TransPennine Express abbreviated to TPE, is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup operating the TransPennine Express franchise. It runs regional and intercity rail services between the major cities of Northern England and Scotland; the franchise operates all its services to and through Manchester covering three main routes. The service provides rail links for major towns and cities such as Edinburgh, Liverpool, Hull, York, Scarborough and Newcastle. TransPennine Express runs trains 24 hours a day, including through New Year's Eve night. Trains run between York and Manchester Airport at least every three hours every night of the week; the franchise operates 51 three-carriage Class 185 diesel units and 10 four-carriage Class 350 electric units. It is planned most of the fleet will be replaced by 45 new-built five-carriage units by the end of 2019; the TransPennine Express brand was launched in the early 1990s by British Rail's Regional Railways sector. It became part of Regional Railways North East and on 2 March 1997 was privatised with Northern Spirit and its successor, Arriva Trains Northern maintaining the brand.
In 2000, the Strategic Rail Authority announced that it planned to reorganise the North West Regional Railways and Regional Railways North East franchises operated by First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern. A TransPennine Express franchise would be created for the long-distance regional services, the remaining services being operated by a new Northern franchise. In July 2003, the TransPennine franchise was awarded to a joint venture between FirstGroup and Keolis, the services operated by Arriva Trains Northern and First North Western were transferred to First TransPennine Express on 1 February 2004. On 11 November 2007, the services from Manchester to Edinburgh and Glasgow via the West Coast Main Line operated by Virgin CrossCountry were transferred to First TransPennine Express. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced FirstGroup, Keolis/Go-Ahead and Stagecoach had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise. In December 2015, FirstGroup was awarded the franchise with TransPennine Express taking over on 1 April 2016.
The franchise will run until 31 March 2023 with an option to extend for two years. As part of a recasting of the franchise map by the Department for Transport, services from Manchester Airport to Blackpool North, Manchester Airport to Barrow in Furness and Oxenholme to Windermere were transferred to the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016; the TransPennine Express routes are subdivided into three operations: North TransPennine, which includes all routes that pass through the core section between Manchester and Leeds. Details of each route, including maps and timetables, are on the TransPennine Express official website. In May 2018, following the transfer of the Manchester to Huddersfield Northern stopping service to TPE, regular services ceased between some of the intermediate Pennine stations, most daytime services either stopped at Mossley and Slaithwaite, or Greenfield and Marsden. Following the December 2018 timetable change, regular services resumed between Marsden and Slathwaite; the following services run Mondays to Saturdays, with frequencies in trains per hour: Trains from Liverpool-Newcastle will extend to Edinburgh via the East Coast Main Line, giving 2tph from Leeds-Edinburgh together with an hourly CrossCountry service from December 2019.
Direct Liverpool to Glasgow services via the West Coast Main Line are expected to be reintroduced at the May 2019 timetable change. First TransPennine Express inherited a fleet of four Class 170 and 51 Class 185 DMUs as well as ten Class 350/4 EMUs from First Keolis TransPennine Express, although the Class 170s left for Chiltern Railways to be converted to Class 168s shortly afterwards. After the new rolling stock has been delivered, 22 Class 185 units will be returned to Eversholt Rail Group, whilst the Class 350s are due to transfer to West Midlands Trains after the Class 397 units enter service in 2019. A total of 44 brand new five-car trains will be delivered to TransPennine Express. Former units operated by TransPennine Express include: TransPennine Express services run over a large area of northern England and southern Scottish Lowlands. Many of the largest stations they serve are managed by other train operating companies or Network Rail. TransPennine Express manages the following 19 stations: Some stations from the former TransPennine Express franchise were transferred to Northern.
These include Arnside, Barrow-in-Furness, Burneside, Grange-over-Sands, Staveley, Warrington Central and Windermere. Siemens maintains the Class 185 and 350 fleets at Ardwick depot in Manchester with a smaller facility in York. Scottish stabling points for both stock include Corkerhill C. S. M. D. and Craigentinny T.&R. S. M. D.. Hitachi will maintain the AT300 fleet at Doncaster Craigentinny; the new EMUs and loco-hauled sets will be maintained by Alstom, on behalf of TransPennine Express, at Longsight, Edge Hill and Polmadie. TransPennine Express have depots for its train crews at Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Airport, Newcastle, Hull, Sheffield, Preston and Glasgow Central. Media related to TransPennine Express at Wikimedia Commons Official website
William Peachey was an architect known for his work for the North Eastern Railway. He was baptised at St Mary's Church, Cheltenham on 13 September, his parents were William Peachey and Emma. On 8 September 1849, he married Harriet Moss in Salem Baptist Chapel in Cheltenham and in 1854 the couple moved to Darlington, he found employment with the Darlington Railway. This was merged with the North Eastern Railway in 1863, he was appointed ARIBA on 16 December 1867, FRIBA on 2 May 1870. He was the Architect to the Darlington section of the North Eastern Railway until 1877, he died on 2 March 1912. Saltburn railway station 1861-62 Zetland Mews, Saltburn 1861 Zetland Hotel, Saltburn 1863 Wesleyan Schools, North Road, Darlington 1863 Wesleyan Chapel, Emerald Street, Saltburn 1864-65 Forcett Pasonage Double Villa, Pierremont Crescent, Darlington 1866 Etherley railway station, 1866 Baptist Chapel, Priory Street, York 1867-68 Baptist Chapel, Grange Road, Darlington 1870-71 Tow Law railway station 1870-71 Brotton railway station 1875 North Road railway station Darlington 1876 Middlesbrough railway station 1874-77 York railway station 1877 Pinchinthorpe railway station 1877 Methodist Chapel, Victoria Bar, York 1880 Harrogate Baptist Church, Victoria Avenue, Harrogate 1883 Post Office, Regent Circus, Saltburn 1901
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
British Rail Class 156
The British Rail Class 156 Super Sprinter is a diesel multiple unit train. A total of 114 sets were built between 1987 and 1989 for British Rail by Metro-Cammell's Washwood Heath works, they were built to replace elderly first-generation DMUs and locomotive-hauled passenger trains. The design of the Class 156 was more conservative than Metro-Cammell's earlier Class 151 design; the bodyshell was made of steel instead of aluminium, the cab design was deliberately similar to the Class 150 to ease union acceptance. In late 1985, British Rail placed an order with Metro-Cammell for 114 two-carriage units. Construction of the welded bodyshells was subcontracted out with Procor Engineering, Wakefield completing 118, WH Davis 60 and Standard Wagon 50. Aston Martin Tickford were awarded the interior fitout contract; the units were all built as two-car sets, numbered 156401-514. Each unit was formed of two driving motors. Individual carriages numbered as follows: 52401-52514 - Driving Motor Standard Lavatory 57401-57514 - Driving Motor Standard, containing an area for storing wheelchairs, bulky luggage etc.
The vehicles are powered by 6-cylinder Cummins NT855-R5 diesel engines through Voith T211r hydraulic automatic transmissions and Gmeinder final drive units. They have a top speed of 75 mph. Unlike the Class 150 units, the 156s have a single-leaf sliding door at either end of each coach; this reflected the expected longer journeys with fewer stops that the Class 156 was supposed to operate. As with the Class 150, all the doors are operable by passengers when released by the guard using one of two passenger door control panels. Units operated by Abellio ScotRail have additionally been fitted with door-control panels near the centre sets of doors for the convenience of the guard. On 10 November 1987, 156401 conducted its first test run from Washwood Heath to Banbury. Between January and July 1988, 156401-156429 were delivered to Crown Point depot entering service on 16 May 1988 on new services from East Anglia to North West England as well as existing services from Norwich and Cambridge to Birmingham.
They operated boat trains from Harwich to Blackpool and Liverpool. The remaining 85 were delivered to Heaton, Neville Hill and Inverness. With the Class 155 units withdrawn due to faulty door mechanisms, 25 were transferred to Cardiff from December 1988, with the last remaining until November 1989. In this guise they operated services as far south as Portsmouth. In May 1991, six were transferred from Crown Point to Derby Etches Park. On 15 June 1989, 156502 was sent to the Netherlands as part of the Dutch Railways 150th celebrations, it returned on 10 July. On 21 October 1993, 156405 became the first Sprinter to accrue 1 million miles, whilst working the 10:10 Great Yarmouth to Norwich service; the first 100 were painted in Provincial sector's livery of beige with light blue stripe. Twenty units, based at Tyseley depot, were repainted into Regional Railways Express livery after the rebranding of Provincial; the last fourteen units were operated by Strathclyde PTE, carried an orange and black livery.
Following the delivery of the Class 158s in the early 1990s, the 156s began to be cascaded to less important services. In the early 1990s, British Rail was looking to save costs on rural routes, decided that operating two-car trains was too expensive; the company planned to convert a number of Class 156 units into single-car vehicles, named as Class 152. In the event, the decision was taken to do this with the Class 155 instead; as part of the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 156 fleet was sold with Angel Trains taking ownership of 76 and Porterbrook 38. These were leased to several train operating companies. At privatisation the Scottish fleet passed to the National Express owned ScotRail franchise, which used them until 2004 when the franchise was taken over by First ScotRail. All passed to Abellio ScotRail with the franchise in 2015, they operate both on short-distance commuter routes and on services of up to five and a half hours, such as Glasgow to Fort William and Mallaig. Units 156500-514, were operated by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport and wore its orange and black livery.
This was replaced with a carmine and cream livery in 1997, applied to another 14. All have since been repainted into ScotRail's standard Saltire livery. Despite their past liveries, the former SPT units were not confined to any specific route and thus worked in tandem with the rest of the 156 fleet on other routes. Units work interchangeably on local and long-distance workings, however only the fifteen RETB fitted units can operate on the West Highland Line; as of 2017, they operate on the following routes: Glasgow Central to Kilmarnock via Barrhead Glasgow Central to Stranraer / Carlisle via Kilmarnock with extensions to Newcastle via Hexham Glasgow Central to Edinburgh Waverley via Cambuslang and Shotts Glasgow Central to East Kilbride Glasgow Queen Street to Oban and Fort William / Mallaig Glasgow Queen Street to Anniesland via MaryhillThey make occasional appearances on the following routes worked by other units: Glasgow Queen Street to Lenzie / Stirling / Dunblane Glasgow Queen Street to Alloa via Stirling Glasgow Queen Street to Falkirk Grahamston via Cumbernauld Edinburgh Waverley to Kirkcaldy / Markinch and Glenrothes with Thornton via the Fife Circle Edinburgh Waverley to Motherwell via Carstairs Edinburgh Waverley to DunbarIn the event of severe disruption, Class 156s are known to make rare appearances to Perth and Dundee, where they operated until 2005.
In September 2008 Transport Scotland announced that all ScotRai
Tees Valley line
The Tees Valley line is a name for the railway route between Bishop Auckland and Saltburn via Darlington and Redcar. Operated on the line are services from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Middlesbrough and Saltburn via Darlington; the line between Darlington and Bishop Auckland has been re-branded The Bishop Line and is supported by the Bishop Line Community Rail Partnership. Beyond Bishop Auckland, the railway line continues as the re-opened heritage Weardale Railway. A regular freight service used to operate on weekdays moving coal from Wolsingham to Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station and Scunthorpe Steelworks, but this working ceased in 2013. All trains along the route are operated by Northern with Class 142 Pacers and Class 156 SuperSprinters. TransPennine Express operate fifteen services per day in each direction from Manchester Airport to Middlesbrough via the line. Between Darlington and Middlesbrough/Saltburn there is a service running every half-hour during the daytime, becoming hourly in the evenings.
The service to Bishop Auckland is more sparse. A once weekly parliamentary service in each direction stops at Teesside Airport; the new Northern Rail franchise operator Northern has announced its intention to increase the service to Bishop Auckland to hourly once the new franchise agreement came into force on 1 April 2016. The unpopular Pacer units are to be withdrawn once new rolling stock is delivered in 2018, though the Tees Valley line will more see refurbished Sprinter units than the brand new ones being built for Northern; the towns and villages served by the line are listed below. Bishop Auckland Shildon Newton Aycliffe Heighington Darlington Middleton St George Eaglescliffe Thornaby Middlesbrough Redcar Marske-by-the-Sea Saltburn-by-the-SeaThe Bishop Line between Bishop Auckland and Darlington is designated as a community rail route and has its own community rail partnership; the section of line between Bishop Auckland and the East Coast Main Line, as well as the section between Dinsdale Station near Middleton St George and Eaglescliffe station, follow the original route of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
The line from Middlesbrough to Saltburn, as well as the freight line to Boulby mine, were part of the Whitby Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway. This extended to Whitby, until it was closed on 5 May 1958. In March 2015, a one kilometre section of electrified track was laid to the west of the line between Heighington and Newton Aycliffe to allow low speed testing of the Class 800/801s being built at Hitachi Newton Aycliffe. GenMaps - Maps of Durham, Yorkshire 1885 NPEMaps - Maps of area circa 1950 Network Rail maps of Route 9 - North East Routes North Eastern Railway Tour 2000 Communigate - Grangetown streets and buildings The Bishop Line
London King's Cross railway station
King's Cross railway station known as London King's Cross, is a passenger railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden, on the edge of Central London. It is in the London station group, one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom and the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line to North East England and Scotland. Adjacent to King's Cross station is St Pancras International, the London terminus for Eurostar services to continental Europe. Beneath both main line stations is King's Cross St. Pancras tube station on the London Underground; the station was opened in Kings Cross in 1852 by the Great Northern Railway on the northern edge of Central London to accommodate the East Coast Main Line. It grew to cater for suburban lines and was expanded several times in the 19th century, it came under the ownership of the London and North Eastern Railway as part of the Big Four grouping in 1923, who introduced famous services such as the Flying Scotsman and locomotives such as Mallard. The station complex was redeveloped in the 1970s, simplifying the layout and providing electric suburban services, it became a major terminus for the high-speed InterCity 125.
As of 2018, long-distance trains from King's Cross are run by London North Eastern Railway to Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central via York and Newcastle. In addition, Great Northern runs suburban commuter trains around north London. In the late 20th century, the area around the station became known for its seedy and downmarket character, was used as a backdrop for several films as a result. A major redevelopment was undertaken in the 21st century, including restoration of the original roof, the station became well known for its association with the Harry Potter books and films the fictional Platform 9¾; the station stands on the London Inner Ring Road at the eastern end of Euston Road, next to the junction with Pentonville Road, Gray's Inn Road and York Way, in what is now the London Borough of Camden. To the west, at the other side of Pancras Road, is St Pancras railway station. Several London bus routes, including 10, 30, 59, 73, 91, 205, 390, 476 pass in front of or to the side of the station.
King's Cross is spelled both without an apostrophe. King's Cross is used in signage at the Network Rail and London Underground stations, on the Tube map and on the official Network Rail webpage, it featured on early Underground maps, but has been used on them since 1951. Kings X, Kings + and London KX are abbreviations used in space-limited contexts; the National Rail station code is KGX. The area of King's Cross was a village known as Battle Bridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet known as Broad Ford Bradford Bridge; the river flowed along what is now the west side of Pancras Road until it was rerouted underground in 1825. The name "Battle Bridge" is linked to tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Celtic British Iceni tribe led by Boudica. According to folklore, King's Cross is the site of Boudica's final battle and some sources say she is buried under one of the platforms. Platforms 9 and 10 have been suggested as possible sites. Boudica's ghost is reported to haunt passages under the station, around platforms 8–10.
King's Cross station was built in 1851–52 as the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway, was the fifth London terminal to be constructed. It replaced a temporary station next to Maiden Lane, constructed with the line's arrival in London in 1850; the station took its name from the King's Cross building, a monument to King George IV that stood in the area and was demolished in 1845. Construction was on the site of a smallpox hospital and it replaced a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850. Plans for the station were made in December 1848 under the direction of George Turnbull, resident engineer for constructing the first 20 miles of the Great Northern Railway out of London; the station's detailed design was by Lewis Cubitt, the brother of Thomas Cubitt, Sir William Cubitt. The design comprised two great arched train sheds, with a brick structure at the south end designed to reflect the arches behind, its main feature was a 112-foot high clock tower that held treble and bass bells, the latter weighing 1 ton 9 cwt.
In size, it was inspired by the 200 yards long Moscow Riding Academy of 1825, leading to its built length of 268 yards. The station, the biggest in England, opened on 14 October 1852, it had one arrival and one departure platform, the space between was used for carriage sidings. The platforms have been reconfigured several times, they have been numbered 1 to 8 since 1972. Suburban traffic grew with the opening of stations at Hornsey in 1850, Holloway Road in 1856, Wood Green in 1859 and Seven Sisters Road in 1861. Midland Railway services to Leicester via Hitchin and Bedford began running from King's Cross on 1 February 1858. More platforms were added in 1862. In 1866, a connection was made via the Metropolitan Railway to the London and Dover Railway at Farringdon, with goods and passenger services to South London via Herne Hill. A separate suburban station to the west of the main building, housing platforms 9–11 as of 1972 and known initi
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were