North Yorkshire County Council
North Yorkshire County Council is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire in England. The council was formed in 1972; the council occupies County Hall at Northallerton, the headquarters of both councils since 1906. As a County Council, it is a "top-tier" system that oversees the district councils but has the responsibility for social care and roads; the districts that come under NYCC are.
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
Nunthorpe is an outer suburb of the town of Middlesbrough, England. Part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, Nunthorpe is served by Nunthorpe and Gypsy Lane railway stations, both of which are on the Esk Valley Line from Middlesbrough to Whitby; the railway line here forms the boundary between the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, both of which are unitary authorities and are associated with the county of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes. Nunthorpe civil parish is west of the railway line, in Middlesbrough, whilst the area east of the railway line forms part of the Ormesby ward of Redcar and Cleveland; the history of Nunthorpe can be traced back to before the Domesday Book of 1086. The village was named “Thorpe”, or “Torp” in the Domesday Book and described as a thriving settlement, Nunthorpe consisted of an estimated 1,080 acres of land. Towards the end of the 12th century a group of Cistercians nuns evicted from nearby Hutton Lowcross for rowdy behaviour, were resettled at Thorpe having been given some land there belonging to Whitby Abbey, on which they built a priory and mill.
The nuns only stayed at Thorpe a few years, but their short stay resulted in Thorpe being renamed Nunthorpe. During the following centuries, Nunthorpe remained an agricultural community linked to the market towns of Stokesley and Ayton; the Industrial Revolution had little impact on its agricultural economy. Nunthorpe Hall is the ancient manor house in Nunthorpe village, it was built in 1623, rebuilt and extended in around 1800 and altered again in the mid-1800s. The entrance porch and was added in 1901; the building was converted into a retirement home for the elderly in 1951. The main building is of dressed sandstone, with Lakeland slate roofs, with stone ridge copings, it became a Grade II, listed building, in 1952. The census of 1811 shows Nunthorpe to have had a population of 128, living either in the village of Nunthorpe or on nearby farms. Nunthorpe was at that time registered as being in the North Riding of York, in the Parish of Great Ayton, its economy was all related to farming. The rapid growth of Middlesbrough from a population of 35, in 1811, to a population of 91,302, in 1901 appeared to have had little effect on Nunthorpe, which kept its agricultural throughout the 19th century.
Nunthorpe's population in comparison only reaching 198 persons by 1901. In 1853, Middlesbrough to Guisborough Railway line opened, with a station at Nunthorpe and passenger services the following year. Several important Middlesbrough industrialists chose Nunthorpe as their home and contributed to the development of the village; these men included Isaac Wilson, Mayor of Middlesbrough and Liberal MP, John Swan, William Hopkins and mayor of Middlesbrough and Sir Arthur Dorman, ironmaster. The settlement, known as Nunthorpe today is that which grew up around the railway station. Nunthorpe village is situated about 1 mile to the south of the main suburban area. In the early 20th Century, Sir Arthur Dorman planned and built a new small suburb around the railway station for his workers He imposed several covenants on the building: - shops were not permitted, public houses were not allowed, the houses had to have slate roofs and were not permitted to have house numbers; the layout included tree-lined roads, with spacious houses, each with a garden built in terraces.
The houses were an improvement on the small workers’ houses built in Middlesbrough. By 1912, about 60 houses had been built around the station area of Nunthorpe. New housing estates and churches were built during the late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.. The historical development of Nunthorpe started with the building of generously sized houses in generous gardens; this has given Nunthorpe its continued heritage with an spacious character. Grey Towers House is a large house, built in 1865 for Mayor of Middlesbrough, it has an unusual aspect in that it is faced with whinstone, compared to the traditional sandstone of the area. Arthur Dorman, of the steel makers Dorman Long, lived there until his death in 1931. Alderman Sir Thomas Gibson Poole bought the estate and presented it to Middlesbrough Council as a tuberculosis sanatorium, known first as Poole Sanatorium, as Poole Hospital, it was opened as a hospital, first in 1932, expanded with further buildings, in 1945. It closed as a hospital in 1988. In 1988, it became a Grade II listed building.
Nunthorpe is served by four primary schools. Situated next to Nunthorpe Primary School is Nunthorpe Academy, a Specialist Science and Enterprise Academy, it operated as a selective County Modern school prior to 1973 and as a comprehensive school. Since September 2008, there has been a Sixth Form College located next to the secondary school, in collaboration with a campus in Teesville. Nunthorpe is served by both Gypsy Lane and Nunthorpe railway stations, which are on the Middlesbrough to Whitby, Esk Valley Line. Nunthorpe has good bus connections to Guisborough, it is located close to main roads like the A174 and A19. There are three churches: Church of England - St Mary the Virgin, Church Lane Methodist - Nunthorpe Methodist Church, Marton Moor Road Catholic - St Bernadette's Catholic Church, Gypsy Lane Nunthorpe has a football club, complete with squash and tennis courts; the Cleveland Hills can be seen as the backdrop to this local amenity, with Roseberry Topping visible. A parade of local shops can be found on Guisborough Road including a florist and post office wi
City of York Council
City of York Council is the unitary council for the City of York, Yorkshire. It is responsible for all local government services in the City of York, except for services provided by York's town and parish councils; the ancient liberty of the City of York was replaced in 1836 by a municipal borough, with city status, as a result of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. As a municipal borough, the York Corporation was responsible for all local government services in the City of York; the municipal borough was expanded to serve the following areas: The municipal borough was replaced in 1884 by a county borough, with city status, as a result of the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. As a county borough, the York Corporation was responsible for all local government services in the City of York; when county councils were established for the East Riding, North Riding, West Riding in 1889, as a result of the Local Government Act 1888, the City of York remained outside of their jurisdiction. The county borough was expanded and reduced in size to serve the following areas: The county borough was replaced in 1974 by a non-metropolitan district, with city status, as a result of the Local Government Act 1972.
As a non-metropolitan district, York City Council was responsible for some local government services in the City of York, with others being the responsibility of North Yorkshire County Council. The non-metropolitan district served the same area as the county borough: The non-metropolitan district was replaced in 1996 by a unitary council, with city status, as a result of the Local Government Act 1992; as a unitary council, City of York Council is responsible for all local government services in the City of York, except for services provided by York's town and parish councils. The unitary council serves the following areas: Since 1995 political control of the council has been held by the following parties: Conservatives and Liberal Democrats 26 of the 47 seats formed a joint administration to run the council in May 2015. Both parties are opposed to green belt development on the scale proposed by the Labour Party; the working majority of the joint administration shrunk in February 2018 to 24 seats, when former council leader Cllr David Carr and Cllr Suzie Mercer quit the Conservative group and party, Labour councillors Fiona Derbyshire and Hilary Shepherd resigned from the Labour Party in August to sit as Independent Socialists York.
The council has two lender option borrower option loans worth £5 million. Each run with current interest rates of 3.66 percent and 3.8 percent. One of the loans was taken out in 2008, on a 69-year term, the other in 2010, on a 50-year term. City of York Council official website
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, 15 miles northwest of Preston, 27 miles north of Liverpool, 28 miles northwest of Bolton and 40 miles northwest of Manchester, it had an estimated population of 139,720 at the 2011 Census, making it the most populous town in Lancashire. Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast in the summer to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile sandy beach were able to use a new private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851.
St John's Church in Blackpool was consecrated in 1821. Blackpool rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England; the railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881, Blackpool was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. By 1901 the population of Blackpool was 47,000, by which time its place was cemented as "the archetypal British seaside resort". By 1951 it had grown to 147,000. Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, affected Blackpool's status as a leading resort in the late 20th century. Blackpool's urban fabric and economy remains undiversified, rooted in the tourism sector, the borough's seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year.
In addition to its grime music scene, Blackpool's major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, the UK's only surviving first-generation tramway. Blackpool gets its name from a historic drainage channel that ran over a peat bog, discharging discoloured water into the Irish Sea, which formed a black pool. Another explanation is that the local dialect for stream was "pul" or "poole", hence "Black poole". People originating from Blackpool are called Blackpudlians although Sandgrownians or Sandgrown'uns is sometimes used or Seasiders. A 13,500-year-old elk skeleton was found with man-made barbed bone points on Blackpool Old Road in Carleton in 1970. Now displayed in the Harris Museum this provided the first evidence of humans living on the Fylde as far back as the Palaeolithic era; the Fylde was home to a British tribe, the Setantii a sub-tribe of the Brigantes, who from about AD80 were controlled by Romans from their fort at Dowbridge, Kirkham.
During the Roman occupation the area was covered by bog land. Some of the earliest villages on the Fylde, which were to become part of Blackpool town, were named in the Domesday Book in 1086. Many of them were Anglo-Saxon settlements; some though had 10th century Viking place names. The Vikings and Anglo-Saxons seem to have co-existed peacefully, with some Anglo-Saxon and Viking placenames being joined together – such as Layton-with-Warbreck and Bispham-with-Norbreck. Layton was controlled by Barons of Warrington from the 12th century. In medieval times Blackpool emerged as a few farmsteads on the coast within Layton-with-Warbreck, the name coming from "le pull", a stream that drained Marton Mere and Marton Moss into the sea close to what is now Manchester Square; the stream ran through peatlands that discoloured the water, so the name for the area became "Black Poole". In the 15th century the area was just called Pul, a 1532 map calls the area "the pole howsys alias the north howsys". In 1602, entries in Bispham Parish Church baptismal register include both Poole and for the first time blackpoole.
The first house of any substance, was built toward the end of the 17th century by Edward Tyldesley, the Squire of Myerscough and son of the Royalist Sir Thomas Tyldesley. An Act of Parliament in 1767 enclosed a common sand hills on the coast, that stretched from Spen Dyke southwards. Plots of the land were allocated to landowners in Bispham, Great Marton and Little Marton; the same act provided for the layout of a number of long straight roads that would be built in the areas south of the town centre, such as Lytham Road, St. Annes Road, Watson Road and Highfield Road. By the middle of the 18th century, the practice of sea bathing to cure diseases was becoming fashionable among the wealthier classes, visitors began making the arduous trek to Blackpool for that purpose. In 1781, Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton built a private road to Blackpool, a regular stagecoach service from Manchester and Halifax was established. A few amenities, including four hotels, an archery stall and bowling greens, were developed, the town grew slowly.
The 1801 census records the town's population at 473. The growth was acce
Hambleton is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England. The main town and administrative centre is Northallerton, the district includes the market towns and major villages of Bedale, Great Ayton and Easingwold; the district was formed by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the urban district of Northallerton with Bedale Rural District, Easingwold Rural District, Northallerton Rural District, part of Thirsk Rural District, Stokesley Rural District and Croft Rural District, all in the North Riding of Yorkshire. The district is named after the Hambleton Hills, part of the North York Moors National Park, on the eastern edge of the district; this area is the subject of a national habitat protection scheme as articulated in the United Kingdom's Biodiversity Action Plan. Hambleton covers an area of 1,311.17 km ². The district is named after the Hambleton Hills, part of the North York Moors National Park, on the eastern edge of the district; this area is the subject of a national habitat protection scheme as articulated in the United Kingdom's Biodiversity Action Plan.
About 75 % of the district lies of York. These two vales consist of low lying and intensively worked arable land, used for farming. 16% lies within the North York Moors National Park and just over 1% is in the York green belt zone. Towns in the district are listed below. Northallerton houses the headquarters of Hambleton District Council; the district is the location of 17 wards and 177 parishes. Bedale Easingwold Northallerton Stokesley Thirsk In 2007 Hambleton had an estimated population of 86,900 an increase of 3.2% on the population of 84,200 recorded in the 2001 UK census. In the 2001 census 83% of respondents identified their religion as Christians above the national average for England, 71.74%. No other religion accounted for more than 0.2% of the population. In May 2006, a report commissioned by British Gas showed that housing in Hambleton produced the 8th highest average carbon emissions in the country at 7,242 kg of carbon dioxide per dwelling. Whilst this has come under some scrutiny, it is important to remember that due to the remote nature of the councils parishes carbon emissions are to be high.
Energy efficiency in British housing Golisti K. O. M. Hambleton and its History. Ashdown Products. ISBN 0952195054 Hambleton District Council