Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Its denizens spoke a variety of the Brittonic language known as Cumbric; the Hen Ogledd was distinct from the parts of northern Britain inhabited by the Picts, Anglo-Saxons, Scoti as well as from Wales, although the people of the Hen Ogledd were the same Brittonic stock as the Picts and Cornish, the region loomed large in Welsh literature and tradition for centuries after its kingdoms had disappeared. The major kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd were Elmet in western Yorkshire. Smaller kingdoms or districts included Aeron, Eidyn and Manaw Gododdin; the Angle kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia both had Brittonic-derived names, suggesting they may have been Brittonic kingdoms in origin. All the kingdoms of the Old North except Strathclyde were conquered by Anglo-Saxons and Picts by about 800; the legacy of the Hen Ogledd remained strong in Wales.
Welsh tradition included genealogies of the Gwŷr y Gogledd, or Men of the North, several important Welsh dynasties traced their lineage to them. A number of important early Welsh texts were attributed to the Men of the North, such as Taliesin, Myrddin Wyllt, the Cynfeirdd poets. Heroes of the north such as Urien, Owain mab Urien, Coel Hen and his descendants feature in Welsh poetry and the Welsh Triads. Nothing is reliably known of Central Britain before c. 550. There had never been a period of long-term, effective Roman control north of the Tyne–Solway line, south of that line effective Roman control ended long before the traditionally given date of departure of the Roman military from Roman Britain in 407, it was noted in the writings of Ammianus Marcellinus and others that there was ever-decreasing Roman control from about AD 100 onward, in the years after 360 there was widespread disorder and the large-scale permanent abandonment of territory by the Romans. By 550, the region was controlled by native Brittonic-speaking peoples except for the eastern coastal areas, which were controlled by the Anglian peoples of Bernicia and Deira.
To the north were the Picts with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to the northwest. All of these peoples would play a role in the history of the Old North. From a historical perspective, wars were internecine, Britons were aggressors as well as defenders, as was true of the Angles and Gaels. However, those Welsh stories of the Old North that tell of Briton fighting Anglian have a counterpart, told from the opposite side; the story of the demise of the kingdoms of the Old North is the story of the rise of the Kingdom of Northumbria from two coastal kingdoms to become the premier power in Britain north of the Humber and south of the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth. The interests of kingdoms of this era were not restricted to their immediate vicinity. Alliances were not made only within the same ethnic groups, nor were enmities restricted to nearby different ethnic groups. An alliance of Britons fought against another alliance of Britons at the Battle of Arfderydd. Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata appears in the Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd, a genealogy among the pedigrees of the Men of the North.
The Historia Brittonum states that Oswiu, king of Northumbria, married a Briton who may have had some Pictish ancestry. A marriage between the Northumbrian and Pictish royal families would produce the Pictish king Talorgan I. Áedán mac Gabráin fought as an ally of the Britons against the Northumbrians. Cadwallon ap Cadfan of the Kingdom of Gwynedd allied with Penda of Mercia to defeat Edwin of Northumbria. Conquest and defeat did not mean the extirpation of one culture and its replacement by another; the Brittonic region of northwestern England was absorbed by Anglian Northumbria in the 7th century, yet it would re-emerge 300 years as South Cumbria, joined with North Cumbria into a single state. The organisation of the Men of the North was tribal, based on kinship groups of extended families, owing allegiance to a dominant "royal" family, sometimes indirectly through client relationships, receiving protection in return. For Celtic peoples, this organisation was still in effect hundreds of years as shown in the Irish Brehon law, the Welsh Laws of Hywel Dda, the Scottish Laws of the Brets and Scots.
The Germanic Anglo-Saxon law had culturally different origins, but with many similarities to Celtic law. Like Celtic law, it was based on cultural tradition, without any perceivable debt to the Roman occupation of Britain. A primary royal court would be maintained as a "capital", but it was not the bureaucratic administrative centre of modern society, nor the settlement or civitas of Roman rule; as the ruler and protector of his kingdom, the king would maintain multiple courts throughout his territory, travelling among them to exercise his authority and to address the needs of his clients, such as in the dispensing of justice. This ancient method of dispensing justice survived throughout England as a part of royal procedure until the reforms of Henry II modernised the administration of law. Modern scholarship uses the term "Cumbric" for the Brittonic language spoken in the Hen Ogledd, it appears to have been closely related to Old Welsh, with some local variances, more distant
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England and Scotland between 1639 and 1651. The English Civil War proper has become the best-known of these conflicts; the history of these wars is extended to include the uprisings and conflicts that continued through the 1650s until the English Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, sometimes to include Venner's uprising the following year. The wars were the outcome of broadly set tensions over civil issues. Religious disputes centred on whether religion was to be dictated by the monarch or by choice, the conscience of the individual, with many people feeling that they ought to have freedom of religion; the related civil question was settling the extent to which the king's rule was to be constrained by Parliament—in particular the right to raise taxes and armed forces without consent of the Parliament. The wars had elements of national conflict, as Ireland and Scotland rebelled against England's primacy within the Three Kingdoms.
The broad and durable victory of the English Parliament—ultimately overcoming the king, the Irish and the Scots, outlasting the Cromwellian Protectorate itself—helped establish the future of Great Britain and Ireland as a constitutional monarchy with political power centred on the Parliament in London. These wars included the Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640. After 1541, monarchs of England styled their Irish territory as a Kingdom—replacing the Lordship of Ireland—and ruled there with the assistance of a separate Irish Parliament, while Henry VIII integrated Wales more into the Kingdom of England. Scotland, the third separate kingdom, was governed by the House of Stuart. Via the English Reformation, King Henry VIII made himself head of the Protestant Church of England and outlawed Catholicism in England and Wales. In the course of the 16th century Protestantism became intimately associated with national identity in England: English folk in general saw Catholicism as the national enemy as it was embodied in the rivals France and Spain.
But Catholicism remained the religion of most people in Ireland. In the Kingdom of Scotland the Protestant Reformation was a popular movement led by John Knox; the Scottish Parliament legislated for a national Presbyterian church—namely the Church of Scotland or the "Kirk"—and the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate in favour of her son James VI of Scotland. James grew up under a regency disputed between Protestant factions. In 1584, he introduced bishops into the Church of Scotland, but met with vigorous opposition, he had to concede that the General Assembly would continue running the church without his say; the personal union of the three kingdoms under one monarch came about when King James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I to the English throne in 1603, when he became King James I of England and of Ireland. In 1625, Charles I succeeded his father, marked three main concerns regarding England and Wales: how to fund his government, how to reform the church, how to limit Parliament's interference in his rule.
At that time he showed little interest in his other two kingdoms and Ireland. James VI remained Protestant, he duly moved to London. His diplomatic and political skills now concentrated in dealing with the English Court and Parliament—at the same time running Scotland by writing instructions to the Privy Council of Scotland and controlling the Parliament of Scotland through the Lords of the Articles, he contravened the sovereign authority of the Scottish General Assembly and stopped it from meeting increased the number of bishops in the Church of Scotland. In 1618 he held a General Assembly and pushed through Five Articles of Episcopalian practices, which were boycotted. After his death in 1625, James was succeeded by his son Charles I, crowned in St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh—the Scottish coronation—in 1633, with full Anglican rites. Charles was less restrained than his father, his confrontation with the Scots came to a head in 1639, when he tried and failed to coerce Scotland by military means, the Bishops' wars.
See the English Civil War. Charles shared his father's belief in the Divine Right of Kings, his persistent assertion of this standard disrupted relations between the Crown and the English Parliament; the Church of England remained dominant, but a powerful Puritan minority, represented by about one third of Parliament, began to assert themselves. The English Parliament and the king had repeated disputes over taxation, military expenditures and the role of the Parliament in government. While James I had
Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain, governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD. It comprised the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies, he received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells according to Suetonius as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea. Three years Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore an exiled king over the Atrebates; the Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, organized their conquests as the Province of Britain. By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way.
Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded northward. The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia. In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side; the bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed. In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are high figures. Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the 4th century. For much of the period of the Roman occupation, Britannia was subject to barbarian invasions and came under the control of imperial usurpers and imperial pretenders; the final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, architecture; the Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. After the initial invasions, Roman historians only mention Britain in passing. Thus, most present knowledge derives from archaeological investigations and occasional epigraphic evidence lauding the Britannic achievements of an emperor. Roman citizens settled in Britain from many parts of the Empire.
Britain was known to the Classical world. The Greeks referred to the Cassiterides, or "tin islands", placed them near the west coast of Europe; the Carthaginian sailor Himilco is said to have visited the island in the 5th century BC and the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th. It was regarded with some writers refusing to believe it existed at all; the first direct Roman contact was when Julius Caesar undertook two expeditions in 55 and 54 BC, as part of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons were helping the Gallic resistance. The first expedition was more a reconnaissance than a full invasion and gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but was unable to advance further because of storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry. Despite the military failure it was a political success, with the Roman Senate declaring a 20-day public holiday in Rome to honour the unprecedented achievement of obtaining hostages from Britain and defeating Belgian tribes on returning to the continent; the second invasion involved a larger force and Caesar coerced or invited many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute and give hostages in return for peace.
A friendly local king, was installed, his rival, was brought to terms. Hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether any tribute was paid after Caesar returned to Gaul. Caesar conquered no territory and left no troops behind but he established clients and brought Britain into Rome's sphere of influence. Augustus planned invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favourable, the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacy and trade. Strabo, writing late in Augustus's reign, claimed that taxes on trade brought in more annual revenue than any conquest could. Archaeology shows. Strabo mentions British kings who sent embassies to Augustus and Augustus's own Res Gestae refers to two British kings he received as refugees; when some of Tiberius's ships were carried to Britain in a storm during his campaigns in Germany in 16 AD, they came back with tales of monsters. Rome appears to have encouraged a balance of power in southern Britain, supporting two powerful kingdoms: the Catuvellauni, ruled by the descendants of Tasciovanus, the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Commius.
This policy was followed until 39 or 40
The Rough Wooing was a war between Scotland and England. Following its break with Rome, England decided to attack Scotland to destroy the Auld Alliance and prevent Scotland being used as a springboard for future invasion by France to weaken Scotland, to force Scotland to agree to a marriage alliance between Mary, Queen of Scots and the English heir apparent Edward, son of King Henry VIII. An invasion of France was contemplated. War was declared by Henry in an attempt to force the Scots to agree to a marriage between Edward, six years old at the start of the war, the infant queen, thereby creating a new alliance between Scotland and England. Edward, crowned king in 1547 at the age of nine, continued the war for a time under the direction of the Duke of Somerset before Somerset's removal from power in 1549 and replacement by the Duke of Northumberland, who wished for a less costly foreign policy than his predecessor, it was the last major conflict between Scotland and England before the Union of the Crowns in 1603, excepting the English intervention at the Siege of Leith in 1560, was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century.
In Scotland, the war was called the "Eight" or "Nine Years' War". The idea of the war as a "Wooing" was popularised many years by Sir Walter Scott, the phrase "Rough Wooing" appeared in several history books from the 1850s onwards; the phrase appears to derive from a famous remark attributed to George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly by Patrick Abercromby in his edition of Jean de Beaugué's history of the war: "We liked not the manner of the wooing, we could not stoop to being bullied into love", or, as William Patten reported, "I lyke not thys wooyng." The historian William Ferguson contrasted this jocular nickname and the savagery and devastation of the war: English policy was to pulverise Scotland, to beat her either into acquiescence or out of existence, Hertford's campaigns resemble nothing so much as Nazi total warfare, "blitzkrieg", reign of terror, extermination of all resisters, the encouragement of collaborators, so on. More Marcus Merriman titled his book The Rough Wooings to emphasise the division of the conflict into two or three distinct phases.
In 1542, a Scottish army suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss and James V died soon after. He was succeeded by his daughter, Mary I, born six days earlier, in the care of her mother, Mary of Guise; the English marriage for James's successor proposed by the Treaty of Greenwich was conditionally accepted by the Scottish government led by Regent Arran. However, Arran was slow to advance the marriage due to strong internal factions favouring alliance with France and the continuance of the Catholic religion in Scotland. Twenty years the English diplomat Ralph Sadler reported Adam Otterburn's words to him on the Scottish opinion of the marriage:Our people do not like of it, and though the Governor and some of the nobility have consented to it, yet I know that few or none of them do like of it. I pray you give me leave to ask you a question: if your lad was a lass, our lass were a lad, would you be so earnest in this matter?... And lykewise I assure you that our nation will never agree to have an Englishman king of Scotland.
And though the whole nobility of the realm would consent, yet our common people, the stones in the street would rise and rebel against it. In Scotland civil war ensued with the Regent opposed by the Douglas faction in the East and Matthew, Earl of Lennox in the West at Glasgow. With this internal background, the Scots faced the anger of Henry VIII, after the Scottish Parliament renounced the Treaty of Greenwich in December 1543. Five days on 20 December, war was declared in Edinburgh by the messenger Henry Ray, Berwick Pursuivant. Henry had released a number of Scottish noblemen captured at the battle of Solway Moss on licence, hoping they would build consensus for the marriage. In March 1544, he sent his Richmond Herald to the Privy Council of Scotland to demand their return. Major hostilities began with an attack on Edinburgh on 3 May 1544, led by the Earl of Hertford and Viscount Lisle. Hertford had instructions to burn Edinburgh and issue Henry's proclamation of 24 March 1544, which laid the blame on Cardinal Beaton's "sinister enticement" of Regent Arran.
Hertford had considered establishing an English garrison at Leith but the Privy Council had vetoed this plan. Henry VIII had asked him to destroy St Andrews, but Hertford pointed out the extra distance would be troublesome. After burning St Mynettes on the north side of the Forth and taking fishing boats for landing-craft, the English army landed at Granton occupied Leith. Hertford parleyed with Adam Otterburn, Provost of Edinburgh but he had been instructed not to make terms; the next day the troops entered Edinburgh's Canongate, set the city on fire. Edinburgh Castle was defended by cannon fire commanding the Royal Mile. Hertford decided not to lay siege but burn the city. According to the English contemporary account, all the houses within the suburbs and city walls were burnt including Holyroodhouse and the Abbey; the English ships at Leith were loaded with looted goods and sailed with the captured Unicorn and Salamander. The army returned to England by land, burning villages along the way.
Soon after the English force landed, Regent Arran released the Earl of Angus and George Douglas of Pittendreich, imprisoned in Blackness Castle. Although they had been supporters of the English marriage, Arran now needed the support of the Douglas family against an English invasion. Following this attack, Sir William Eure and Ralph Eure made a numbe
Lothian is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish capital, while other significant towns include Livingston, Bathgate, Dalkeith, Prestonpans, North Berwick and Haddington; the term Lothian referred to a province encompassing most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came under the control of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, the northern part of the kingdom of Northumbria, but the Angles' grip on Lothian was weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in which they were defeated by the Picts. Lothian was annexed to the Kingdom of Scotland around the 10th century. Subsequent Scottish history saw the region subdivided into three shires—Mid and West Lothian—leading to the popular designation of "the Lothians"; the origin of the name is debated. It comes from the British *Lugudūniānā meaning "country of the fort of Lugus", the latter being a Celtic god of commerce.
Alternatively it may take its name from a watercourse which flows through the region, now known as the Lothian Burn, the name of which comes from either the British lutna meaning "dark or muddy stream", *lǭd, with a meaning associated with flooding, or lǖch, meaning "bright, shining". A popular legend is that the name comes from King Lot, king of Lothian in the Arthurian legend; the usual Latin form of the name is Laudonia. Lothian was settled by Angles at an early stage and formed part of the Kingdom of Bernicia, which extended south into present-day Northumberland. Many place names in the Lothians and Scottish Borders demonstrate that the English language became established in the region from the sixth century onwards. In due course Bernicia united with Deira to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. Important Anglo Saxon structural remains have been found in Aberlady along with various artefacts such as an early 9th century Anglo Saxon coin. Little is recorded of Lothian's history in this time. After the Norse settled in what is now Yorkshire, Northumbria was cut in two.
How much Norse influence spread to the English north of the River Tees is uncertain. Bernicia continued as a distinct territory, sometimes described as having a king, at other times an ealdorman. Bernicia became distinct from other English territories at this time due to its links with the other Christian kingdoms in what is present-day Scotland and seems to have little to do with the Norse-controlled areas to the south. Roger of Wendover wrote that Edgar, King of the English granted Laudian to the King of Scots in 973 on condition that he come to court whenever the English king or his successors wore his crown, it is accepted by medieval historians that this marks the point at which Lothian came under Scottish control. The River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border following the Battle of Carham in 1018. William the Conqueror did not re-annex it. At this time Lothian appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Loþen; as late as 1091, the Chronicle describes how the Scottish king, Malcolm, "went with his army out of Scotland into Lothian", in the reign of King David, the people living in Lothian are described as "English" subjects of the king.
In the post-Roman period, Lothian was dominated by British-speakers whose language is called Cumbric and was related to Welsh. In Welsh tradition Lothian is part of the "Old North". Reminders exist in British place-names like Tranent and Penicuik. Although one of the few areas of mainland Scotland where the Gaelic language was never dominant, the presence of some Gaelic place-names, e.g. Dalry, Currie and Cockenzie, has been attributed to the "temporary occupation... the presence of a landowning Gaelic-speaking aristocracy and their followers for something like 150–200 years."Over time and due to various factors, the language of Lothian and Northumbria, a northern variety of Middle English, came to displace Gaelic as the language of the Lowlands. The dialects of the modern Lothians are sometimes considered to be part of Central Scots; the Local Government Act 1973 abolished the county councils and burgh corporations, replacing them with regions and districts. Lothian Regional Council formally took over responsibility from the old county councils in May 1975.
The Lothian region was split into four districts: East and West Lothian, the City of Edinburgh. The former had more or less identical boundaries to the county council it replaced, but West and Mid Lothian had large amounts of land taken from them to form the City of Edinburgh district; the council was responsible for education, social work, water and transport. The two-tier system was ended by the Local Government etc. Act 1994. Lothian Regional Council was replaced by four unitary councils based on the former districts. Herman Moll's map of the Lothian shires Lothian Buses NHS Lothian
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 49 such countries, including five recognised states; as a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. For this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters at great expense in wealth and political capital; the economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, other considerations. Some landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Austria, all of which employ neutrality to their political advantage; the majority, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries. Nine of the twelve countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development, it cuts a nation off from important sea resources such as fishing, impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance.
As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world, he states, ``, you serve the world. Others have argued that being landlocked may be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems. Landlocked developing countries have higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries. Countries thus have made particular efforts to avoid being landlocked, by acquiring land that reaches the sea: As result of a 2005 territorial exchange with Ukraine, Moldova received a 600 m-long bank of the Danube River, subsequently building its Port of Giurgiulești there.
The International Congo Society, which owned the territory now constituting the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was awarded a narrow piece of land cutting through Angola to connect it to the sea by the Conference of Berlin in 1885. The Republic of Ragusa once gave the town of Neum to the Ottoman Empire because it did not want to have a land border with Venice. Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new country and ports have not been built for its need. There is no freight port along its short coastline at Neum, making it landlocked, although there are plans to change this. Instead the port of Ploče in Croatia is used. After World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany designated "the Polish corridor" was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea; this without a large harbour. This was the pretext for making Danzig with its harbour the Free City of Danzig, to which Poland was given free access. However, the Germans placed obstacles to this free access when it came to military material.
In response, the small fishing harbour of Gdynia was soon enlarged. Until the dissolution of Austria–Hungary in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austrians and that empire's other nationalities had served in that country's navy, but since Austria and Hungary have both been landlocked countries. Countries can make agreements on getting free transport of goods through neighbor countries: The Treaty of Versailles required Germany to offer Czechoslovakia a lease for 99 years of parts of the ports in Hamburg and Stettin, allowing Czechoslovakia sea trade via the Elbe and Oder rivers. Stettin was annexed by Poland after World War II, but Hamburg continued the contract so that part of the port may still be used for sea trade by a successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic; the Danube is an international waterway, thus landlocked Austria, Moldova and Slovakia have secure access to the Black Sea. However, oceangoing ships cannot use the Danube, so cargo must be transloaded anyway, many overseas imports into Austria and Hungary use land transport from Atlantic and Mediterranean ports.
A similar situation exists for the Rhine river where Switzerland has boat access, but not oceangoing ships. Luxembourg has such through the Moselle, but Liechtenstein has no boat access though it is located along the Rhine, as the Rhine is not navigable that far upstream; the Mekong is an international waterway. However, it is not navigable above the Khone Phapheng Falls. Free ports allow transshipment to short-distance ships or river vessels; the TIR Treaty allows sealed road transport without customs checks and charges in Europe. Losing access to the sea is a great blow to a nation, politically and economically; the following ar
Kingdom of Northumbria
The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English Norþan-hymbre meaning "the people or province north of the Humber", which reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary. Northumbria started to consolidate into one kingdom in the early seventh century, when the two earlier core territories of Deira and Bernicia entered into a dynastic union. At its height, the kingdom extended from the Humber, Peak District and the River Mersey on the south to the Firth of Forth on the north. Northumbria ceased to be an independent kingdom in the mid-tenth century, though a rump Earldom of Bamburgh survived around Bernicia in the north to be absorbed into the mediaeval kingdoms of Scotland and England. Today, Northumbria refers to a smaller region corresponding to the counties of Northumberland, County Durham and Tyne and Wear in North East England; the term is used in the names of some North East regional institutions the Northumbria Police, (based in Newcastle upon Tyne, the Northumbria Army Cadet Force, the regionalist Northumbrian Association.
The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park uses the term Northumbria to describe its area. However, the term is not the official name for the EU region of North East England; the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was two kingdoms divided around the River Tees: Bernicia was to the north of the river and Deira to the south. It is possible that both regions originated as native British Kingdoms which the Germanic settlers conquered, although there is little information about the infrastructure and culture of the British kingdoms themselves. Much of the evidence for them comes from regional names that are British rather than Anglo-Saxon in origin; the names Deira and Bernicia are British in origin, for example, indicating that some British place names retained currency after the Anglo-Saxon migrations to Northumbria. There is some archeological evidence to support British origins for the polities of Bernicia and Deira. In what would have been southern Bernicia, in the Cheviot Hills, a hill fort at Yeavering called Yeavering Bell contains evidence that it was an important centre for first the British and the Anglo-Saxons.
The fort is pre-Roman, dating back to the Iron Age at around the first century. In addition to signs of Roman occupation, the site contains evidence of timber buildings that pre-date Germanic settlement in the area that are signs of British settlement. Moreover, Brian Hope-Taylor has traced the origins of the name Yeavering, which looks deceptively English, back to the British gafr from Bede's mention of a township called Gefrin in the same area. Yeavering continued to be an important political centre after the Anglo-Saxons began settling in the north, as King Edwin had a royal palace at Yeavering. Overall, English place-names dominate the Northumbrian landscape, suggesting the prevalence of an Anglo-Saxon elite culture by the time that Bede—one of Anglo-Saxon England's most prominent historians—was writing in the eighth century. According to Bede, the Angles predominated the Germanic immigrants that settled north of the Humber and gained political prominence during this time period. While the British natives may have assimilated into the Northumbrian political structure contemporary textual sources such as Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People depict relations between Northumbrians and the British as fraught.
The Anglo-Saxon countries of Bernicia and Deira were in conflict before their eventual semi-permanent unification in 654. Political power in Deira was concentrated in the East Riding of Yorkshire, which included York, the North York Moors, the Vale of York; the political heartlands of Bernicia were the areas around Bamburgh and Lindisfarne and Jarrow, in Cumbria, west of the Pennines in the area around Carlisle. The name that these two countries united under, may have been coined by Bede and made popular through his Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Information on the early royal genealogies for Bernicia and Deira comes from Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and Welsh chronicler Nennius’ Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, the Bernician royal line begins with son of Eoppa. Ida was able to annex Bamburgh to Bernicia. In Nennius’ genealogy of Deira, a king named Soemil was the first to separate Bernicia and Deira, which could mean that he wrested the kingdom of Deira from the native British.
The date of this supposed separation is unknown. The first Deiran king to make an appearance in Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum is Ælle, the father of the first Roman Catholic Northumbrian king Edwin. A king of Bernicia, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith, was the first ruler to unite the two polities under his rule, he exiled the Deiran Edwin to the court of King Rædwald of the East Angles in order to claim both kingdoms, but Edwin returned in 616 to conquer Northumbria with Rædwald's aid. Edwin, who ruled from 616 to 633, was one of the last kings of the Deiran line to reign over all of Northumbria. Oswald's brother Oswiu succeeded him to the Northumbrian throne despite initial attempts on Deira's part to pull away again. Although the Bernician line became the royal line of Northumbria