,700 feet to a high point of 8,092 feet at the summit of Mount Linn. In 1927 U. S. Chief Forester William Greeley directed the district supervisors to study and recommend areas in the nation's forests suitable for a new classification as "wilderness". By 1929 fourteen areas in the California Region 5 forests were proposed for this designation; the regulations for wilderness areas, known as the L-20, became − with modifications by Secretary of Agriculture James Jardine − the management policy for these areas. The L-20 Regulations used the term "primitive areas" with the purpose stated as to: maintain primitive conditions of environment, transportation and subsistence with a view to conserving the value of such areas for purposes of public education and recreation. Of the three new "primitive areas" located in northern California, the Middle Eel–Yolla Bolla Primitive Area was the largest at 200,000 acres.
The size was reduced to 107,195 acres in 1931. By the close of 1932 California had eighteen new primitive areas protecting 1,900,000 acres. Federal protection was given when this area became part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, created by the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. Located within the southern Klamath Mountains and Inner Northern California Coast Ranges, the rugged topography of the Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Wilderness protects headwaters of the Middle Fork of the Eel River, the North Fork of the Eel, the Mad River, the South Fork of the Trinity River; the eastern side has the watersheds of Cottonwood and Thomes Creeks, which flow into the Sacramento River. The northern tip of the wilderness—around the summits of Black Rock Mountain and North Yolla Bolly Peak—are in the Klamath Mountains. Both the Middle and North Forks of the Eel River have Wild and Scenic River designation, as does the South Fork of the Trinity River. Several small, shallow lakes occur in remnant glacial basins near the highest peaks.
Numerous springs are found off of the main ridgetops. The wilderness has Klamath montane, mixed evergreen and Douglas fir forest types. Conifers include the California endemic foxtail pine, ponderosa pine and white firs, western white pine, sugar pine, incense cedar, the rare Pacific yew. Other tree species include cottonwoods; the area includes open grasslands supporting abundant deer herds. Lower elevations have chamise and ceanothus. Wildlife in the wilderness includes black bear, Roosevelt Elk, black-tailed deer, gray fox, mountain lion, coyote, northern flying squirrel and martin; the northern spotted owl can be found here, as well as eagles, turkey vultures and smaller birds like grouse and bandtailed pigeon. Rainbow trout live in most larger streams, such as in the South Fork of Cottonwood Creek, in Black Rock Lake; the Middle Fork Eel River watershed has summer- and winter-run steelhead and spring-run chinook salmon, but fishing is restricted. Rocks in the northern mountains are predominantly gray greenstone while the southern mountains include sandstone and serpentine of the Franciscan formation.
Cirque basins from former glaciers are seen above about 6,000 feet elevation. Extensive faulting in the rocks makes the region prone to erosion and landslides. One modern landslide near Ides Cove, on the north flank of Mount Linn, reached more than two miles toward the South Fork Cottonwood Creek, upending old-growth forests and leaving large fissures on its perimeter. Recreational activities include backpacking, day-hiking, fishing hunting, nature photography. There are 15 trailheads all around the wilderness boundary with the most frequent users being hunters in the autumn months. Visitor use has one of the lowest densities among wilderness areas in California; the Ides Cove Loop Trail is over 10 miles in length and travels through scenic areas. This trailhead is the beginning of the Bigfoot Trail; the US Forest Service encourages visitors to use Leave No Trace ethics when visiting the wilderness to minimize impact to the environment. Access to trailheads on the northwest side of the wilderness is available by paved road from Ruth.
Other roads suitable for most passenger vehicles reach the south boundary from Covelo and the east boundary from Corning or Red Bluff. Flora of the Klamath Mountains Endemic flora of California Natural history of the California Coast Ranges Wilderness Areas of California USDA For
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman