A warbird is any vintage military aircraft now operated by civilian organizations and individuals or, in some instances, by historic arms of military forces, such as the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, the RAAF Museum Historic Flight or the South African Air Force Museum Historic Flight. Restored warbirds are a frequent attraction at airshows. Modified as well as "stock" warbirds can frequently be seen at air races, since World War II-era fighters are among the fastest propeller-driven airplanes built; some of the most popular warbirds for races are the North American P-51 Mustang, the Hawker Sea Fury, the Grumman F8F Bearcat and the North American T-6 Texan. Although the term implied piston-driven aircraft from the World War II era, it is now extended to include all airworthy former military aircraft, including jet-powered aircraft. Vintage jet aircraft in airworthy condition, are much rarer due to technical complexity. Sometimes, modern production aircraft such as Allison V-1710-powered Yakovlev Yak-9s from Yakovlev and replicas and reproductions of vintage aircraft are called "warbirds", such as Messerschmitt Me 262s built by the Me 262 Project and Focke-Wulf Fw 190s by Flug + Werk.
Such replicated warbirds may be powered by vintage engines from the era of the aircraft design being flown, as Cole Palen and others associated with his institution did at Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome aviation museum with accurate and airworthy reproductions of the Fokker Dr. I, Fokker D. VII, Fokker D. VIII, Sopwith Camel and Sopwith Dolphin World War I aircraft. Alpine Fighter Collection of New Zealand Fighter Pilots Museum Amicale Jean-Baptiste Salis Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Shuttleworth Collection Temora Aviation Museum The Fighter Collection In the United States: Army Aviation Heritage Foundation, Georgia United States Aviation Museum, Ohio EAA AirVenture Museum, Wisconsin American Airpower Heritage Museum, Texas Lone Star Flight Museum, Texas Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome, Red Hook, New York Collings Foundation Fantasy of Flight Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, CA Yankee Air Force Military Aviation Museum, Virginia Beach, Virginia Vintage warbird restoration, or classic aircraft restoration, is the process of taking aircraft from the previous era, performing processes such as maintenance and refurbishments in order to restore these military aircraft to their original wartime state.
According to Classic Warplanes, some of the tasks performed on these vintage aircraft include: Structural repairs Standard maintenance Interior and exterior paint Decals and stamps Upholstery replacements Control heads and radios Parachutes, ejection seats, ejection seat cartridges Rewiring Replacement of real weaponry with non-operating replicas There are several different types of warbirds such as the fighter, bomber, transports, etc. Examples of aircraft types include the North American P-51 Mustang, Vought F4U Corsair, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, North American T-6 Texan, Beechcraft T-34 Mentor, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. There are great warbirds air-shows all over the world annually. Warbird Alley claims that some of the best-known air shows in the United States that feature warbirds are: EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, Wisconsin Alliance Airshow, Fort Worth, Texas Dayton Airshow, Ohio History of Flight Airshow, New York Indianapolis Airshow, Indiana Miramar Airshow, California Orlando Air Fair, Florida Spirit of Flight Airshow, Texas Commemorative Air Force AIRSHO, Texas Warbirds over the Beach, Virginia Beach, Virginia Warbirds over Monroe, North Carolina Classic Fighters Omaka, New Zealand Warbirds over Wanaka, New Zealand Warbirds Downunder, AustraliaIn Europe, one of the best known warbird air show is the annual Flying Legends arranged in Imperial War Museum Duxford in UK.
La Ferté-Alais air show in France collects warbirds annually too. Warbirds fly in most of the Shuttleworth Collection flying days in UK every summer; some organizations in the United States are: Experimental Aircraft Association. The primary focus of the group started with building individual airplanes, it soon grew to include antiques, warbirds, aerobatic aircraft, ultralights and contemporary manufactured aircraft. Warbirds of America is a non-profit organization formed in 1964. A year after its start, it became a branch of the EAA. Classic Jet Aircraft Association Antique aircraft Aviation archaeology EAA AirVenture Museum Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum Category:Lists of surviving aircraft Warbirds over Wanaka Australian Warbirds Association Classic Jet Aircraft Association Commemorative Air Force Experimental Aircraft Association EAA AirVenture EAA Warbirds of America. Federal Aviation Administration New Zealand Warbirds The Fighter Collection Imperial War Museum Duxford Shuttleworth Collection
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, a 2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000, it is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County, the population of which grew 4.6 percent, between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2012, to 151,662 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1, 2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders. Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881.
It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, the onetime home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush. Midland was established in June 1881 on the Texas and Pacific Railway, it earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state; the city was incorporated in 1906, by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system. Midland was changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan.
Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves, yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of natural gas output. Midland's economy still relies on petroleum. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them. John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky. In 1967, the U. S. Supreme Court heard the case of Midland County.
Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes; the majority of the U. S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause; the dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority. Midland is located in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles, of which 71.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water.
Midland cool to mild winters. The city is subject to cold waves during the winter, but it sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives 14.6 inches of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F on 101 days per year, 100 °F on 16 days. Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries; the surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America Building. Four buildings over 500 feet tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by architect I. M. Pei; the great oil bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group was planning to build Energy Tower at City Center, proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors.
If it had been built, it would have been Texas' sixth tallest building. At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, 32,607 families resided in Midland; the population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile. There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per sq
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Denver International Airport
Denver International Airport, locally referred to as DIA, is an international airport in the western United States serving metropolitan Denver, Colorado, as well as the greater Front Range Urban Corridor. At 33,531 acres, it is the largest airport in North America by total land area and the second largest in the world. Runway 16R/34L, with a length of 16,000 feet, is the longest public use runway in North America and the seventh longest in the world. With over 35,000 employees, the airport is the largest employer in Colorado. Opened in 1995, Denver International has non-stop service to 205 destinations throughout North America, Latin America and Asia. S. to exceed 200 destinations. It has the second-largest domestic network, with 185 U. S. destinations. As of 2018, DIA is the 20th busiest airport in the world, fifth busiest in the U. S. and the largest in the Interior-Western United States. The airport is a major hub for Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, is a main operating base for Southwest Airlines.
These three airlines' combined operations made up about 85% of the total passenger traffic at DIA as of December 2018. Denver has traditionally been home to one of the busier airports in the nation because of its location. Many airlines including United Airlines, Western Airlines, the old Frontier Airlines and People Express were hubbed at the old Stapleton International Airport, there was a significant Southwest Airlines operation. In addition, Stapleton had transatlantic charter services from Martinair and Monarch Airlines among others at the time of closure, followed by Korean Air and LTU International once DIA opened. At times, Stapleton was a hub for four airlines; the main reasons that justified the construction of the new DIA included the fact that gate space was limited at Stapleton. From 1980 to 1983, the Denver Regional Council of Governments investigated six areas for a new metro area airport that were north and east of Denver. In September 1989, under the leadership of Denver Mayor Federico Peña, federal officials authorized the outlay of the first $60 million for the construction of DIA.
Two years Mayor Wellington Webb inherited the megaproject, scheduled to open on October 29, 1993. Delays caused by poor planning and repeated design changes due to changing requirements from United Airlines caused Mayor Webb to push opening day back, first to December 1993 to March 1994. By September 1993, delays due to a millwright strike and other events meant opening day was pushed back again, to May 15, 1994. In April 1994, the city invited reporters to observe the first test of the new automated baggage system. Reporters were treated to scenes of clothing and other personal effects scattered beneath the system's tracks, while the actuators that moved luggage from belt to belt would toss the luggage right off the system instead; the mayor cancelled the planned May 15 opening. The baggage system continued to be a maintenance hassle and was terminated in September 2005, with traditional baggage handlers manually handling cargo and passenger luggage. On September 25, 1994, the airport hosted a fly-in that drew several hundred general aviation aircraft, providing pilots with a unique opportunity to operate in and out of the new airport, to wander around on foot looking at the ground-side facilities—including the baggage system, still under testing.
FAA controllers took advantage of the event to test procedures, to check for holes in radio coverage as planes taxied around and among the buildings. DIA replaced Stapleton on February 28, 1995, 16 months behind schedule and at a cost of $4.8 billion, nearly $2 billion over budget. The construction employed 11,000 workers. United Airlines Flight 1062 to Kansas City International Airport was the first to depart and United Flight 1474 from Colorado Springs Airport was the first to arrive. After the airport's runways were completed but before it opened, the airport used the codes. DIA took over as its codes from Stapleton when the latter airport closed. During the blizzard of March 17–19, 2003, the weight of heavy snow tore a hole in the terminal's white fabric roof. Over two feet of snow on the paved areas closed the airport for two days. Several thousand people were stranded at DIA. In 2004, DIA was ranked first in major airports for on-time arrivals according to the FAA. Another blizzard on December 20 and 21, 2006 dumped over 20 inches of snow in about 24 hours.
The airport was closed for more than 45 hours. Following that blizzard, the airport invested in new snow-removal equipment that has led to a dramatic reduction in runway occupancy times to clear snow, down from an average of 45 minutes in 2006 to just 15 minutes in 2014; as part of the original design of the airport the city specified passenger volume "triggers" that would lead to a redevelopment of the master plan and possible new construction to make sure the airport is able to meet Denver's needs. The city hit its first-phase capacity threshold in 2008, DIA is revising the master plan; as part of the master plan update, the airport announced selection of Parsons Corporation to design a new hotel, rail station and two bridges leading into the main terminal. The airport has the ability to add up to six additional ru
McCarran International Airport
McCarran International Airport is the primary commercial airport serving the Las Vegas Valley, a major metropolitan area in the U. S. state of Nevada. It is in Paradise, about 5 miles south of Downtown Las Vegas; the airport is operated by the Clark County Department of Aviation. It is named after the late U. S. Senator Pat McCarran, a member of the Democratic Party who contributed to the development of aviation both in Las Vegas and on a national scale. LAS covers 2,800 acres of land; the airport was built in 1942 and opened to commercial flights in 1948. It has undergone significant expansion since and has employed various innovative technologies, such as common-use facilities; the airport consists of four runways and two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Terminal 1 is composed of four concourses, namely the A, B, C, D Gates. A people mover system is in place between the post-security area of Terminal 1 and the C and D Gates, as well as between the D Gates and Terminal 3. East of the passenger terminals is the Marnell Air Cargo Center, on the west side of the airports are facilities for fixed-base operators and helicopter companies.
McCarran received over 45,300,000 passengers in 2015, a 5.8% increase over the previous year but still below pre-recession levels. It is the 30th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the 8th busiest by aircraft movements; the airport has nonstop air service to destinations in North America and Asia. It is an operating base for Allegiant Air, as well as a crew and maintenance base for Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines. Prior to McCarran Airport, the first airport to serve Las Vegas was Anderson Field, opened in November 1920 southeast of present-day Sahara Ave and Paradise Rd. Purchased by the Rockwell brothers in 1925, the airfield was renamed Rockwell Field, Western Air Express introduced commercial air service in April 1926; when the brothers sold Rockwell Field and the new owner canceled WAE's lease, the airline had to look for another airport. Local businessman P. A. Simon had built an airfield northeast of the city, now known as Nellis Air Force Base, to which WAE relocated in November 1929.
Despite rising traffic to Las Vegas, WAE reduced service to the city amid the Great Depression. Once its financial situation improved, the airline bought the airfield and established a monopoly on flights; when the city attempted to purchase the field and build a more modern terminal, WAE refused. With the advent of World War II, however, WAE was pressured to sell the airfield. Nevada Senator Pat McCarran helped obtain federal funding for the city to buy the field and construct a new terminal, he helped establish a gunnery school by the United States Army Air Corps at the field. For the senator's contributions, the airport was named McCarran Field in 1941. A third airfield, Alamo Field, was established in 1942 by aviator George Crockett south of the city of Las Vegas, at the present location of McCarran Airport; as the Army sought to open a local base at the site of McCarran Field, Clark County purchased Alamo Field from Crockett in order to relocate commercial air traffic. Alamo Field became the new McCarran Field on December 19, 1948.
The opening of this new airfield broke Western Air Express' monopoly on flights to Las Vegas, allowing other airlines to serve the market. Meanwhile, the Army reopened its base at the original McCarran Field in 1949 and named it Nellis Air Force Base in 1950. In its first year of operation, McCarran Field served over 35,000 passengers; as the Las Vegas casino industry grew and air travel became more popular during the 1950s, passenger traffic to the airfield rose with 959,603 passengers transiting through it in 1959. To cope with the increase, airport officials began planning a new passenger terminal. While the original terminal was located on Las Vegas Boulevard, the new terminal was built on Paradise Road; the terminal, whose design was inspired by the TWA Flight Center in New York City, opened on March 15, 1963. The airport was renamed McCarran International Airport in September 1968. Further expansion took place between 1974 with the construction of the A and B gates. Prior to deregulation, the airport had four dominant carriers: United and TWA served both coasts nonstop from Las Vegas, while Western and Hughes Airwest provided service to destinations in the western US.
After the airline industry was deregulated in 1978, the number of airlines serving McCarran doubled from seven to fourteen in only two years. New entrants by 1979 included American and Continental. In response, the county launched an expansion plan named McCarran 2000, detailing expansion projects to be undertaken into the year 2000. Expanded baggage claim facilities, an esplanade, a parking garage were inaugurated in 1985; the C Gates and the first line of the people mover system followed in 1987. Further expansion took place during the 1990s; the Charter/International Terminal renamed Terminal 2, was opened in December 1991 to handle rising international traffic to Las Vegas. An additional, nine-story parking garage and an underground tunnel linking the Las Vegas Beltway to the airport were constructed as well. In June 1998, the southwest and southeast wings of the D Gates were opened. During the late 1990s, the airport focused on attracting foreign airlines. In 1994, Condor Flugdienst began charter flights from Germany, launching scheduled service from Cologne and Frankfurt in 1997.
Northwest Airlines and Japan Airlines introduced flights from Tokyo in 1998, Virgin Atlantic began flying from London–Gatwick in 2000. In 1997, the airport introduced Common Use Terminal Equipment, becoming the first
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They