click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Midwood, Brooklyn

Midwood is a neighborhood in the south-central part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded on the north by the Bay Ridge Branch tracks just above Avenue I and by the Brooklyn College campus of the City University of New York, on the south by Avenue P and Kings Highway; the eastern border consists of parts of Nostrand Avenue, Flatbush Avenue, Coney Island Avenue. Midwood is part of Brooklyn Community District 14 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11210 and 11230, it is patrolled by the 70th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically, Midwood is represented by the New York City Council's 44th, 45th, 48th Districts; the name, derives from the Middle Dutch word, the name the settlers of New Netherland called the area of dense woodland midway between the towns of Boswyck and Breuckelen. Jan Snedeker, Jan Stryker, Tomys Swartwout solicited from Director-General Stuyvesant the right of settling together on a level area of wilderness, adjacent to the outlying farms at Breukelen and Nieuw Amersfoort.

Through Swartwout's suggestion, the settlement was named the village of Midwolde. In April 1655, Stuyvesant and the Council of New Netherland appointed Swartwout a schepen, to serve with Snedeker and Adriaen Hegeman as the Court of Midwout, it became part of old Flatbush, situated between the towns of Gravesend and Flatlands. Settlement was begun by the Dutch in 1652, it became more developed in the 1920s when large middle class housing tracts and apartment buildings were built. Many Midwood residents moved to the suburbs in the 1970s, the neighborhood and its commercial districts declined. Drawn by its quiet middle-class ambiance, new residents began pouring into Midwood during the 1980s; the largest group were from the Soviet Union, but substantial numbers arrived from Jamaica, Guyana and elsewhere in South America. In a short time, Midwood was transformed, from a predominantly Jewish neighborhood with a smattering of Irish-Americans and German-Americans, to a remarkably polyglot section of the borough of Brooklyn.

Many residents refer to Midwood as "Flatbush," or, erroneously, as being "part of Flatbush", an older and more established neighborhood and former township, which in the 19th century included modern Midwood. The usage of Flatbush to mean Midwood dates to the period when the neighborhood was first formed, known as South Greenfield. Many consider the nearby neighborhood of Fiske Terrace/Midwood Gardens to be part of Midwood, but, as in many cities, neighborhood boundaries in Brooklyn are somewhat fluid and poorly defined. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Midwood was 52,835, a decrease of 2,605 from the 55,440 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 822.04 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 64.3 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 76.6% White, 4.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 10.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.8% of the population.

The entirety of Community Board 14, which comprises Flatbush and Midwood, had 165,543 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 82.4 years. This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 25% are between the ages of 0–17, 29% between 25–44, 24% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 13% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community Board 14 was $56,599. In 2018, an estimated 22% of Flatbush and Midwood residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in eleven residents were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 57% in Flatbush and Midwood, higher than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively.

Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Flatbush and Midwood are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. The main shopping streets in the area are Kings Highway, Avenue J, Avenue M, Flatbush Avenue, Nostrand Avenue, Coney Island Avenue. In the 1950s through the 1970s, Kings Highway had Dubrow's Cafeteria, a classic cafeteria where holes would be punched in patrons' printed tickets, which would total the cost of the meal, it was a popular place to socialize. In his run for the White House, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy held a massive campaign rally just outside Dubrow's Cafeteria. A huge crowd of people turned out to hear this popular political icon speak, stretching for blocks in all directions. Years his brother Senator Robert F. Kennedy held a similar campaign rally there for his run for President, with a large audience; the community has long been known as a Democratic stronghold. Additionally, "Levine's" was the king

Northam Road, George Town

Northam Road is a major thoroughfare along the northern coast of the city of George Town in Penang, Malaysia. It continues on from Gurney Drive towards Farquhar Street to the east; the road is a one-way road, with the traffic directed eastwards towards Farquhar Street. Since the 1990s, Northam Road, along with Gurney Drive, has emerged as George Town's second Central Business District. In the olden days, the northern coast of George Town was known as the'North Beach'. British administrators, including the founder of Penang, Francis Light, were buried within the Old Protestant Cemetery near the eastern end of Northam Road; the road became the address of choice for the Europeans, Chinese tycoons, who built elegant mansions along the road. As a result, Northam Road was known as the Millionaire's Row by the locals. Northam Road is home to some of the tallest skyscrapers in Penang, many of which house commercial enterprises like banks, insurance firms and car dealers, other businesses. Northam Road was renamed as Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah in the 1980s, in honour of the King of Malaysia, Sultan Ahmad Shah, who visited Penang in 1982.

Nonetheless, local Penangites continue to refer to the road by Northam Road. This is because the new name sounds unwieldy, but reflects a strong conservatism among the locals, who view Penang's colonial history as part of their local identity. During the early years of British rule, British officers and other Europeans were buried within the Old Protestant Cemetery; these included Captain Francis Light, who founded Penang in 1786 and died in 1794. At the time, Northam Road had yet to come into existence and the area was known as the'North Beach'. Throughout the 19th century, Northam Road evolved into the suburban area of choice for wealthy Europeans, who began building bungalows along the road; the Europeans moved out of Northam Road for greener, leafy neighbourhoods further inland, leaving the bungalows along the road to be snapped up by Chinese businessmen, who in turn constructed more elegant bungalows along the road. Many of the wealthy Chinese who resided along Northam Road, such as Yeap Chor Ee, Loh Boon Siew and Lim Lean Teng chose European names for their residences, reflecting the upper-class preferences for all things European.

Since the 1990s, the mushrooming of commercial skyscrapers along Northam Road has turned the coastal thoroughfare into the city's second Central Business District, along with Gurney Drive. The construction of these skyscrapers have been made possible as the road technically lies outside the UNESCO World Heritage Site that covers most of the city centre. Old Protestant Cemetery Kedah House, the residence of the Sultan of Kedah Homestead the residence of Yeap Chor Ee and now part of Wawasan Open University Mansion One MBf Tower BHL Tower Sri Perdana Condominium List of roads in George Town Architecture of Penang George Town CBD

Bob Shane

Robert Castle Schoen, known professionally as Bob Shane, was an American singer and guitarist, a founding member of The Kingston Trio. In that capacity, Shane became a seminal figure in the revival of folk and other acoustic music as a popular art form in the United States in the late 1950s through the mid-1960s; the success of the Kingston Trio in its heyday had repercussions far beyond its voluminous album sales, its host of imitators, the short-lived pop-folk boom it created. For the Kingston Trio's success took acoustic folk-based music out of the niche market it had occupied prior to the Trio's arrival and moved it into the mainstream of American popular music, opening the door for major record labels to record and market both more traditional folk musicians and singer-songwriters as well. Shane was born on February 1, 1934 in Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii, the son of Margaret and Arthur Castle Schoen, a wholesale distributor of toys and sporting goods, his mother was from Salt Lake City, his father was a Hawaiian of German descent.

Shane was in his own words "a fourth-generation islander". He attended local schools, including the prestigious Punahou School for his junior high and high school years. Punahou's curriculum emphasized native Hawaiian culture, complementing Shane's developing interest in music in general and Hawaiian music in particular. During these years, Shane taught himself to play first ukulele and guitar, influenced by Hawaiian slack key guitarists like Gabby Pahinui, it was during these years that Shane met Punahou classmate Dave Guard and began performing with him at parties and school variety shows. Following graduation in 1952, Shane attended Menlo College in Menlo Park, California while Guard matriculated at nearby Stanford University. At Menlo, Shane met and became fast friends with Nick Reynolds from the San Diego area and a musician and singer with a broad knowledge of folk and popular songs, due in part to Reynolds's music-loving father, a captain in the Navy. Shane introduced Reynolds to Guard, in 1956, the three began performing together as part of an informal aggregation that could, according to Reynolds, expand to as large as six or seven members.

The group went under different names, most as "Dave Guard and the Calypsonians". They had no formal professional aspirations. Shane dropped out of college in his senior year and returned to Hawaii to work in the family business. However, Shane had discovered a natural affinity for entertaining and at night pursued a solo career in Hawaii, including engagements at some of Waikiki's major hotels. Shane's act consisted of an eclectic mix of songs from Elvis Presley, Hank Williams, Harry Belafonte, Broadway shows. During this period of several months he met acoustic blues legend Josh White, who helped Shane refine his guitar style and influenced him to support his vocals with a Martin "Dreadnought" guitar, significant in that it led to Shane's lifelong association with that guitar maker; the company reciprocated by issuing a number of "signature" models honoring Shane and the Kingston Trio in the late 1990s and early 2000s. At the same time back in California and Reynolds had organized themselves somewhat more formally into an act named "The Kingston Quartet" with bassist Joe Gannon and his fiancée, vocalist Barbara Bogue.

This group appeared for a one-night engagement at a club called the Italian Village in San Francisco, to which they invited publicist Frank Werber, who had caught the Calypsonians' act with Shane some months earlier at the Cracked Pot beer garden in Palo Alto. Werber was impressed by synergy between Guard and Reynolds; when Guard and Reynolds let Gannon go and Bogue followed, Reynolds and Werber all considered Shane the logical third member and asked him to return to California, which he did in spring 1957. Shane's baritone vocals and guitar work were the foundation of the Kingston Trio's sound. Shane, Guard and Werber drew up an informal agreement that morphed into a legal partnership, they decided on the name "Kingston Trio" because it evoked, they thought, both the then-popular calypso music that emanated from Kingston, Jamaica as well as the kind of "collegiate" ambiance suggested by their adopted stage outfit of matching button-down collared three-quarter length sleeved striped shirts.

Under Werber's rigorous tutelage, Shane and Reynolds began daily rehearsals for several months, including instruction from prominent San Francisco vocal coach Judy Davis. The group's first significant break came in the summer of 1957 when comedian Phyllis Diller had to cancel an engagement at The Purple Onion, a small San Francisco night club, Werber talked the management into hiring the untested trio for a week; the trio's close harmonies, varied repertoire, rehearsed but spontaneous on stage humor made them an instant success with the club's patrons, the engagement stretched to six months. During this stint, Werber used the Kingston Trio's local popularity to try to generate interest from record companies. After several false starts, the group landed a contract with Capitol Records, recording their first album in three days in February 1958; the producer was the legendary Voyle Gilmore, who made two immediate and fateful d

Premier League–Football League gulf

In English football, a gulf has arisen between the finances of clubs from the Premier League and English Football League since the First Division clubs broke away to form the Premier League in 1992. Some have argued that this disparity is wider than in other European leagues where the top flight is combined with at least one division below in a league, such as Germany's Bundesliga, Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga. However, England has five tiers of single national divisions, compared to only two in Spain and Italy and three in Germany. Since the Premier League began at the start of the 1992–93 season, its member teams have received larger amounts of money in TV rights than their Football League colleagues. Prior to the formation of the Premier League, television revenues from top flight matches were shared between the 92 Football League clubs across four unified national professional divisions; the breakaway of 22 clubs to form the Premier League resulted in top flight revenues being shared between Premier League clubs.

The Premier League agreed to maintain the promotion and relegation of three clubs with the Football League, but the Football League was now in a far weaker position – without its best clubs and without the clout to negotiate high revenue TV deals. This problem was exacerbated in 2002 when ITV Digital, the holder of the TV rights for the Football League, went into administration. Many League clubs had invested in ground improvements and the player transfer market with anticipated television funds that never materialized, causing several clubs to enter receivership – most notably Bradford City, who were faced with debts of £36 million and lost their Football League status as a result; as a result, financial disparity has been cited as a reason for newly promoted teams finding it harder to establish themselves in the Premier League, thus worrying more about avoiding relegation than winning the title. In all but three of the 27 seasons since its introduction, at least one newly promoted club filled one of the three Premier League relegation places, in the 1997–98 season all three promoted clubs were relegated.

The only exceptions, in which all three promoted teams survived, were the 2001–02, 2011–12 and 2017–18 seasons. In 2001 -- 02, the teams were Blackburn Rovers and Bolton Wanderers. In 2011 -- 12, the teams were Norwich City and Swansea City. Norwich and QPR both bounced back from their relegations in the following season, earning promotion through winning the Championship play offs in 2014 and 2015 however they were both relegated back to the Championship in the seasons that followed. Norwich returned in 2019 -- 20. In 2017 -- 18, the teams were Newcastle United and Huddersfield Town; the Premier League distributes a small portion of its television revenue to clubs that are relegated from the league in the form of "parachute payments". Starting with the 2013–14 season, these payments are in excess of £60 million over four seasons. Though designed to help teams adjust to the loss of television revenues, critics maintain that the payments widen the gap between teams that have reached the Premier League and those that have not, leading to the common occurrence of teams returning soon after their relegation.

This, does not take into account former Premier League mainstays which are in the Football League, such as the former Wimbledon, Sheffield Wednesday, Coventry City and Leeds United, who were founding members of the Premier League and stayed there for between nine and 12 years before going down, have yet to return. Queens Park Rangers saw a 15-year absence from the Premier League, before returning for the 2011–12 season, but relegated again after 2014-15 and since having adopted a more cautious approach to finances due to unsustainable levels of spending in the Premier League. A more extreme example of the struggles associated with adapting to relegation would be that of previous Premier League champions Blackburn Rovers, who were relegated from the top flight on 7 May 2012, struggled to stay in the EFL Championship over the next five seasons before dropping to League One on 7 May 2017, earning the dubious distinction of being the only former Premier League champions to play at that level.

This was in spite of Rovers spending substantial amounts of money following their relegation from the Premier League, breaking their transfer record to land Jordan Rhodes for £8 million in the 2012–13 season. Rovers would proceed to become a cost-cutting club, due to the exhaustion of their parachute payments across multiple seasons, large amounts of debts beginning to surface within the region of £100 million, a lack of investment from their owners Venkys, culminating in their relegation to League One. Another notable example of a former Premier League club that has struggled both financially and competitively, despite being in receipt of parachute payments, would be that of Bolton Wanderers. Having spent beyond their means throughout the c

Cylichna

Cylichna is a genus of sea snails or bubble snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Cylichnidae, the "chalice bubble snails". Species within the genus Cylichna include: Species brought into synonymy Cylichna arachis: synonym of Adamnestia arachis Cylichna atkinsoni Tenison-Woods, 1876: synonym of Retusa atkinsoni Cylichna atyoides Thiele, 1925: synonym of Sphaerocylichna atyoides Cylichna bizona: synonym of Mnestia bizona Cylichna bulloides Dell, 1956: synonym of Sphaerocylichna incommoda Cylichna consobrina Gould, 1859: synonym of Cylichna alba Cylichna cylindrica: synonym of Cylichna cylindracea Cylichna densistriata Leche, 1878: synonym of Cylichnoides densistriata Cylichna elongata Locard, 1886: synonym of Cylichna cylindracea Cylichna girardi: synonym of Cylichnina girardi. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. ZipCodeZoo Powell A. W. B. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1 Miocene Gastropods and Biostratigraphy of the Kern River Area, California.

Island glass lizard

The island glass lizard is a species of lizard in the family Anguidae. The species is endemic to the southeastern United States. O. compressus is found in Florida, southeastern Georgia, southeastern South Carolina. O. compressus is oviparous. Behler JL, King FW; the Audubon Society Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 743 pp. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.. Conant R. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Xviii + 429 pp. + Plates 1-48. ISBN 0-395-19979-4, ISBN 0-395-19977-8.. Cope ED. "II. The Crocodilians and Snakes of North America". Pp. 153–1270 + Plates 1-36. In: Anonymous. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Showing the Operations and Condition of the Institution for the Year Ending June 30, 1898. Washington, District of Columbia: Government Printing Office. 1,294 pp.. Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr. Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press.

240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3