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Middle High German

Middle High German is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New High German. High German is defined as those varieties of German. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect; this historical interpretation is complicated by the tendency of modern editions of MHG texts to use normalised spellings based on this variety, which make the written language appear more consistent than is the case in the manuscripts. Scholars are uncertain as to whether the literary language reflected a supra-regional spoken language of the courts. An important development in this period was the Ostsiedlung, the eastward expansion of German settlement beyond the Elbe-Saale line which marked the limit of Old High German; this process started in the 11th century, all the East Central German dialects are a result of this expansion.

"Judeo-German", the precursor of the Yiddish language, sees attestation in the 12th–13th centuries, as a variety of Middle High German written in Hebrew characters. The Middle High German period is dated from 1050 to 1350. An older view puts the boundary with New High German around 1500. There are several phonological criteria which separate MHG from the preceding Old High German period: the weakening of unstressed vowels to ⟨e⟩: OHG taga, MHG tage the full development of Umlaut and its use to mark a number of morphological categories the devoicing of final stops: OHG tag > MHG tac Culturally, the two periods are distinguished by the transition from a predominantly clerical written culture, in which the dominant language was Latin, to one centred on the courts of the great nobles, with German expanding its range of use. The rise of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in Swabia makes the South West the dominant region in both political and cultural terms. Demographically, the MHG period is characterised by a massive rise in population, terminated by the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death.

Along with the rise in population comes a territorial expansion eastwards, which saw German-speaking settlers colonise land under Slavic control. Linguistically, the transition to Early New High German is marked by four vowel changes which together produce the phonemic system of modern German, though not all dialects participated in these changes: Diphthongisation of the long high vowels /iː yː uː/ > /aɪ̯ ɔʏ̯ aʊ̯/: MHG hût > NHG Haut Monophthongisation of the high centering diphthongs /iə yə uə/ > /iː yː uː/: MHG huot > NHG Hut lengthening of stressed short vowels in open syllables: MHG sagen /zaɡən/ > NHG sagen /zaːɡən/ The loss of unstressed vowels in many circumstances: MHG vrouwe > NHG Frau The centres of culture in the ENHG period are no longer the courts but the towns. The dialect map of Germany by the end of the Middle High German period was much the same as that at the start of the 20th century, though the boundary with Low German was further south than it now is:Central German West Central German Central Franconian Ripuarian Moselle Franconian Rhine Franconian Hessian East Central German Thuringian Upper Saxon Silesian High Prussian Upper German East Franconian South Rhine Franconian Alemannic North Alemannic/Swabian Low Alemannic High Alemannic/South Alemannic ) Bavarian Northern Bavarian Central Bavarian Southern Bavarian With the exception of Thuringian, the East Central German dialects are new dialects resulting from the Ostkolonisation and arise towards the end of the period.

Middle High German texts are written in the Latin alphabet. There was no standardised spelling, but modern editions standardise according to a set of conventions established by Karl Lachmann in the 19th century. There are several important features in this standardised orthography which are not characteristics of the original manuscripts: the marking of vowel length is entirely absent from MHG manuscripts; the marking of umlauted vowels is absent or inconsistent in the manuscripts. A curly-tailed z is used in modern handbooks and grammars to indicate the /s/ or /s/-like sound which arose from Germanic /t/ in the High German consonant shift; this character has no counterpart in the original manuscripts, which use ⟨s⟩ or ⟨z⟩ to indicate this sound. The original texts use ⟨i⟩ and ⟨uu⟩ for the semi-vowels /j/ and /w/. A particular problem is that many manuscripts are of much date than the works they contain. In addition, there is considerable regional variation in the spellings that appear in the original texts, which modern editions conceal.

The standardised orthography of MHG editions uses the following vowel spellings: Short vowels: ⟨a e i o u⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨ä ö ü⟩ Long vowels: ⟨â ê î ô û⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨æ œ iu⟩ D

Charles B. Schudson

Charles B. Schudson is a former Judge of the Wisconsin Court of Appeals. Schudson was born Charles Benjamin Schudson in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1950, he is the University of Wisconsin Law School. Schudson and his wife, have two children, one of whom is a rabbi. Schudson worked as a state and federal prosecutor from 1975 until 1982, when he was appointed to the Wisconsin Circuit Court by Governor Lee S. Dreyfus. In 1992, he was elected to the Court of Appeals, he remained in that position until 2004. Since his retirement from public service, Schudson has been a member of the faculty of the University of Wisconsin Law School, Marquette University Law School, Lawrence University and Diego Portales University, as well as serving as a senior counsel with the firm von Briesen & Roper. Over the course of his career, Schudson's opinion and expertise has been sought after in family law cases, he co-authored the book "On Trial: America's Courts and Their Treatment of Sexually Abused Children", featured on The Oprah Winfrey Show and was presented to each Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

While a prosecutor, he developed the first program devoted to battered women to be based in a prosecutor's office in the United States. This would lead to an appearance on The MacNeil-Lehrer Report, he presented a paper on the subject to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Schudson has testified before United States congressional committees, including the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, on multiple matters involving family law, he has received an award from the United States Department of Justice for his precedent-setting prosecutions of nursing home homicide and patient abuse and Medicaid fraud

Carola-class corvette

The Carola class was a group of six steam corvettes built by the German Kaiserliche Marine in the late 1870s and 1880s. The class comprised Carola, the lead ship, Marie, Sophie and Arcona, they were ordered to replace older sailing vessels that were no longer sufficient to protect German interests around the world. Intended for service in the German colonial empire, the ships were designed with a combination of steam and sail power for extended cruising range, they were equipped with a battery of ten 15-centimeter guns. Relying on sail power for their long-range deployments, the ships were obsolescent before construction began; the six ships were all sent on lengthy overseas deployments throughout their careers, with assignments to Germany's colonial holdings in Africa—Togo, German South West Africa and German East Africa—and in the Pacific—German New Guinea and the Kiautschou Bay concession. They were used to suppress local uprisings against German rule, punish those who attacked German citizens or businesses, show the flag.

On several occasions, ships of the class were badly damaged in accidents—Marie running aground off New Mecklenburg and Sophie being rammed by a merchant vessel, both in 1884, Olga being forced ashore by a cyclone in 1889—but none of the members of the class were lost. Several of the corvettes were used for training purposes, taking part in fleet exercises, extended training cruises with naval cadets, in the case of Carola and Olga in their careers, as dedicated gunnery training ships. No longer useful as cruising warships by the 1890s, all of the ships of the Carola class were withdrawn from active service by the end of the decade; some were used for training purposes, but Alexandrine was too worn out from her years abroad to permit further use, Marie was too expensive to convert into a training ship, Sophie was instead used as a barracks ship. Between 1904 and 1908, all of the Carola-class corvettes were broken up for scrap, with the exception of Sophie, which lingered on as a floating barracks until she too went to the breakers in 1920.

As German commercial interests began to expand to overseas markets in Asia and the Pacific in the 1870s, the need for long-range cruising warships became severe as other European powers started to exclude German businesses from activity abroad. By the mid-1870s, the fleet of corvettes available to the German Kaiserliche Marine was ageing, with several vessels twenty years old. At the time, the world's navies were grappling with the development of steam power, which had replaced sails in large ironclad warships. Cruising vessels required a much longer radius of action than the ironclads, steam engines were not yet reliable or efficient enough to rely on them alone, necessitating the retention of traditional sailing rigs. In 1875, the design for a new class of steam corvettes was prepared, six ships were ordered, the last two to a modified design; the design for the Carola class was based on the preceding Bismarck-class corvettes, though they were reduced in size. Despite the fact that they were intended to modernize the German cruising fleet, their design was obsolescent before construction began, capable of engaging only similar vessels.

The Carola-class corvettes and the other cruisers available succeeded in expanding Germany's colonial empire in the central Pacific in the 1880s and 1890s. The first four ships of the Carola class were 70.6 meters long at the waterline and 76.35 m long overall, with a beam of 12.5 m and a draft of 4.98 m forward. The last two ships and Arcona, were larger, at 71.8 m at the waterline and 81.2 m overall, with a beam of 12.6 m and a draft of 5 m forward. The first four ships displaced 2,147 metric tons as designed and 2,424 metric tons at full load, the larger vessels displaced 2,361 metric tons as designed and 2,662 metric tons laden; the ships' hulls were constructed with iron frames that provided the structure for the wood hull planks, over which a layer of zinc was applied to protect the wood from biofouling. Alexandrine and Arcona received copper sheathing instead of zinc; the stem and sternpost were iron, except for the last two vessels, which had bronze sternposts. The first four vessels had nine watertight compartments.

Steering was controlled with a single rudder, all six ships maneuvered well under steam, better under sail. They rolled and pitched badly and lost significant speed in a head sea, though they handled well in bad weather. Sophie and Marie had a crew that consisted of 25 officers and 244 enlisted men, though as school ships their crews were reduced to 13 officers and 135 enlisted, which left room for 150 cadets aboard each vessel. Carola had a complement of 10 officers and 244 enlisted, while Olga had 10 officers and 265 enlisted. Alexandrine and Arcona each had a crew of 257 enlisted; each corvette carried several smaller boats. Carola and Olga were powered by a single horizontal, 3-cylinder, double-expansion steam engine that drove one 2-bladed screw propeller, 5.02 m wide in diameter. Steam was provided by eight coal-fired fire-tube boilers. Marie and Sophie had a 2-cylinder steam engine, with a propeller, 4.7 m wid