Midrash is biblical exegesis by ancient Judaic authorities, using a mode of interpretation prominent in the Talmud. The word itself means "textual interpretation", "study". Midrash and rabbinic readings "discern value in texts and letters, as potential revelatory spaces," writes the Hebrew scholar Wilda C. Gafney. "They reimagine dominant narratival readings while crafting new ones to stand alongside—not replace—former readings. Midrash asks questions of the text; such works contain early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah, as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature and Jewish religious laws, which form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture."Midrash" if capitalized, can refer to a specific compilation of these rabbinic writings composed between 400 and 1200 CE. According to Gary Porton and Jacob Neusner, "midrash" has three technical meanings: 1) Judaic biblical interpretation; the Hebrew word midrash is derived from the root of the verb darash, which means "resort to, seek with care, require", forms of which appear in the Bible.
The word midrash occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible: 2 Chronicles 13:22 "in the midrash of the prophet Iddo", 24:27 "in the midrash of the book of the kings". KJV and ESV translate the word as "story" in both instances; the meaning of the Hebrew word in these contexts is uncertain: it has been interpreted as referring to "a body of authoritative narratives, or interpretations thereof, concerning important figures" and seems to refer to a "book" even a "book of interpretation", which might make its use a foreshadowing of the technical sense that the rabbis gave to the word. Since the early Middle Ages the function of much of midrashic interpretation has been distinguished from that of peshat, straight or direct interpretation aiming at the original literal meaning of a scriptural text. A definition of "midrash" quoted by other scholars is that given by Gary G. Porton in 1981: "a type of literature, oral or written, which stands in direct relationship to a fixed, canonical text, considered to be the authoritative and revealed word of God by the midrashist and his audience, in which this canonical text is explicitly cited or alluded to".
Lieve M. Teugels, who would limit midrash to rabbinic literature, offered a definition of midrash as "rabbinic interpretation of Scripture that bears the lemmatic form", a definition that, unlike Porton's, has not been adopted by others. While some scholars agree with the limitation of the term "midrash" to rabbinic writings, others apply it to certain Qumran writings, to parts of the New Testament, of the Hebrew Bible, modern compositions are called midrashim. Midrash is now viewed more as method than genre, although the rabbinic midrashim do constitute a distinct literary genre. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Midrash was a philological method of interpreting the literal meaning of biblical texts. In time it developed into a sophisticated interpretive system that reconciled apparent biblical contradictions, established the scriptural basis of new laws, enriched biblical content with new meaning. Midrashic creativity reached its peak in the schools of Rabbi Ishmael and Akiba, where two different hermeneutic methods were applied.
The first was logically oriented, making inferences based upon similarity of content and analogy. The second rested upon textual scrutiny, assuming that words and letters that seem superfluous teach something not stated in the text."Many different exegetical methods are employed in an effort to derive deeper meaning from a text. This is not limited to the traditional thirteen textual tools attributed to the Tanna Rabbi Ishmael, which are used in the interpretation of halakha; the presence of words or letters which are seen to be superfluous, the chronology of events, parallel narratives or what are seen as other textual "anomalies" are used as a springboard for interpretation of segments of Biblical text. In many cases, a handful of lines in the Biblical narrative may become a long philosophical discussion Jacob Neusner distinguishes three midrash processes: paraphrase: recounting the content of the biblical text in different language that may change the sense. Numerous Jewish midrashim preserved in manuscript form have been published in print, including those denominated as smaller or minor midrashim.
Bernard H. Mehlman and Seth M. Limmer deprecate this usage on the grounds that the term "minor" seems judgmental a
Crest of the Wave is a musical with book and music by Ivor Novello and lyrics by Christopher Hassall. It premiered at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London, on 1 September 1937, starring Novello as both hero and villain, Dorothy Dickson, Olive Gilbert, Walter Crisham and Edgar Elmes. Directed by Novello's frequent collaborator Leontine Sagan, it ran for 203 performances; the best-known songs from the musical are "Rose of England", "Why isn't it you?", "Haven of your heart" and "If you only knew". The story concerns an impoverished nobleman, The Duke of Cheviot, shot by a lover and pursued by the villainous Otto Fresch; the staging featured a spectacular train crash, one of several Novello musicals featuring a spectacular disaster: Glamorous Night has a shipwreck and Careless Rapture depicts an earthquake. The Duke of Cheviot / Otto French - Ivor Novello The Knight of Gantry - Edgar Elmes Stone - Kenneth Howell Lord William Gantry - Peter Graves Virginia, Duchess of Cheviot - Marie Lohr 1st Woman - Judith Wren 2nd Woman - Dorothy Batley Leonora Hayden - Ena Burrill Josef von Palasti - Oscar Alexander Assistant / 3rd English Type - John Palmer Honey Wortle - Dorothy Dickson Mrs. Wortle - Minnie Rayner The Queen / Manuelita - Olive Gilbert Freddie Layton - Walter Crisham Frampton / 1st English Type - Reginald Smith A Steward / Nightclub Manager/ a Porter - Fred Hearne Passport Official - Jack Glyn Telegraph Boy - Sandy Williamson Chair Steward - Aubrey Rouse Entertainments Organiser - Harry Fergusson Filomena/Phyllis - Renee Stocker Glutz - Finlay Currie 2nd English Type - Basil Neale Footman - Eric Davy A Stranger - Charles Tully The Vicar - Selwyn MorganThe production was designed by Alick Johnstone.
Alan Bott wrote in the Tatler of the production and of Novello: "Once a year he delivers the formula, the story, the tunes, the ideas for spectacle, the personality, the profile, the archness, the attitudes, the variegated goods. He draws to the Lane thousands; as to his formula, it has given pleasure to a million or two."
Alexander Mitchell Kellas was a Scottish chemist and mountaineer known for his studies of high-altitude physiology. He was born in Scotland. Himalayan Club Vice President Meher Mehta characterized Kellas' papers A Consideration of the Possibility of Ascending the Loftier Himalaya and A Consideration of the Possibility of Ascending Mt Everest as "key catalysts in driving scientific thinking into climbing big peaks, his studies included the physiology of acclimatization in relationship to important variables like altitude, barometric pressures, alveolar PO2, arterial oxygen saturation, maximum oxygen consumption, ascent rates at different altitudes. He had concluded that Mt Everest could be ascended by men of extreme physical and mental constitution without supplementary oxygen if the physical difficulties of the mountain were not too great."In 1978, Kellas' suggestion was verified by Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler when they made the first ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen.
However, Kellas was one of the earliest scientists to suggest use of supplemental oxygen on high mountains such as Mount Everest. A distant relative is now employed by The Physiological Society. Kellas was a noted mountaineer in his own right, he had made at least ten first ascents of peaks over 6,100 m including Pauhunri, 7,128 m, in Sikkim, the highest peak climbed up to that point, although this was only discovered 80 years later. He reached the summit on 14 June 1911, this world summit record was only broken in September 1928 with the ascent of Lenin Peak. Kellas died of a heart attack in 1921 near the village of Kampa Dzong, Tibet, on his way from Sikkim to the first expedition to Everest, he had had only a brief rest of 9 days after an arduous expedition to Kabru and was only a day's hike away from seeing Mount Everest for the first time. John B West A M Kellas: Pioneer Himalayan Physiologist and Mountaineer, The Alpine Journal xx, 207-213. George W. Rodway Alexander M. Kellas: seeking early solutions to the problem of Everest, The Britain-Nepal Society Journal, 27, 17-20.
George W. Rodway and Ian R Mitchell Prelude to Everest.