1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Paul and Storm
Paul and Storm are an Arlington, Virginia-based comedic musical duo consisting of Paul Sabourin and Greg "Storm" DiCostanzo. They are best known for their humorous songs about geek culture and for amassing an internet fan base, they are regular radio guests on The Bob and Tom Show. They tour with Jonathan Coulton, singing backup vocals for a number of his songs. Coulton has appeared on stage to do backup for Paul and Storm's songs. For 12 years Sabourin and DiCostanzo were one half of the a cappella comedy band Da Vinci's Notebook; when that group went on their "Moxy Früvous-style hiatus," in 2004 the two struck out on their own, with Paul playing keyboard and penny whistle and Storm on the guitar. Before releasing an official debut album Paul and Storm released a demo EP of songs that would be re-recorded for their debut album Opening Band, as well as other songs that have yet to be rerecorded; the EP was titled Cookie Dough. In 2005, the duo released their first album release; the title stems from the lead track off the album, an idea thought up by Storm after their experience as being the opening act.
While they perform live as a duo, they had the help of many guest musicians on the album, including Mike Clem and Eddie Hartness of Eddie from Ohio and Valerie Vigoda, Brendon Milburn, Gene Lewin from Groovelily. Groovelily performed as Storm's back-up band at the 2005 Falcon Ridge Folk Festival; the album features a number of "Rejected Commercial Jingles" as well as a commentary track for two of the album's songs. Their second album News to Us was recorded week by week for The Bob and Tom Show as a featured weekly news segment. Many of the tracks on the album feature. At the end of the album, the duo placed the studio version of most of the tracks as well so that listeners could have a more traditional album experience; the song "Your Love Is" on the album was co-written by Jonathan Coulton. In 2007 their third full-length studio album Gumbo Pants was released; this album features their fan favorite, live concert closing track "The Captain's Wife's Lament" as well as other fan favorites such as "Count to Ten" and "A Better Version of You".
It featured a number of short tracks that were titled "One Sentence Songs" and more "Rejected Commercial Jingles". In 2010 after a three-year lapse between albums, the duo released their fourth studio album Do You Like Star Wars?. The album is a collection of songs that the duo had released one by one in the years following Gumbo Pants, it includes concert favorites such as "Nun Fight", "Cruel, Cruel Moon", "Frogger! The Frogger Musical!". A number of the songs released on this album were written for Quick Stop Entertainment's Masters of Song Fu contest. In 2013, their web series "Learning Town" began on the YouTube channel Sundry, their song "Another Irish Drinking Song" was featured in the 2013 film Despicable Me 2 as performed by the Minions. At the end of 2013, they crowdfunded a project in support of their new album, BALL PIT. Paul and Storm have toured all around the United States as well as in the United Kingdom, they tour alongside Jonathan Coulton opening up the shows, providing backing vocals for a number of songs in Coulton's set.
As part of their tour, they opened for Coulton's act at PAX in Seattle. In November 2009, they toured the United Kingdom alongside Jonathan Coulton, opening the shows with their own songs, just like at PAX; the duo has a weekly audio talk show podcast and Storm Talk About Some Stuff for Five to Ten Minutes. On the podcast the two will talk about food, live shows, upcoming projects. In 2009, in conjunction with friends Wil Wheaton and Adam Savage and Storm organized a series of music and comedy shows called w00tstock, which began in late October of that year; the events took place around the United States and were billed as "3 hours of Geeks and Music". In mid-2010 the duo created two separate internet memes via Twitter. Regarding the fact that both of them had come up with them Paul commented that they were considering changing the name of their act to "The Meme Brothers". In late July, Storm started the popular internet meme of WookieeLeaks by using the hashtag #wookieeleaks on Twitter; the meme is a play on the recent WikiLeaks publishing of secret government files.
Within these tweets a person will mention a secret leaked from the Star Wars universe. Following the success of the hashtag Storm was interviewed by Wired and NPR. Less than a week after the success of WookieeLeaks, Paul created the #kanyenewyorkertweets hashtag via Twitter. Within the tweets where this hashtag is used a person will link to a cartoon from The New Yorker with a tweet from Kanye West added as text below the image. Following its success the meme was picked up by The Onion, Paste Magazine, the Huffington Post, The New Yorker itself. In October 2010 they had acted as the musical guests on the online MMO, AQWorlds, in an event that celebrated the 2nd birthday of the game. Paul and Storm co-created and starred in this webseries for Felicia Day's Geek and Sundry channel on YouTube; the show was created and written by the duo and head writer Josh A. Cagan, a screenwriter behind the movie "Bandslam"; the duo plays fictional versions of themselves, who are offered the job of hosting Storm's favorite kids show after the original beloved host dies.
The show stars Bresha Webb as their producer and Mike Phirman as their biggest-fan-turned-puppeteer. Guest stars on the series included James Urbaniak, Greg Benson, Maurissa Tancharoen, Jeff Lewis, Michael Buckley, Weird Al Y
Eufaula is the largest city in Barbour County, United States. As of the 2010 census the city's population was 13,137; the site along the Chattahoochee River, now modern-day Eufaula was occupied by three Creek tribes, including the Eufaulas. By the 1820s the land was part of the Creek Indian Territory and off-limits to white settlement. By 1827 enough illegal white settlement had occurred that the Creeks appealed to the federal government for protection of their property rights. In July of that year, federal troops were sent to the Eufaula area to remove the settlers by force of arms, a conflict known as the "Intruders War"; the Creeks signed the Treaty of Washington in 1826, ceding most of their land in Georgia and eastern Alabama to the United States, but it was not effective in practice until the late 1820s. The 1832 Treaty of Cusseta, by which the Creeks ceded all land east of the Mississippi River to the United States, allowed white settlers to buy land from the Creek. However, the treaty's terms did not require any natives to relocate.
By 1835 the land on which the town was built had been purchased by white settlers, had a store, owned in part by William Irwin, after whom the new settlement was named "Irwinton". Significant numbers of Jewish settlers came to Eufaula in the middle of the nineteenth century from Germany and from neighboring states; the community founded a cemetery. By the mid 1830s downtown Irwinton was platted out and development was well underway. Much of its historic character has been preserved and is now known as the Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic District. In 1842 or 1843 Irwinton was renamed "Eufaula" to end postal confusion ensuing from its proximity to Irwinton, Georgia; the town was incorporated under that name in 1857. In 1850 secessionists in the town formed a vigilante committee which terrorized any white people who had abolitionist sympathies, thus captain Elisha Bett was driven from the town and only returned after he had signed a written agreement not to express his views again. By the late 1850s, Eufaula's advantageous location on the Chattahoochee made it a major shipping center for cargo bound for the Port of Apalachicola and, from there, to major world markets such as Liverpool and New York City.
By this time, planning for the Montgomery and Eufaula Railroad, to include a new bridge over the Chattahoochee, was well underway. By November 1859 the railroad company authorized its president to purchase slaves worth $150,000 to use for the construction of the railroad. Grading for the track bed began in January 1860. By 1861, when it had become clear that the American Civil War was imminent, work on the railroad was suspended to allow the laborers to lay track between Montgomery and Pensacola, Florida, to facilitate the transport of Confederate troops to the Gulf of Mexico. Work on the railroad was resumed after the war, and, in October 1871, the tracks reached the city limits of Eufaula and a depot agent, John O. Martin, was appointed to run that terminal station. Little is known about the history of Eufaula during the American Civil War because few contemporary records or newspapers survive. Alabama seceded from the United States on January 11, 1861. By the end of the month a military encampment was founded at Eufaula with soldiers ready to decamp to Fort Pickens or elsewhere as needed at the onset of hostilities.
Six companies of the Confederate States Army were raised at Eufaula and Barbour County. One of these was the Eufaula Zouaves, one of dozens of military units on both sides that adopted that name, patterning their uniforms and order of battle after the French light infantry units on which they were modeled; the CSA operated a military hospital in Eufaula during the conflict. Eufaula's strategic position on the Chattahoochee river involved it in the naval component of the Confederate war effort, at least one ironclad warship was constructed in the city. By April 1865, the Union Army had occupied Selma and plans were made to move the Alabama state government to Eufaula should Montgomery fall to Federal troops. Montgomery was captured on April 12 and governor Thomas H. Watts, with other state officials, fled to Eufaula, establishing what the New York Daily Tribune called "the fugitive seat of Government of Alabama". On April 29, 1865, Union general Benjamin Grierson had reached Clayton and word had made it to Eufaula that the war was over.
The mayor of Eufaula and some members of the city council rode over to Clayton to escort Grierson into Eufaula, thus ensuring a peaceful transition to Federal control of the city. Eufaula was the site of. On May 19, 1865, at Hobdy's Bridge near Eufaula a Confederate detachment attacked a 44 man detachment from companies C and F the Union's 1st Florida Cavalry Regiment, resulting in one soldier killed and three wounded. By May 1865 the Daily Intelligencer of Atlanta reported that 10,000 Union troops had occupied Eufaula. In the immediate aftermath of the occupation there was a food riot and an "attempt to illegally distribute the public stores". By the end of May Eufaula was sufficiently pacified that a special agent of the United States Post Office was able to deliver mail from Providence, Rhode Island, to the town via Macon, without need for any of the twenty-five armed guards he had brought with him to defend him with violence. By August 1865 cotton shipping out of Eufaula was increasing again in barter for household goods, which were arriving by ship in increasing quantities.
However, the quantity of cotton being shipped out was nowhere near antebellum levels, ships bound for Apalachicola were far below capacity. In N
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.
For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.
Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.
An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.
In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leiceste
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website