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Midland County, Michigan

Midland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 83,629; the county seat is Midland. The county's name is due to its closeness to the geographical Lower Peninsula's geographical center, it was founded in 1831. However, it was not until 1855 that the county was organized. Midland County comprises the Midland, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area in the Mid/Central Michigan region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 528 square miles, of which 516 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Gladwin County Bay County Saginaw County Gratiot County Isabella County Clare County US 10 Bus. US 10 M-18 M-20 M-30 Scheduled airline service is available from MBS International Airport in Freeland and Bishop International Airport in Flint, Michigan. Midland has a general aviation airport, Jack Barstow Municipal Airport. There is no scheduled public transportation.

Residents can call in advance to schedule pickup for transport within the county by two government sponsored agencies for a nominal fee. As of the census of 2000, there were 82,874 people, 31,769 households, 22,683 families residing in the county; the population density was 159 people per square mile. There were 33,796 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.50% White, 1.05% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 1.55 % of the population were Latino of any race. 28.6% were of German, 11.5% English, 10.2% United States or American, 8.9% Irish and 6.1% Polish ancestry, 96.7% spoke only English, while 1.6% spoke Spanish at home. There were 31,769 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families.

23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,674, the median income for a family was $55,483. Males had a median income of $45,656 versus $27,470 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,383. About 5.70% of families and 8.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.50% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Saginaw is the controlling regional body for the Catholic Church. Midland County predominantly supports the Republican Party, in contrast to the neighboring counties of Isabella and Bay, who support the Democratic Party.

The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Due to funding cuts, the Midland County Sheriff does not have a patrol division. Former patrol officers now serve in the Citizens Assistance Responders division and will respond to requests for assistance. Prosecuting Attorney: J. Dee Brooks Sheriff: Scott Stephenson County Clerk: Ann Manary County Treasurer: Cathy Lunsford Register of Deeds: Julie Atkinson Drain Commissioner: Douglas D. Enos 7 members, elected from districts Coleman Midland Sanford Larkin Charter Township Midland Charter Township List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Midland County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Midland County, Michigan Midland Tomorrow, Economic Development Midland County web site Midland County Historical Society Midland County's Historic Bridges MidlandOnline "Bibliography on Midland County".

Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 20, 2013. Midland Tomorrow web site

2014 UEFA European Under-17 Championship qualifying round

The 2014 UEFA European Under-17 Championship qualifying round was the first round of qualification for the final tournament of the 2014 UEFA European Under-17 Championship in Malta. Fifty-two teams entering in this round were drawn into 13 groups of four teams, where they played each other in a single round-robin mini-tournament hosted by one of the group's teams; the 13 group winners, 13 group runners-up and the best third-placed team advanced to the elite round, the second round of qualification. As hosts, Malta qualified directly for the final tournament, while Germany received a bye to the elite round as the side with the highest competition coefficient; the draw for the qualifying round was held on 5 December 2012 in Nyon, matches took place between 21 September and 19 November 2013. A total of fifty-two participating teams were divided in two draw pots based on the UEFA Under-17 coefficient ranking. Before the draw UEFA confirmed that, for political reasons and Azerbaijan would not host the mini-tournament if they are drawn in the same group due to the dispute concerning territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, with the same rule applying for Georgia and Russia due to the dispute regarding the territory of South Ossetia.

The UEFA Executive Committee admitted Gibraltar as a provisional member of UEFA on 1 October 2012. Gibraltar Football Association was admitted as a full member of UEFA at the XXXVII Ordinary UEFA Congress in London in May 2013. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings. Higher number of points obtained in the group matches played among the teams in question Superior goal difference from the group matches played among the teams in question Higher number of goals scored in the group matches played among the teams in question If, after applying criteria 1) to 3) to several teams, two teams still have an equal ranking, the criteria 1) to 3) will be reapplied to determine the ranking of these teams. If this procedure does not lead to a decision, criteria 5) and 6) will apply Results of all group matches: Superior goal difference Higher number of goals scored Drawing of lotsAdditionally, if two teams which have the same number of points and the same number of goals scored and conceded play their last group match against each other and are still equal at the end of that match, their final rankings are determined by the penalty shoot-out and not by the criteria listed above.

This procedure is applicable only if a ranking of the teams is required to determine the group winner or the runners-up and the third-placed team. The hosts of the thirteen mini-tournament groups are indicated below. All times are CEST until 26 October 2013 and CET starting from 27 October 2013. † On 21 October 2012, the match between Ukraine and Sweden to be played at the ARVI Football Arena in Marijampolė was postponed to the next day due to heavy rain. To determine the best third-ranked team from the qualifying round, only the results of the third-placed team against the winners and runners-up in each group are taken into account.

Highland Holiday, Ohio

Highland Holiday is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Highland County, United States. Its population was 550 as of the 2010 census. Highland Holiday is along the southern edge of Paint Township, it is bordered to the west by the Rocky Fork Point CDP. Both communities sit on the north side of Rocky Fork Lake, a reservoir built on the Rocky Fork, an east-flowing tributary of Paint Creek, which in turn flows east to the Scioto River and is part of the Ohio River watershed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the community has an area of 1.097 square miles. Highland Holiday is 9 miles east of Hillsboro, the Highland county seat

2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania

The 2008 congressional elections in Pennsylvania was held on November 4, 2008 to determine who will represent the state of Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives. Pennsylvania has 19 seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms; the election coincides with the 2008 U. S. presidential election. District 3 was the only seat which changed party, although CQ Politics had forecasted districts 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 15 and 18 to be at some risk for the incumbent party; as of 2018, this is the last time that Democrats won a majority of congressional districts from Pennsylvania. Five-term incumbent Bob Brady ran for another term after losing his bid to be mayor of Philadelphia, he was challenged by businessman Mike Muhammad. This race was viewed as noncompetitive, as it took place in Democratic Philadelphia. Brady ran unopposed in 2006 and has received over 80% of the vote in his campaigns. CQ Politics had forecast the race as'Safe Democrat'.

Brady defeated Muhammed by a nearly 10 to 1 margin, winning 242,799 to 24,714, or 90.8% to 9.2%. Race ranking and details from CQ Politics Campaign contributions from Seven term incumbent Chaka Fattah, unsuccessful in his bid to be mayor of Philadelphia, ran without major party opposition. Liberal Republican law professor Michael Livington won the Republican primary, but dropped out of the race due to lack of funding, he was replaced by Adam Lang. This seat is contained in one of the most Democratic districts in the country, with Democrats winning 90% of the vote. In 2006, Fattah was elected with 88.6% support and in 2008 he won with 88.9% of the vote. CQ Politics forecasted the race as'Safe Democrat'. Race ranking and details from CQ Politics Campaign contributions from Seven-term Republican incumbent Phil English faced Democrat Kathy Dahlkemper, director of the Erie Arboretum. Steven Porter, the 2006 Democratic nominee, is running as an independent. CQ Politics forecasts the race as'No Clear Favorite'.

English was tested in 2008. He represented a politically balanced Erie-based district. In 2006, he received just 54% of the vote against an under-funded candidate with no political experience, he has, been able to remain a level of popularity due to a moderate voting record and close ties to organized labor. The DCCC recruited Erie County Councilman Kyle Foust as its top choice to run against English. Dahlkemper, Attorney Tom Meyers, religious nonprofit program coordinator Mike Waltner declared for the Democratic primary. Dahlkemper proved better at mobilizing support than Foust, the original front runner, won the Democratic nomination with 45% of the vote. Dahlkemper defeated 51.2 % to 48.8 % to capture the seat. It was the only seat in Pennsylvania to change parties in 2008. Race ranking and details from CQ Politics Campaign contributions from English vs Dahlkemper graph of collected poll results from Democratic incumbent Jason Altmire again faced Republican Melissa Hart.

CQ Politics forecasted the race as'Leans Democratic'. In 2006, Altmire defeated incumbent Hart in a 52% to 48% upset. Hart had won 63% of the vote in 2004, when George W. Bush carried this suburban Pittsburgh district with 53%. In 2006, Pennsylvania was the most disastrous state for incumbent GOP House members, who lost four seats here. Hart ran unopposed for the Republican nomination in 2008 and attempted to use her public service credentials to regain her seat, she gained a reputation for appealing to moderate voters despite a conservative track record. She again lost to Altmire, this time by a wider margin than two years prior, with a 56–44% vote. Altmire maintained close ties with organized labor, possessed experience with the health care issues that are important in a region with an older population, was supported by the NRA. Race ranking and details from CQ Politics Campaign contributions from Democrat Mark McCracken, Clearfield County commissioner is running against Republican and Centre County GOP chair Glenn "G.

T." Thompson in this open seat election. James Fryman represented the Libertarian Party. CQ Politics forecasted this rural district as'Safe Republican'. Republican John Peterson announced his intention to retire on January 3, 2007, paving the way for a contentious open seat election. Nine Republicans were in the race for the nomination. Four men emerged as top tier candidates: Thompson, hotel developer Matt Shaner, financial consultant Derek Walker, former Woodland Township supervisor Jeff Strohmann. On the Republican ballot were mortgage broker John Kupa, Clarion mayor John Stroup, Elk County coroner Lou Radkowski, former Centre County commissioner Chris Exarchos, minister Keith Richardson. Thompson won this hard-fought 9-way primary with just 19% of the vote, in large part due to the late endorsement of Peterson who got involved in the primary campaign 10 days prior to election day. Walker and Shaner proved to be superior fundraisers and aired numerous television and radio commercials to counter Peterson's endorsement of Thompson.

The Republican primary included many personal attacks, with Shaner targeting Walker as being political incompetent and Walker referring to a DUI incident involving Shaner. Walker and Thompson were close in the polls on Election Day, but Thompson received a late boost because of his political track record in Centre County, the district's population center. McCracken, Lock Haven mayor Richard Vilello, Bill Cahir, a journalis

Todd County, Minnesota

Todd County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 24,895, its county seat is Long Prairie. The county was created by the Minnesota Territorial legislature on February 20, 1855, although the county government was not organized until January 1, 1867, with Long Prairie as the county seat, it was named for John Blair Smith Todd, a delegate from Dakota Territory to the United States House of Representatives, general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The Crow Wing River flows southeastward along the NE border of Todd County; the Long Prairie River flows east-northeast through the upper eastern part of the county, discharging into the Crow Wing on the county's NE border. The county terrain dotted with lakes and etched with drainages; the area is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the east and south, with its highest point on the west border at 1,483' ASL; the county has a total area of 980 sqmi, of which 945 sqmi is land and 35 sqmi is water.

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 24,426 people, 9,342 households, 6,511 families in Todd County. The population density was 25.8/sqmi. There were 11,900 housing units at an average density of 12.6/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.54% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.90 % of the population were Latino of any race. 52.1 % were of 5.6 % Polish ancestry. There were 9,342 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.80% were married couples living together, 6.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.14. The county population contained 27.40% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 101.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,281, the median income for a family was $39,920. Males had a median income of $28,630 versus $20,287 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,658. About 9.60% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 13.50% of those age 65 or over. Todd County has a large concentration of Amish, about the same population size as the Amish settlement at Harmony, Minnesota, it is home to five different Amish communities, with altogether 7 church districts in 2013, which indicates a total population of about 1000 people. Philbrook Pillsbury Ward Springs Todd County voters tend to vote Republican. In 71% of national elections since 1960, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. Dromedary Hills National Register of Historic Places listings in Todd County, Minnesota Todd County government’s website

Vanguard (microkernel)

Vanguard is a discontinued experimental microkernel developed at Apple Computer's research group in the early 1990s. Based on the V-System, Vanguard introduced standardized object identifiers and a unique "message chaining" system for improved performance. Vanguard was not used in any of Apple's commercial products, development ended in 1993 when Ross Finlayson - the project's principal investigator - left Apple. Vanguard was very similar to the V-System, but added support for true object oriented programming of the operating system; this meant that kernel and server interfaces were exported as objects, which could be inherited and extended in new code. This change has no real effect on the system itself, it is a change in the source code that makes programming easier. For instance, Vanguard had an I/O class, supported by a number of different servers and file servers for instance, which new applications could interact with by importing the I/O interface and calling methods; this made writing new servers much easier, both because they had a standard to program to, as well as being able to share code more easily.

A key concept to all microkernels is breaking down a single large kernel into a set of communicating servers. Instead of having a single large program in control of the entire hardware side of the computer system, these sorts of duties are handed out to smaller programs that are given rights to control different parts of the machine. For instance, a particular server might be given control of the networking hardware, while another has the task of managing the hard drives. Another server would handle the file system. User applications ask for services by sending messages to these servers, using some form of inter-process communications, as opposed to asking the kernel to do this work via a syscall or trap. Under V the IPC system appears to be conceptually modeled on remote procedure calls from the client application's perspective; the client application imported an interface definition file containing information about the calls supported by the kernel, or other applications, used this definition to package up requests.

When called, the kernel would take over, examine the results, pass the information off to the right handler within the kernel itself. Any results were handed back through the kernel to the client. In general terms, the operation of the system as it appears to the client application is similar to working with a normal monolithic kernel. Although the results passed back might come from a third party handler, this was invisible to the client. Servers handling these requests operated in a similar fashion to the clients, opening connections with the kernel to pass data. However, servers spawned new threads as required to handle longer-lasting requests; when these were handled and the responses posted, the thread could be de-allocated and the servers could go into a "receive mode" awaiting further requests. In contrast, most microkernel systems are based on a model of asynchronous communications, as opposed to synchronous procedure calls; the canonical microkernel system, modeled messages as I/O, which has several important side-effects.

Primary among these is that the normal task schedulers under Unix-like systems will block a client, waiting on an I/O request, so in this way the actions of pausing and restarting applications waiting on messages was built into the underlying system. The downside to this approach is that the scheduler is "heavyweight", calling it was a serious performance bottleneck and led to extensive development efforts to improve its performance. Under the V-System model the message passing overhead is reduced because the process scheduler does not have to be consulted, there is no question as to who should next be run – it's the server being called; the downside to the V approach is that it requires more work on the server side if the response may take some time to process. One major addition to the IPC system under Vanguard, as opposed to V, was the concept of message chains, allowing a single message to be sent between several interacting servers in a single round-trip. In theory, chaining could improve the performance of common multi-step operations.

Consider the case where a client application wishes to read a file. This would require one message to the kernel to find the file server three additional messages to the file server itself - one to resolve the file name into an object id, another to open that id finally another to read the file. Using Vanguard's chaining, a single message could be constructed by the client that contained all of these requests; the message would be sent to the kernel, passed off to the file server who would handle all three requests before returning data. Much of the performance problem associated with microkernel systems are due to the context switches as messages are passed back and forth between applications. In the example above running on a V system, there would have to be a total of eight context switches. In Vanguard using a chain would reduce this to only three switches. In some cases the overhead of a context switch is greater than the time it takes to run the request, so Vanguard's chaining mechanism could result in real-world performance improvements.

V had introduced a simple distributed name service. The name service stored "well known" character names representing various objects in a distributed V system, for instance "2nd