Middlesex is a historic county in southeast England. Its area is entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in neighbouring ceremonial counties, it was established in the Anglo-Saxon period from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official administrative unit until 1965. The county is bounded to the south by the River Thames, has the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills forming its other boundaries; the low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest by area in 1831. The City of London was a county corporate from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London expanded into rural Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of the historic county of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was incorporated into the new administrative county of London and the remainder incorporated into the administrative county of Middlesex, governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the populations of the administrative county of London and of inner Middlesex were in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts of Middlesex.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the area of the historic county of Middlesex was incorporated into Greater London in 1965, with the rest included in neighbouring administrative counties. The name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants; the word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name, Seaxe in their own tongue, from the seax, a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax appears in the heraldry of the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, each of which bears three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, or rather the Tudor heralds' idea of what a seax looked like, portrayed in each case like a falchion or scimitar. The names'Middlesex','Essex','Sussex' and'Wessex', contain the name'Seaxe'. There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the
According to the Catholic tradition, the history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and his teachings and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by the Disciples of Jesus. The Church considers its bishops to be the successors to Jesus's apostles and the Church's leader, the Bishop of Rome to be the sole successor to Saint Peter, who ministered in Rome in the first century AD, after his appointment by Jesus as head of the church. By the end of the 2nd century, bishops began congregating in regional synods to resolve doctrinal and policy issues. By the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome began to act as a court of appeals for problems that other bishops could not resolve. Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. In 313, the struggles of the Early Church were lessened by the legalisation of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine I. In 380, under Emperor Theodosius I, Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the Emperor, which would persist until the fall of the Western Empire, with the Eastern Roman Empire, until the Fall of Constantinople.
During this time, the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, there were considered five primary sees according to Eusebius: Rome, Antioch and Alexandria, known as the Pentarchy. The battles of Toulouse preserved the Christian west though Rome itself was ravaged in 850, Constantinople besieged. In the 11th century strained relations between the Greek church in the East, the Latin church in the West, developed into the East-West Schism due to conflicts over papal authority; the Fourth Crusade, the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. Prior to and during the 16th century, the Church engaged in a process of renewal. Reform during the 16th century is known as the Counter-Reformation. In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread across the world despite experiencing a reduction in its hold on European populations due to the growth of Protestantism and because of religious skepticism during and after the Enlightenment; the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent four centuries before.
According to Catholic tradition, the Catholic Church was founded by Jesus Christ. The New Testament records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the twelve Apostles, his instructions to them to continue his work; the Catholic Church teaches that the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, signaled the beginning of the public ministry of the Church. Catholics hold that Saint Peter was Rome's first bishop and the consecrator of Linus as its next bishop, thus starting the unbroken line which includes the current pontiff, Pope Francis; that is, the Catholic Church maintains the apostolic succession of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope – the successor to Saint Peter. In the account of the Confession of Peter found in the Gospel of Matthew, Christ designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built. While some scholars do state Peter was the first Bishop of Rome, others say that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or on his having been in Rome.
Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted, that writers retrospectively applied the term "bishop of Rome" to the most prominent members of the clergy in the earlier period and to Peter himself. On this basis, Oscar Cullmann and Henry Chadwick question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy, Raymond E. Brown says that, while it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church"; these roles, Brown says, "contributed enormously to seeing the bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died, where Paul witnessed to the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal". Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas.
The empire's well-defined network of roads and waterways allowed easier travel, while the Pax Romana made it safe to travel from one region to another. The government had encouraged inhabitants those in urban areas, to learn Greek, the common language allowed ideas to be more expressed and understood. Jesus's apostles gained converts in Jewish communities around the Mediterranean Sea, over 40 Christian communities had been established by 100. Although most of these were in the Roman Empire, notable Christian communities were established in Armenia and along the Indian Malabar Coast; the new religion was most successful in urban areas, spreading first among slaves and people of low social standing, among aristocratic women. At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, Sunday was being regarded as the primary day of worship; as preachers such as Paul of Tarsus began converting Gentiles, Christianity began growing away from Jewish practices to establish itself as a separate religion, though the issue of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism is still debated today.
To resolve doctrinal differences among the competing factions, sometime
Midtown DeSoto Square Mall is an enclosed shopping mall serving Bradenton, United States. It was built in 1973 and is anchored by JCPenney, Hudson's Furniture; the center was built by Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr. in 1973. It was to be called Bradenton Mall, but the name was determined unacceptable by city officials because the mall was not located within city limits. At the time, the mall included JCPenney and Maas Brothers as its anchor stores; the mall had its grand opening on August 1973 with about 37 shops open and 47 still moving in. Belk-Lindsey was added as a fourth anchor in 1979, after having been evicted from a nearby store at Cortez Plaza. Burdines expressed interest in opening a store at DeSoto Square as early as 1979, but it did not join the mall until taking over the former Maas Brothers in 1991. A year Belk sold its store in the mall to Dillard's. Old Navy was added in 2000. Burdines became Burdines-Macy's in 2003 just Macy's in 2005. Several stores closed in 2009 due to the declining economy, including Old Navy, Foot Locker and the Dillard's anchor.
The Old Navy space became a family entertainment center called Saturn 5 in 2010. In May 2012, Simon Property Group announced plans to sell the mall. In November of that year, Mason Asset Management acquired the mall for $25 million. Macy's announced the closure of its store at the mall in July 2014, which relocated to the Mall at University Town Center; the theater closed a month later. In 2015, Sears Holdings spun off 235 of its properties, including the Sears at DeSoto Square Mall, into Seritage Growth Properties. In March 2017 The Mason Asset Management sold the mall for $25.5 million to New York-based Meyer Lebovitz. Lebovitz chose Madison Properties USA LLC for the task of leasing the mall. Jerrell M. Davis, president of the Madison Properties Southeast Region, will oversee the project. In January 2018, Your Treasure House, a retail store and auction house, opened on the first floor of the former Macy's location; the mall was renamed "Midtown DeSoto Square Mall" in July 2018. On October 15, 2018, it was announced that Sears would be closing as part of a plan to close 142 stores nationwide.
Your Treasure House closed in late 2019 leaving the former Macy's space vacant again. Maas Brothers/Burdines/Macy's Sears Dillard's Belk Your Treasure House