A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers
Samuel Pepys Cockerell
Samuel Pepys Cockerell was an English architect. He was a son of John Cockerell, of Bishop's Hull and the elder brother of Sir Charles Cockerell, 1st Baronet, for whom he designed the house he is best known for, Sezincote House, the uniquely Orientalizing features of which inspired the more extravagant Brighton Pavilion, he was a great-great nephew of the diarist Samuel Pepys. Cockerell received his training in the office of Sir Robert Taylor, to whom he allowed that he was indebted for his early advancements, which were in the sphere of official architecture. In 1774 he received his first such appointment, as Surveyor to the fashionable West End London parish of St George's Hanover Square. In 1775 he joined the Royal Office of Works as Clerk of Works at the Tower of London a sinecure. In spite of his reputation for diligence and competence, he lost these posts in the reorganisation of the Office of Works in 1782. At the death of Taylor in 1788, Cockerell succeeded Sir Robert as Surveyor to the Foundling Hospital and Pulteney estates.
In 1790 he presented the board of governors of the Foundling Hospital a project for the development of their considerable estate in Bloomsbury, which proceeded according to his plans, until he resigned and was succeeded in the post by his pupil Joseph Kay. He continued Taylor's work designing Admiralty House, Whitehall, as residence for the First Lord of the Admiralty, 1786–88. Cockerell designed the architecture of much of the Bayswater area of London, including Sussex Gardens, but in other urban planning schemes he was less successful; as surveyor to the Bishop of London he drew up plans for the building up of the diocesan estate in Paddington, but the scheme had only been begun, with Connaught Square, at the time of Cockerell's death, a different plan was completed under his successor as Surveyor, George Gutch. Another abortive development about the same time was for a "Camarthen Square" on the Mortimer estate in Bloomsbury, he designed a new tower for St Anne's Church, Soho in 1803. From 1806 he was employed as Surveyor to the East India Company.
Among country houses, besides Sezincote he designed Daylesford, Gloucestershire a few miles distant from Sezincote, for another returned nabob, Warren Hastings. Cockerell was approached by Hastings in July 1788, before Cockerell's appointment as Surveyor to the Admiralty, he had built an entrance and bridge at Whiteknights, near Reading, in Berkshire, for William Byam Martin, an acquaintance of Hastings'. Cockerell received payments through 1793, amounting to £13,300, for the house, for which Hastings spent some £60,000. In the undecorated elevations finished in warm golden Stanway limestone, windows are pierced in the ashlar masonry without moulded surrounds; the central three-bay feature of the three-storey garden front, between projecting two-storey end ranges, is a hemicircular projection crowns by a low dome, with an order of attached columns of a rich Composite order. The dome reverses curves to rise in the center to a discreetly Indian feature. Cockerell's entrance front has been altered.
Cockerell designed Middleton Hall, now the home of the National Botanic Garden of Wales. Cockerell's pupils included the architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who emigrated to the United States in 1795 and worked on the White House and the United States Capitol and Benjamin Gummow His son, Charles Robert Cockerell, who trained in his office went on to become a famous architect. Samuel Pepys Cockerell is named on a plaque outside the OBE Chapel at St Paul's Cathedral as'Surveyor to the Fabric of St Paul's Cathedral' between 1811 and 1819. In 1797, Cockerell handled the sale of the Fotheringhay, estate of Rev. Abraham Blackborne of Dagenham, St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, he married Anne Whetham on 18 June 1782, had issue eleven children. Of them, Charles Robert Cockerell became an architect. Richard's daughter Anna, his elder brother Colonel John Cockerell bought the land at Sezincote, left it to their younger brother Charles MP between 1802 and 1837, who became Sir Charles Cockerell, 1st Bt on 25 September 1809, shortly after his 1808 remarriage to Hon. Harriet Rushout.
Between 1805 and 1820, the Cockerell brothers built Sezincote House together. Cust, Lionel Henry. "Cockerell, Samuel Pepys". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 199
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. A merchant is anyone, involved in business or trade. Merchants have been known for as long as industry and trade have existed. During the 16th-century, in Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: One term, described local traders such as bakers, etc.. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In ancient Rome and Greece, merchants may have been wealthy, but were not accorded high social status. In contrast, in the Middle East, where markets were an integral part of the city, merchants enjoyed high status. In modern times, the term has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth. Merchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in commerce.
Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome. During the European medieval period, a rapid expansion in trade and commerce, led to the rise of a wealthy and powerful merchant class; the European age of discovery opened up new trading routes and gave European consumers access to a much broader range of goods. From the 1600s, goods began to travel much further distances as they found their way into geographically dispersed market places. Following the opening Asia and the discovery of the New World, goods were imported from long distances: calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World. By the eighteenth century, a new type of manufacturer-merchant was emerging and modern business practices were becoming evident; the English term, "merchant" comes from the Middle English, which itself originated from the Vulgar Latin mercatant or mercatans, formed from present participle of mercatare meaning to trade, to traffic or to deal in.
The term is used to refer to any type of reseller, but can be used with a specific qualifier to suggest a person who deals in a given characteristic such as "speed merchant" to refer to someone who enjoys fast driving. Other known uses of the term include: "dream merchant" used to describe someone who peddles idealistic visionary scenarios and "merchant of war" to describe proponents of war. Elizabeth Honig has argued that concepts relating to the role of a merchant began to change in the mid-16th century; the Dutch term, became rather more fluid during the 16th century when Antwerp was the most global market town in Europe. Two different terms, for a merchant, began to be used, meerseniers referred to local merchants including bakers, sellers of dairy products and stall-holders, while the alternate term, was used to describe those who traded in goods or credit on a large scale; this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of traders who took up their places on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
Broadly, merchants can be classified into two categories: A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between the producer and retail merchant dealing in large quantities of goods. In other words, a wholesaler does not sell directly to end-users; some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer sells merchandise to end-users or consumers in small quantities. A shop-keeper is a retail merchant. However, the term'merchant' is used in a variety of specialised contexts such as in merchant banker, merchant navy or merchant services. Merchants have existed as long as business and commerce have been conducted. A merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome; these markets occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place.
These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, in ancient Rome the forum. Rome had two forums; the latter was a vast expanse. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling through permanent or semi-permanent retail premises such as stall-holders at market places or shop-keepers selling from their own premises or through door-to-door direct sales via merchants or peddlers; the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal playing into public concerns about the quality of produce; the Phoenicians were well known amongst contemporaries as "traders in purple" – a
Brian Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore
Brian Francis Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore, PC, is a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and former Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland. He pronounces his name to rhyme with "Cur". Brian Kerr was born on 22 February 1948 to James William Kerr and Kathleen Rose Kerr, of Lurgan, County Armagh, he was educated at St Colman's College and read law at Queen's University Belfast. He was called to the Bar of Northern Ireland in 1970, to the Bar of England and Wales at Gray's Inn in 1974, he took silk in 1983 and became a member of the King's Inns in 1990, an Honorary Bencher of Gray's Inn in 1997 and the King's Inns in 2004. He served as Junior Crown Counsel from 1978 to 1983 and Senior Crown Counsel from 1988 to 1993. In 1993, Brian Kerr was appointed a Judge of the High Court and knighted, in 2004 was appointed Lord Chief Justice and sworn of the Privy Council; as is tradition for the Lord Chief Justice, he succeeded Lord Carswell as the Northern Irish Lord of Appeal in Ordinary upon the latter's retirement.
On 29 June 2009, he was created Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore, of Tonaghmore in the County of Down, was introduced to the House of Lords the same day. He was the last person to be appointed a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, on 1 October 2009 he became one of the inaugural Justices of the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, he was the youngest member, at age 61. He was succeeded as Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland on 3 July 2009 by Sir Declan Morgan. Lord Kerr dissented from the controversial judgment of the Supreme Court in R v Gnango, in which the court held that a person could be an accessory to their own murder. In 2014, Ulster University awarded Lord Kerr an honorary doctorate in law; the Public Prosecution Service v William Elliott and Robert McKee UKSC 32 He is married to Gillian, Lady Kerr and has two sons. He was brought up as a Roman Catholic. List of Northern Ireland Members of the House of Lords List of Northern Ireland members of the Privy Council
David Lloyd Jones, Lord Lloyd-Jones
David Lloyd Jones, Lord Lloyd-Jones, PC, FLSW is a British judge and legal scholar. He is a justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and served earlier as a member of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales and as a chairman of the Law Commission. Lloyd Jones was born on 13 January 1952, to Annie Blodwen Jones, he was educated at Pontypridd Boys' Grammar School. He studied law at Downing College, Cambridge: he graduated with a first class Bachelor of Arts degree promoted to a Master of Arts degree, a first class Bachelor of Laws degree. Lloyd Jones was a Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge from 1975 to 1991. From 1999 to 2005, he was a visiting professor at London, he has written articles that have been published in a number of academic journals specialising in law. Lloyd Jones was called to the bar in 1975, he became a recorder in 1994 and served as a junior Crown Counsel from 1997 to 1999. Lloyd Jones became a Queen's Counsel in 1999. In 2009, it was revealed that he had been paid more than £1 million for his involvement in the Bloody Sunday Inquiry.
On 3 October 2005, he was appointed as a High Court judge, was assigned to the Queen's Bench Division. He served as presiding judge on the Wales and Chester Circuit and chairman of the Lord Chancellor's Standing Committee on the Welsh Language from 2008 to 2011. On 1 October 2012, Lloyd Jones was appointed a Lord Justice of Appeal, was appointed to the Privy Council on 7 November 2012. In 2005, upon being appointed a High Court judge, he received the customary appointment of knight bachelor. On 14 February 2006, he was knighted at Buckingham Palace by Queen Elizabeth II, he was made an Honorary Fellow of Aberystwyth University in 2012. He was awarded an honorary degree by Swansea University in 2014. In 2016, he was elected a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. List of Lords Justices of Appeal
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen, they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, a secret society. They depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating on the public would be banned from the guild. An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris. A type of guild was known in Roman times. Known as collegium, collegia or corpus, these were organised groups of merchants who specialised in a particular craft and whose membership of the group was voluntary. One such example is the corpus naviculariorum, the college of long-distance shippers based at Rome's La Ostia port.
The Roman guilds failed to survive the collapse of the Roman Empire. In medieval cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, carpenters, glass workers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the "arts" or "mysteries" of their crafts; the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices. There were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. Guilds arose beginning in the High Middle Ages as craftsmen united to protect their common interests. In the German city of Augsburg craft guilds are being mentioned in the Towncharter of 1156; the continental system of guilds and merchants arrived in England after the Norman Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. In many cases they became the governing body of a town. For example, London's Guildhall became the seat of the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation, the world’s oldest continuously elected local government, whose members to this day must be Freemen of the City.
The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, was only bestowed upon members of a Guild or Livery. Early egalitarian communities called "guilds" were denounced by Catholic clergy for their "conjurations" — the binding oaths sworn among the members to support one another in adversity, kill specific enemies, back one another in feuds or in business ventures; the occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, the pagan feast of Jul —in 858, West Francian Bishop Hincmar sought vainly to Christianise the guilds. In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and glassmakers the people that had local skills. Gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of transmitted journeymanship.
In France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, "Within the guild itself there was little division of labour, which tended to operate rather between the guilds. Thus, according to Étienne Boileau's Book of Handicrafts, by the mid-13th century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris, a figure which by the 14th century had risen to 350." There were different guilds of metal-workers: the farriers, knife-makers, chain-forgers, nail-makers formed separate and distinct corporations. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society: a shoemakers' guild is recorded in 1208. In England in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today, with the oldest more than a thousand years old. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently. Membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a mature state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century, with some special privileges for certain occupations remaining today. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, Lübeck 70; the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain: Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds. Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor and trade. In order to become a master, a journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called journeyman years; the practice of the journeyman years still exists in France. As production became more specialized, trade guilds were divided and subdivided, eliciting the squabbles over jurisdiction that produced the paperwork by which economic historians trace their development: The