West Middlesex University Hospital
West Middlesex University Hospital is an acute NHS hospital in Isleworth, west London, operated by Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. It is a teaching hospital of Imperial College School of Medicine and a designated academic health science partner. West Middlesex University Hospital serves patients in the London Boroughs of Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames and Ealing; the hospital has over 400 beds and provides a full range of clinical services including accident and emergency, acute medicine, care of the elderly and maternity. In 1894 the Brentford Board of Guardians bought a property at Isleworth from Lord Warkworth to accommodation an infirmary for the local workhouse; the hospital opened by Princess Mary of Teck as the Brentford Workhouse Infirmary in October 1896. It became known as the West Middlesex Hospital in 1920 and the West Middlesex County Hospital in 1931. A new maternity department was opened by Queen Mary as the Queen Mary Maternity Wing in 1932. Following bombing during the Second World War, the Queen Mary Maternity Wing was repaired and re-opened by the Duchess of Gloucester in 1960.
It became the West Middlesex University Hospital in 1991. An extensive redevelopment of the site was procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2001; the works, which were carried out by Bouygues at a cost of £55 million, were completed in 2003. In December 2011, West Middlesex University Hospital was awarded full accreditation by UNICEF as a Baby Friendly hospital, the first London hospital to achieve this award. In September 2012 the trust concluded that it was not viable for it to apply for NHS Foundation Trust status and decided to seek a potential partner. On 1 September 2015, West Middlesex University Hospital became part of Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. List of hospitals in England List of NHS trusts Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Imperial College Academic Health Science Centre Radio West Middlesex
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
A health system sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as evolutionary rather than revolutionary; the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, is promoting a goal of universal health care: to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
According to WHO, healthcare systems' goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency and equity, they have been described in the United States as "the five C's": Cost, Consistency and Chronic Illness. Continuity of health care is a major goal. Health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for example reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably; some authors have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered: Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but of their interrelationships. The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows: A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services, it includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health. Healthcare providers are individuals providing healthcare services. Individuals including health professionals and allied health professions can be self-employed or working as an employee in a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution, whether government operated, private for-profit, or private not-for-profit, they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. Examples of health workers are doctors, midwives, paramedics, medical laboratory technologists, psychologists, chiropractors, community health workers, traditional medicine practitioners, others.
There are five primary methods of funding health systems: general taxation to the state, county or municipality national health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to charitiesMost countries' systems feature a mix of all five models. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance "are compatible with" an efficient health system; the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses, it is sometimes used more broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs. It may be provided from private insurance companies, it may be purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from unexpected health care expenses. By estimating the overall cost of health care expenses, a routine finance structure can be developed, ensuring that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.
The benefit is administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a
Central Middlesex Hospital
Central Middlesex hospital is in the centre of the Park Royal business estate, on the border of two London boroughs and Ealing. It is managed by the London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust; the hospital was established as an infirmary for sick paupers at the Willesden Workhouse in 1903. Extensions were built in 1908, 1911 and 1914; the facility became the Willesden Institution in 1914, the Park Royal Hospital in 1921 and the Central Middlesex County Hospital in 1931. The hospital was badly damaged by enemy bombing during the Second World War. After the hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948, major additions included a maternity unit opened in 1966 and Ambulatory Care and Diagnostic Centre for out-patients opened in 1999. Extensive new facilities were procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2003. Under this scheme, while the Ambulatory Care and Diagnostic Centre built only a few years earlier was retained, most of the rest of the buildings on the site were demolished and a new Brent Emergency Care and Diagnostic Centre was created.
The works, which were designed by HLM Architects and Avanti Architects and carried out by Bouygues at a cost of £60 million, opened in 2006. List of hospitals in England
The Fitzrovia Chapel is situated in Pearson Square, in the centre of the Fitzroy Place development bordered by Mortimer Street, Cleveland Street, Nassau Street and Riding House Street in Fitzrovia, London. It was part of the now demolished Middlesex Hospital, built in 1891 by John Loughborough Pearson, completed in 1929 by his son Frank Loughborough Pearson after the rest of the hospital was demolished and rebuilt around the chapel; the chapel is a Grade II* listed building. Historic England describes the style as "Italian Gothic". All the internal surfaces are decorated, with much use of polychrome mosaics; the Fitzrovia Chapel is managed by the Fitzrovia Chapel Foundation. It is operated as a venue for non-religious ceremonies and weddings; the foundation has a licence to supply alcohol. The chapel is used by community groups and the arts, as well as being available for private hire, it is the venue for many events during the London Handel Festival. It has been used by artists including Allman Brown and the Vickers Bovey Guitar Duo.
Fashion brands have used the chapel as a backdrop to shows and presentations. These have included Alistair James and Sharon Wauchob. In May 2017, the Horiuchi Foundation presented a series of photographs at the chapel by Tomohiro Muda; the exhibition was called Icons of Time: Memories of the Tsunami that Struck Japan. Richard Ingleby Gallery hosted an exhibition during Frieze London in October 2017. Artists David Batchelor, Jonathan Owen, Kevin Harman and Peter Liversdge were included in it. In July 2017, Hall & Coe presented Claudi Casanovas’s Minvant at the chapel. In 2016, the TJ Boulting gallery hosted Stephanie Quayle's Jenga at the Fitzrovia Chapel and in December 2017, Siân Davey's Looking for Alice. Leading up to World AIDS Day in 2017, the chapel presented its first photographic exhibition. Called The Ward, it followed the lives of four young men on the Broderip and Charles Bell wards in London’s former Middlesex Hospital; the Broderip was the first AIDS ward in London and was opened by Diana, Princess of Wales in 1987, this year marking the thirtieth anniversary of its opening.
The photographer was Gideon Mendel who chronicled the wards in 1993. The exhibition was featured in The British Journal of Photography, The Guardian, AnOther Magazine and on BBC News; each Wednesday between 11:00 and 16:00 the chapel is open to the public for quiet contemplation and reflection. There is no booking is not required; each month the chapel offers an audio presentation linked to culturally significant themes that are important to the heritage of Fitzrovia. These have included a celebration of Dylan and Caitlin Thomas, Virginia Woolf, Oscar Wilde and Paul Verlaine, it is a chance to reflect out of the distraction of the every day. Media related to Fitzrovia Chapel at Wikimedia Commons Official website
John Loughborough Pearson
John Loughborough Pearson was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals. Pearson revived and practised the art of vaulting, acquired in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation. Pearson was born in Brussels on 5 July 1817, he was the son of William Pearson, etcher, of Durham, was brought up there. At the age of fourteen he was articled to Ignatius Bonomi, architect, of Durham, whose clergy clientele helped stimulate Pearson's long association with religious architecture of the Gothic style, he soon moved to London, where he became a pupil of Philip Hardwick, architect of the Euston Arch and Lincoln's Inn. Pearson lived in central London at 13 Mansfield Street, was awarded the RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1880. From the erection of his first church at Ellerker, in Yorkshire, in 1843, to that of St Peter's, Vauxhall, in 1864, his buildings are geometrical in manner and exhibit a close adherence to precedent, but elegance of proportion and refinement of detail lift them out of the commonplace of mere imitation.
Holy Trinity, St Mary's, Dalton Holme, are notable examples of this phase. Pearson began his career drawing purely on English medieval prototypes, but incorporated ideas from abroad: Charles Locke Eastlake described Pearson's Christchurch at Appleton-le-Moors as "modelled on the earliest and severest type of French Gothic, with an admixture of details Byzantine in character." St Peter's Church, was his first groined church, the first of a series of buildings which brought Pearson to the forefront among his contemporaries. In these he applied the Early English style to modern needs and modern economy with unrivalled success. St Augustine's, Kilburn, St John's, Red Lion Square, London, St Alban's, Conybere Street, Birmingham, St Michael's, Croydon, St John's, Norwood, St Stephen's, All Saints Church, are characteristic examples of his mature work, he was enlisted by Sir Tatton Sykes, 5th Baronet to develop the first of what now are known as "The Sykes churches" near Sledmere. Pearson restored the Church of St Michael and All Angels, Garton on the Wolds and the churches at Kirkburn, Bishop Wilton, along with a new one at Hilton.
Pearson is best known for Truro Cathedral, which has a special interest in its apt incorporation of the south aisle of the ancient church. Pearson's conservative spirit fitted him for the repair of ancient buildings, among cathedrals and other historic buildings placed under his care were Lincoln, Peterborough and Exeter Cathedrals, St George's Chapel, Westminster Hall, Westminster Abbey, in the surveyorship of which he succeeded Sir George Gilbert Scott, he re-faced the north transept of Westminster Abbey, except for the porches, designed the vigorous organ cases. In his handling of ancient buildings he was opposed by the anti-restorers of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, but he proved the soundness of his judgment by his executed work, he did restoration work on smaller churches, including St Edward's Church in Gloucestershire. Pearson's practice was not confined to church building. Treberfydd, Quar Wood, Lechlade Manor, an Elizabethan house, Westwood House, Sydenham, in the French Renaissance style, the Astor estate offices upon the Victoria Embankment, the remodelling of the interiors of Cliveden House and No. 18 Carlton House Terrace, with many parsonages, show his aptitude for domestic architecture.
In general design he first aimed at form, embracing both contour. Its keynotes are refinement rather than boldness, he is buried in the nave of Westminster Abbey, where his grave is marked by the appropriate motto Sustinuit et abstinuit. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1874, becoming a full member in 1880, he was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, a fellow and member of the Council of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1862 Pearson married Jemima Christian, a cousin of his friend Ewan Christian, a Manxman and architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, their son Frank Loughborough Pearson was born in 1864, but to Pearson's great sorrow Jemima died the following year of typhoid fever. Frank followed in his father's footsteps completing much of his work before embarking on his own original designs. While Truro Cathedral is considered his UK masterpiece there are many who consider St John's Cathedral in Brisbane, Australia his finest work. St John's was designed by Pearson and by his son Frank following his father's death in 1897.
The cathedral is a study in contrast to Truro. While lacking some of the decorative detail found at Truro and having shorter towers, the cathedral departs from the conventional Early English style Neo-Gothic Pearson used extensively at Truro. St John's employs a broad mix of styles: some early English Gothic; the form of Spanish Gothic used at St John's is based on Barcelona Cathedral. The Barcelona influence can be seen in the nave which has two walls
UCL Medical School
UCL Medical School is the medical school of University College London and is located in London, United Kingdom. The School provides a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education programmes and has a medical education research unit and an education consultancy unit. UCL has offered education in medicine since 1834; the configured and titled medical school was established in 2008 following mergers between UCLH Medical School and the medical school of the Middlesex Hospital and The Royal Free Hospital Medical School. The School's clinical teaching is conducted at University College Hospital, The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat and Ear Hospital, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and Luton and Dunstable University Hospital; the School is ranked 4th in the UK by the Complete University Guide 2016, 3rd by the Guardian University Guide 2016, 10th in the world by the QS World University Rankings.
UCL Medical School formed over a number of years from the merger of a number of institutions: The Middlesex Hospital opened in Fitzrovia in 1745 and was training doctors from 1746 onwards, when students were'walking the wards'. University College Hospital opened in 1834 as the North London Hospital, with the purpose of providing the newly opened University College London with a hospital to train medical students after refusal by the governors of the Middlesex Hospital to share its facilities with UCL. Middlesex Hospital and University College Hospital merged their medical schools in 1987 to form University College & Middlesex School of Medicine; the London School of Medicine for Women was established in 1874 by Sophia Jex-Blake, as the first medical school in Britain to train women. In 1877 The Royal Free Hospital agreed to allow students from LSMW to complete their clinical studies there and by 1896 was renamed The London Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women and became part of the University of London.
In 1998 The Royal Free & University College Medical School was formed from the merger of the two medical schools. On 1 October 2008, it was renamed UCL Medical School. In appreciation of the historic beginnings of UCL Medical School, its student society has retained the name "RUMS" and runs clubs and societies within University College London Union; the medical school is one of the largest in the country with a yearly intake of 330 students. Undergraduate teaching is spread across three campuses based in Bloomsbury, at Archway and in Hampstead. Teaching takes place in arguably some of the best clinical sites in the country including: Great Ormond Street Hospital, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Moorfields Eye Hospital, The Heart Hospital, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and the Royal National Throat and Ear Hospital; the school is not only regarded as one of the best medical schools in the country, but one of the best in the world. The course in medicine at UCL leads to the award of the MB BS and BSc degrees and is a six-year integrated programme: Years 1 and 2 Fundamentals of Clinical Science.
UCL offers a wide variety of integrated BSc degrees ranging from the traditional subjects like anatomy and biochemistry, to more clinical courses such as Primary Health. Since 1994 there is the opportunity to intercalate a PhD, as part of the integrated MB PhD programme. UCL operates a MBBS Oxford Transfer programme where each year a small number of students from Oxford Medical School can transfer to complete their clinical training at UCL. Admission to the medical school, in common with all 32 medical schools in the UK, is competitive; the medical school receives 2,500 applications yearly of which up to 700 applicants are selected for interview. 450 offers are given for 322 places. Prospective students must apply through Colleges Admissions Service; as of 2015 entry, conditional offers for entry include grades A*AA at A-level, to include at least Chemistry and Biology, an additional pass at AS-level, this has been a significant change as the university was willing to accept A-Level grades of AAA.
The International Baccalaureate, although less common, is an acceptable entry qualification. The course is open to graduates with a minimum of a 2:1 required. Additionally, applicants must sit an entrance exam, the BioMedical Admissions Test, used alongside the rest of the UCAS application to determine selection for interview. UCL Medical School is associated with the following hospitals: University College Hospital Royal Free Hospital Whittington Hospital Eastman Dental Hospital Great Ormond Street Hospital The Heart Hospital Moorfields Eye Hospital National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Royal National Throat and Ear Hospital Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital UCL Medical School is associated with the following research institutes: UCL Cancer Institute UCL Ear Institute UCL Eastman Dental Instit