Ector County, Texas
Ector County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of 2015, its population was 159,436, its county seat is Odessa. The county was founded in 1887 and organized in 1891, it is named for a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Ector County comprises the Odessa, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Midland–Odessa Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 898 square miles are land and 4.1 square miles are covered by water. Ector County has an average rainfall of about 14 in per year and a warm, semiarid climate. Most of the county is flat, with small areas of rolling terrain; the area is known for its stark landscape. The few occurring trees are mesquite trees, which more resemble large bushes. Andrews County Midland County Upton County Crane County Ward County Winkler County As of the census of 2000, 121,123 people, 43,846 households, 31,700 families resided in the county; the population density was 134 people per square mile.
The 49,500 housing units averaged 55 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.69% White, 4.61% African American, 0.83% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 17.38% from other races, 2.81% from two or more races. About 42.36% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 43,846 households, 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were not families. About 24.00% of all households was made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was distributed as 30.40% under the age of 18, 10.50% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 20.20% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,152, for a family was $36,369. Males had a median income of $30,632 versus $21,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,031. About 16.10% of families and 18.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. Goldsmith Odessa Gardendale West Odessa Notrees Penwell Pleasant Farms Tryon D. Lewis Brooks Landgraf List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Ector County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Ector County Odessa College Presidential Museum and Leadership Library Stonehenge replica University of Texas of the Permian Basin Gary Watkins George E. "Buddy" West White-Pool House Odessa Meteor Crater Ector County government’s website Ector County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Inventory of county records, Ector County courthouse, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Ector County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War; the amendment was bitterly contested by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage; the amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause.
The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do little; the Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy; the Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.
The second and fourth sections of the amendment are litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement; the fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States, to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress; the fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation". Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed, but when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, having taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4; the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States; because the full population of fre
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The Spraberry Trend is a large oil field in the Permian Basin of West Texas, covering large parts of six counties, having a total area of 2,500 square miles. It is named for Abner Spraberry, the Dawson County farmer who owned the land containing the 1943 discovery well; the Spraberry Trend is itself part of a larger oil-producing region known as the Spraberry-Dean Play, within the Midland Basin. Discovery and development of the field began the postwar economic boom in the nearby city of Midland in the early 1950s; the oil in the Spraberry, proved difficult to recover. After about three years of enthusiastic drilling, during which most of the promising wells showed precipitous and mysterious production declines, the area was dubbed "the world's largest unrecoverable oil reserve."In 2007, the U. S. Department of Energy ranked The Spraberry Trend third in the United States by total proved reserves, seventh in total production. Estimated reserves for the entire Spraberry-Dean unit exceeded 10 billion barrels, by the end of 1994, the field had reported a total production of 924 million barrels.
The Spraberry Trend covers a large area – around 2,500 square miles – and includes portions of two Texas geographical regions, the Llano Estacado and the Edwards Plateau. As most defined, the Spraberry includes portions of Irion, Upton, Glasscock and Martin Counties, although the underlying geologic unit touches Dawson and Andrews Counties. Elevations are between 2,500 and 3,000 feet above sea level, the terrain varies from flat to rolling, with occasional canyons, known locally as "draws", cutting through the plateau. Drainage is to the east, via the Concho River to the Colorado River; the climate is semi-arid. Native vegetation includes scrub and grasslands, with trees such as cottonwoods along the watercourses. Aside from activities associated with oil production and storage, predominant land use in the area includes ranching and farming. All of the Spraberry Trend oil fields produce from a single enormous sedimentary unit known as the Spraberry Sand, which consists of complexly mixed fine sandstone and calcareous or silicate mudstone and siltstone, deposited in a deep water environment distinguished by channel systems and their associated submarine fans, all of Permian age.
The sands are interbedded with shales, pinch-out updip. Oil accumulated in stratigraphic traps as it migrated upward from source rocks until encountering impermeable barriers, either in the internal shaly members or the overlying impermeable formation. Unlike many of the oil-bearing rocks of West Texas, the low porosity and permeability hamper economic oil recovery; the rocks are fractured, further complicating hydrocarbon flow. Shaly rocks make up 87% of the Spraberry, with the oil-bearing sands and siltstones present sometimes in thin layers between them; the best-producing zone is at an average depth of 6,800 feet across the entire region, about 150 miles long by 70 wide. The first well drilled into the formation was by Seaboard Oil Company in 1943, on land owned by farmer Abner Spraberry in Dawson County. While the well bore showed an oil-bearing unit had been found, hence received Spraberry's name, it did not produce commercial quantities of oil; that changed in 1949, when the same company drilled well Lee 2-D, which produced 319 barrels per day – hardly a spectacular discovery, but enough to pique the interest of numerous independent operators looking for opportunity around Midland.
In 1950 and 1951, several other independent oil companies drilled productive wells separated by great distances, establishing that the formation was at least 150 miles long, beginning a frenzy of drilling in the region surrounding Midland. For most of the speculators and outside independent oil companies, most of the newly drilled wells behaved badly. In 1950, the cost of drilling and putting down 8,000 feet of steel casing required a well to produce 50,000 barrels just to break in the face of the low federally mandated price of $2.58/barrel. Local companies, skeptical of the Spraberry since the beginning of the boom did not suffer the losses of the outsiders who had come in expecting to profit in the huge oil play; the professional geologists could not agree on what was wrong: in October, 1951, a convention in Midland of hundreds of engineers and petroleum geologists reached no consensus on the issues with the field, although the peculiar and irregularly fractured nature of the oil-bearing rocks seemed to be a large part of the problem.
In May 1952, there were more than 1,630 Spraberry wells in the Midland basin, most drilled, but local enthusiasm had ended. In the following years, each operator developed its own methods of dealing with the unusual reservoir, began to employ a technique known as "hydrofracturing" – forcing water down wells at extreme pressure, causing the rocks to fracture further, resulting in increased oil flow; this was moderately successful, development of the Spraberry continued, albeit with diminished expectations for massive output. Yet another method of fracturing the rocks to increase production was to pump a mixture of soap and kerosene, followed by a coarse-grained sand under intense pressure. During the initial boom period the Spraberry promoters carried out an aggressive campaign to bring in outside investment, m
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, a 2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000, it is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County, the population of which grew 4.6 percent, between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2012, to 151,662 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1, 2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders. Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881.
It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, the onetime home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush. Midland was established in June 1881 on the Texas and Pacific Railway, it earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state; the city was incorporated in 1906, by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system. Midland was changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan.
Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves, yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of natural gas output. Midland's economy still relies on petroleum. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them. John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky. In 1967, the U. S. Supreme Court heard the case of Midland County.
Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes; the majority of the U. S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause; the dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority. Midland is located in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles, of which 71.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water.
Midland cool to mild winters. The city is subject to cold waves during the winter, but it sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives 14.6 inches of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F on 101 days per year, 100 °F on 16 days. Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries; the surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America Building. Four buildings over 500 feet tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by architect I. M. Pei; the great oil bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group was planning to build Energy Tower at City Center, proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors.
If it had been built, it would have been Texas' sixth tallest building. At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, 32,607 families resided in Midland; the population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile. There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per sq
Texas's 11th congressional district
Texas District 11 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the midwestern portion of the state of Texas. The current Representative from District 11 is Mike Conaway. Texas has had at least 11 districts since 1883. Major cities in the district are Lamesa, Odessa, San Angelo and Brownwood; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Much of the territory now in the district began shaking off its Democratic roots far sooner than the rest of Texas. For instance, Barry Goldwater did well in much of this area in 1964, Midland itself last supported a Democrat for president in 1948, it was President George W. Bush's strongest district in the entire nation in the 2004 election. While Democrats continued to hold most local offices here well into the 1980s and continued to represent parts of the region through the 1990s, today Republicans dominate every level of government winning by well over 70 percent of the vote. From 1903-2005 the district was contained Waco.
List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present