Robert Elmer Balaban is an American actor, author and director. He was one of the producers nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture for Gosford Park, in which he appeared. Balaban's other film roles include the drama Midnight Cowboy, science fiction films Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Altered States, the Christopher Guest comedies Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration, the dark fantasy film Lady in the Water, the Wes Anderson films Moonrise Kingdom, The Grand Budapest Hotel, Isle of Dogs; as a director, Balaban has directed three feature films, in addition to numerous television episodes and films. He is an author of children's novels, he directed a documentary about Robert Altman. Balaban was born to a Jewish family in Chicago, the son of Eleanor and Elmer Balaban, who owned several movie theatres and was a pioneer in cable television, his mother acted under the name Eleanor Barry. His uncles were dominant forces in the theatre business. Balaban's father and uncle, founded the H & E Balaban Corporation in Chicago, which operated its own movie palaces, including the Esquire Theatre in Chicago.
They owned a powerful group of television stations and cable television franchises. His uncle Barney Balaban was president of Paramount Pictures for nearly 30 years from 1936-64, his maternal grandmother's second husband, Sam Katz, was a vice president at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1936. Sam had been an early partner of Bob's uncles Abe, Barney and Max in forming Balaban and Katz. Sam served as President of the Publix theatre division of Paramount Pictures. Balaban began his college career at Colgate University where he joined Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity and transferred to New York University, he studied acting at HB Studio under Uta Hagen He lives on the Upper West Side of Manhattan with his family. His paternal grandparents emigrated from Russia to Chicago, while his mother's family was from Germany and Romania, he is married to Lynn Grossman. One of his earliest appearances in film was in Midnight Cowboy. Prior to that, he filled the role of "Linus" in the original off-Broadway production of You're A Good Man, Charlie Brown in 1967.
Among his early roles in the 1970s were those of Grady Garrett on an episode of Room 222, Orr in Catch-22, Elliot the Organizer in The Strawberry Statement, the interpreter David Laughlin in the 1977 Steven Spielberg science fiction film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. In 1979 he received a Tony Award nomination for his role in The Inspector General. During the 1980s he appeared in films such as Altered States and 2010, he directed the Randy Quaid horror comedy film Parents, the Armin Mueller-Stahl drama film The Last Good Time. He played supporting roles in films such as Absence of Malice, Bob Roberts, Deconstructing Harry, Ghost World, The Majestic, Lady in the Water, Christopher Guest's Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration. Balaban appeared in Miami Vice as reporter Ira Stone. In the 1990s, Balaban had a recurring role on the fourth season of Seinfeld as Russell Dalrymple, the fictional president of NBC, he played Warren Littlefield, a real-world NBC executive, in The Late Shift, about the battle between Jay Leno and David Letterman for NBC's The Tonight Show.
His tie to Littlefield continued in 2012 when he read the audiobook of Littlefield's autobiography, Top of the Rock: Inside the Rise and Fall of Must See TV. In 1999, Balaban made a guest appearance in the sitcom Friends as Phoebe Buffay's father Frank in "The One With Joey's Bag". In 2010, Balaban appeared as Judge Clayton Horn, the real-life judge who presided over the obscenity trial of Lawrence Ferlinghetti and City Lights Bookstore in the movie Howl. In 2001, Balaban produced Gosford Park, for which he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture, he appeared in the movie as Morris Weissman, a Hollywood producer. He appeared in an episode of Entourage as a doctor known for writing prescriptions for medical marijuana, he directed starring Susan Sarandon. He has directed several episodes of the Showtime series Nurse Jackie. In September 2011, he was featured with Morgan Freeman and John Lithgow in the Broadway debut of the play,'8' — a staged reenactment of the federal trial that overturned California's Prop 8 ban on same-sex marriage — as Judge Vaughn Walker.
The production was held at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre to raise money for the American Foundation for Equal Rights. In January 2016, Balaban appeared in the short play Milton Bradley by Peter Sagal, for Playing On Air, a non-profit organization that “records short plays written by top playwrights and performed by outstanding actors.” Balaban wrote a series of six children's novels featuring a bionic dog named McGrowl. He co-authored Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary with Steven Spielberg and The Creature from the Seventh Grade: Sink or Swim which Andy Rash illustrated. Balaban, David; the Chicago Movie Palaces of Balaban and Katz, Arcadia Publishing, 2006 Balaban, Bob. Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary, Titan Books, 1978 Bob Balaban on IMDb Bob Balaban at AllMovie Bob Balaban at the Internet Broadway Database Bob Balaban at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Bob Balaban interview on AMC-TV's Sci-Fi Department web show Bob Balaban
Sylvia Miles is an American film and television actress. She was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performances in Midnight Cowboy and Farewell, My Lovely. Miles was born in New York City and raised in Greenwich Village, where her father worked as a furniture maker, her date of birth, according to an I-94 entry card from a 1962 flight that Miles took from London to New York, is September 9, 1924. Her parents, whose names she has stated, were "Reuben and Belle" but Miles' birth name has not been made public. Miles began her career on stage in 1947 and on television and film in 1954. In the early 1960s, she played the role of "Sally Rogers" in the pilot episode of what would become The Dick Van Dyke Show, taken by Rose Marie for the series, she appeared in two 1960s episodes of Naked City, including once as a lovely barfly attempting to communicate with a psychotic Jack Warden. Miles was cast in the classic 1960s film, Midnight Cowboy, as an aging Park Avenue kept-woman who invites Joe Buck up to her penthouse apartment for sex.
The role earned her an Academy Award nomination in 1969 for Best Supporting Actress, despite appearing on-screen for about six minutes. She received a second Oscar nomination for her larger role as Best Supporting Actress in 1975 for her role in Farewell, My Lovely. In 1978, Miles was given a cameo role in the Indian suspense film Shalimar, she appeared in the 1982 film version of Agatha Christie's Evil Under the Sun, portraying a Broadway producer, one of her more mainstream film roles. She played real estate agent Dolores in the Oliver Stone film Wall Street, a role she would reprise in Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. Over the years, Miles has become a cult figure, both for her ties to avant-garde personalities and her willingness to attend any public function. Wayland Flowers and his puppet Madame first uttered the quoted line "Sylvia Miles and Andy Warhol would attend the opening of an envelope." In 1976, People Magazine repeated the same joke without citing a source. Miles starred in Warhol's 1972 film Heat.
She was featured in mainstream films including 92 in the Shade, Critical Condition, The Great Scout & Cathouse Thursday, Crossing Delancey and the 1989 comedy She-Devil, in which she played the mother of Meryl Streep's character. In a New York restaurant in 1973, Miles publicly dumped a plate of food onto critic John Simon's head for his negative comments about her in a film review. Miles has been less active since 1999, with a few roles on television such as Sex and the City and One Life to Live, in the films Go Go Tales and Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps. On May 30, 2014, it was reported. List of people from New York City Sylvia Miles at AllMovie Sylvia Miles at the Internet Broadway Database Sylvia Miles on IMDb Sylvia Miles at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Sylvia Miles at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Shoe polish is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, restore and improve their appearance. Shoe polish can be classified into three types: wax, cream-emulsion, liquid; each differs in detailed composition but all consist of a mixture of waxes and dyes. Waxes, organic solvents, dyes compose this type of polish. Waxes are 20–40% of the material. Natural waxes include montan as well as synthetic waxes; the composition is determined by a balance of hardness and polishing properties after solvent has evaporated. Solvents are selected to match the waxes. About 70% of shoe polish is solvent. A variety of solvents are used including naphtha. Turpentine, although more expensive, is favored for its "shoe polish odor". Dyes make up the final 2–3% of the polish. A traditional dye is nigrosine, but other dyes and pigments are used for oxblood and brown polishes. Owing to its high content of volatile solvents, wax-based shoe polish hardens after application, while retaining its gloss.
Poorly blended polishes are known to suffer from blooming, evidenced by the appearance of a white coating of stearin on the polish surface. These polishes may have a gelatinous consistency, they are composed of the usual three components waxes, liquid vehicle, dyes. Unlike wax-based shoe polishes, cream-emulsions contain water and/or oil plus a solvent, so the liquid content is high. Emulsifiers and surfactants are required; these include ammonia and various ethoxylated surfactants such as polysorbate 80. The waxes are some mixture of carnauba wax, montan wax and its oxidized derivatives, paraffin waxes. Liquid shoe polish is sold in a squeezable plastic bottle, with a small sponge applicator at the end. To decrease its viscosity, bottled polish has a low wax content. Liquid shoe polish is a complex mixture. Polyethylene wax emulsion is a major component. Various polymers acrylates, are the next major component, conferring gloss and holding the dyes in suspension. Resins and casein are selected to ensure adhesion to the leather.
Fatty phosphate esters and glycols are used. Pigments include titanium dioxide for whites and iron oxides for browns. Although liquid polish can put a fast shine on shoes, many experts warn against its long-term use because it can cause the leather to dry out and crack; the process for producing shoe polish is straightforward and the required equipment is easy to acquire. The cost of establishing shoe polish manufacturing facilities has been estimated at around $600,000. Shoe polish is manufactured in stirred reactors. Steps are taken to ensure. Low-melting paraffin wax is melted, followed by the higher melting waxes, the colorant-stearate mixture; the molten mass is added to warm solvent before being dispensed. Wax-based shoe polish is traditionally packaged in flat, round, 60-gram tins with an easy-open facility; the traditional flat, round tins have since become synonymous with shoe polishes. When dried due to solvent loss or other reasons, the hardened wax pulls away from the walls of the container giving what is known as a "rattler".
From medieval times, dubbin, a waxy product, was used to waterproof leather. It was made from natural wax, soda ash and tallow; as leather with a high natural veneer became popular in the 18th century, a high glossy finish became important on shoes and boots. In most cases, homemade polishes were used to provide this finish with lanolin or beeswax as a base. In the late 18th and early 19th century many forms of shoe polish became available, yet were referred to as shoe polish or boot polish. Instead, they were called blacking when mixed with lampblack, or still were referred to as dubbin. Tallow, an animal by-product, was used to manufacture a simple form of shoe polish at this time. Chicago, where 82% of the processed meat consumed in the United States was processed in the stock yards, became a major shoe polish producing area. In London the Warren brothers and Jonathan, started making blacking around 1795–98 in partnership and with competing companies. Jonathan Warren's Blacking company is noted as the first employer of the young Charles Dickens aged 12 in 1823.
The competitor to the Warren companies in London is the Day & Martin company formed in 1801. Details of the operation of Day & Martin in 1842 reveal that the blacking they produced was in two forms, bottled liquid, a thick paste, available in either small wide-mouthed stone tubs, slabs wrapped in oiled paper, or in "circular tin-boxes, about three inches in diameter, half or three-quarters of an inch thick". Tinned blacking paste was at this time for army use; the text states, "Yet, as the soldier’s boots or shoes must to some extent emulate the brightness and glitter of the boots of those who pay for battles instead of fighting them, a portable blacking apparatus is provided." This confirms the tins as polish rather than dubbin. In 1832, James S. Mason of Philadelphia began the commercial production of shoe blacking and inks. In 1851, James S. Mason & Co. constructed a building at 138/140 Front St. where ten million boxes were produced annually, to hold tins of blacking produced by two hundred employees.
Tins of blacking were labeled as Mason Shoe Polish. This business ceased operation in 1919 and the building was razed in 1973. Other early leather preserving products included the Irish brand Punch, whi
James Leo Herlihy
James Leo Herlihy was an American novelist and actor. Herlihy is known for his novels Midnight Cowboy and All Fall Down, his play Blue Denim, all of which were adapted for cinema. Other publications include The Season of several short stories. Herlihy was born into a working-class family in Detroit, Michigan in 1927, he was raised in Chillicothe, Ohio. He enlisted with the Navy in 1945 but saw no action due to the end of World War II, he attended Black Mountain College in North Carolina for two years. He moved to southern California and attended the Pasadena Playhouse College of the Theatre, he was gay and a close friend of playwright Tennessee Williams. Both spent a significant amount of time in Florida. Like Williams, Herlihy had lived in New York City. Apart from Key West, the primary home of Herlihy was in the Silver Lake district of Los Angeles. Herlihy committed suicide by taking an overdose of sleeping pills in Los Angeles. Plays he wrote include Streetlight Sonata, Moon in Capricorn, Blue Denim.
He directed actress Tallulah Bankhead in a touring production of his play Crazy October in 1959. Three of his one-act plays, titled collectively Stop You're Killing Me were presented by the Theater Company of Boston in 1969. According to author Sean Egan in his biography of James Kirkwood, Jr. Ponies & Rainbows, Herlihy co-wrote the play UTBU with Kirkwood but demanded his name be taken off the credits. Herihy wrote three novels: All Fall Down, Midnight Cowboy, The Season of the Witch, his short stories were collected in The Sleep of Baby Filbertson and Other Stories and A Story That Ends in a Scream and Eight Others, a collection which included plays. Herlihy appeared as a guest star in "All The Lovely Pagliaccis," a 1962 episode of the TV series Route 66, he acted in the movie In the French Style with Jean Seberg. Herlihy acted in Edward Albee's play The Zoo Story in 1963 in Boston and Paris, in the 1981 film Four Friends directed by Arthur Penn. In 1968, Herlihy signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments as a protest against the Vietnam War.
He also became a sponsor of the War Tax Resistance project, which practiced and advocated tax resistance as a form of protest against the war. All Fall Down Midnight Cowboy The Season of the Witch Streetlight Sonata Moon in Capricorn Blue Denim Crazy October Stop, You're Killing Me: Three Short Plays The Sleep of Baby Filbertson and Other Stories A Story That Ends with a Scream and Eight Others Finding Aid to James Leo Herlihy Papers at University of Delaware James Leo Herlihy on IMDb James Leo Herlihy at the Internet Broadway Database James Leo Herlihy at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Dustin Lee Hoffman is an American actor and director. Hoffman has been called one of the greatest actors of all time, he is known for his versatile portrayals of antiheroes and vulnerable characters. He is the recipient of various accolades including two Academy Awards, six Golden Globe Awards, four BAFTAs, three Drama Desk Awards and, two Emmy Awards. Hoffman received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1999 and the Kennedy Center Honors Award in 2012. Hoffman first drew critical praise for starring in the play, Eh?, for which he won a Theatre World Award and a Drama Desk Award. His breakthrough film role was as Benjamin Braddock in critically iconic The Graduate. Since that time, Hoffman's career has been focused on the cinema, with sporadic returns to television and to the stage. Hoffman's films include Midnight Cowboy, Little Big Man, Lenny, Marathon Man, All the President's Men, Kramer vs. Kramer, Rain Man and Wag the Dog, he made his directorial debut with Quartet. Hoffman was born on August 8, 1937, in Los Angeles, the second son of Lillian and Harry Hoffman.
His father worked as a prop supervisor at Columbia Pictures before becoming a furniture salesman. Hoffman was named after stage and silent screen actor Dustin Farnum, his elder brother, Ronald, is a economist. Hoffman is Jewish, from an Ashkenazi Jewish family of immigrants from Kiev, Russian Empire, Iași, Romania, his upbringing was nonreligious, he has said, "I don't have any memory of celebrating holidays growing up that were Jewish," and that he had "realized" he was Jewish at around the age of 10. Hoffman graduated from Los Angeles High School in 1955 and enrolled at Santa Monica College with the intention of studying medicine, he left after a year to join the Pasadena Playhouse, although when he told his family about his career goal, his Aunt Pearl warned him, "You can't be an actor. You are not good-looking enough." He took classes at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. Hoffman hoped to become a classical pianist, having studied piano during much of his youth and in college. While at Santa Monica College, he took an acting class, which he assumed would be easy, "caught the acting bug."
He recalls: "I just was not gifted in music. I did not have an ear." Now an aspiring actor, he spent the next ten years doing odd jobs, being unemployed, struggling to get any available acting roles. He composed a song called "Shooting the Breeze," and Bette Midler wrote the words, his first acting role was at the Pasadena Playhouse, alongside future Academy Award–winner Gene Hackman. After two years there, Hackman headed with Hoffman soon following. Hoffman and Robert Duvall lived together in the 1960s, all three of them focused on finding acting jobs. Hackman remembers, "The idea that any of us would do well in films didn't occur to us. We just wanted to work." During this period, Hoffman got occasional television bit parts, including commercials but, needing income, he left acting to teach. In 1960 Hoffman was cast in a role in an off-Broadway production and followed with a walk-on role in a Broadway production in 1961. Hoffman studied at Actors Studio and became a dedicated method actor. Sidney W. Pink, a producer and 3D-movie pioneer, discovered him in one of his off-Broadway roles and cast him in Madigan's Millions.
Through the early and mid-1960s, Hoffman made appearances in television shows and movies, including Naked City, The Defenders and Hallmark Hall of Fame. His first critical success was in the play Eh?, by Henry Livings, which had its U. S. premiere at the Circle in the Square Downtown on October 16, 1966. Hoffman made his film debut in The Tiger Makes Out alongside Eli Wallach. In 1967 after wrapping up principal filming on The Tiger Makes Out, Hoffman flew from New York City to Fargo, North Dakota, where he directed productions of William Gibson's Two for the Seesaw and William Saroyan's The Time of Your Life for the Fargo-Moorhead Community Theatre; the $1,000 he received for the eight-week contract was all he had to hold him over until the funds from the movie materialized. In 1966 director Mike Nichols auditioned Hoffman for a lead role in the Broadway musical The Apple Tree but rejected him because he could not sing well enough and gave Alan Alda the part, but Nichols was so impressed with Hoffman's overall audition he cast him as the male lead in the movie The Graduate.
Hoffman played the character of Benjamin Braddock, who returns to his wealthy parents' home in California after graduating from college. Confused about what to do with his life, he is seduced into having an affair with Mrs. Robinson, an alcoholic and a neurotic, the wife of his father's law partner; this was Hoffman's first major role, he received an Academy Award nomination for it but lost to Rod Steiger in In the Heat of the Night. Although Life magazine joked that "if Dustin Hoffman's face were his fortune, he'd be committed to a life of poverty", The Graduate was a gigantic box-office hit for Embassy Pictures, making Hoffman a major new star at the same time; the film received near-unanimous good reviews. Time magazine called Hoffman "a symbol of youth" who represented "a new breed of actors." The film's screenwriter, Buck Henry, notes that Hoffman's character made conventional good looks no longer necessary on screen: A whole generation changed its idea of what guys should look like....
I think Dustin's physical being brought a sort of social and visual change, in the same way people first thought of Bogart. They called him ugly. Hoffman biographer Je