Japanese spiny lobster
The Japanese spiny lobster, Panulirus japonicus, is a member of the genus Panulirus of spiny lobsters. It grows up to 30 centimetres long and lives in the Pacific Ocean around Japan and Korea. P. japonicus is the subject of commercial lobster fishery in Japan. It is a popular item in high-class Japanese cuisine. Serving and preparation methods include sashimi, as a steak and roasting alive
The Yayoi period is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD. Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi; the date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. A hierarchical social class structure has its origin in China. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were introduced from China over Korea to Japan in this period; the Yayoi followed the Jōmon period and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Archaeological evidence supports the idea that during this time, an influx of farmers from the Asian continent to Japan absorbed or overwhelmed the native hunter-gatherer population.
The Yayoi period is traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD. During this period Japan transitioned to a settled agricultural society; the earliest archaeological evidence of the Yayoi is found on northern Kyūshū, but, still debated. Yayoi culture spread to the main island of Honshū, mixing with native Jōmon culture. A recent study that used accelerator mass spectrometry to analyze carbonized remains on pottery and wooden stakes, suggests that they dated back to 900–800 BC, 500 years earlier than believed; the name Yayoi is borrowed from a location in Tokyo where pottery of the Yayoi period was first found. Yayoi pottery was decorated and produced using the same coiling technique used in Jōmon pottery. Yayoi craft specialists made bronze ceremonial bells and weapons. By the 1st century AD, Yayoi farmers began using iron agricultural weapons; as the Yayoi population increased, the society became more complex. They wove textiles, lived in permanent farming villages, constructed buildings with wood and stone.
They accumulated wealth through land ownership and the storage of grain. Such factors promoted the development of distinct social classes. Contemporary Chinese sources described the people as having tattoos and other bodily markings which indicated differences in social status. Yayoi chiefs, in some parts of Kyūshū, appear to have sponsored, politically manipulated, trade in bronze and other prestige objects; that was possible by the introduction of an irrigated, wet-rice culture from the Yangtze estuary in southern China via the Ryukyu Islands or Korean Peninsula. Wet-rice agriculture led to the growth of a sedentary, agrarian society in Japan. Local political and social developments in Japan were more important than the activities of the central authority within a stratified society. Direct comparisons between Jōmon and Yayoi skeletons show that the two peoples are noticeably distinguishable; the Jōmon tended to be shorter, with longer forearms and lower legs, more wide-set eyes and wider faces, much more pronounced facial topography.
They have strikingly raised brow ridges and nose bridges. Yayoi people, on the other hand, averaged an inch or two taller, with close-set eyes and narrow faces, flat brow ridges and noses. By the Kofun period all skeletons excavated in Japan except those of the Ainu are of the Yayoi type with Jomon admixture, resembling those of modern-day Japanese; the origin of Yayoi culture has long been debated. The earliest archaeological sites are Itazuke or Nabata in the northern part of Kyūshū. Contacts between fishing communities on this coast and the southern coast of Korea date from the Jōmon period, as witnessed by the exchange of trade items such as fishhooks and obsidians. During the Yayoi period, cultural features from China and Korea arrived in this area at various times over several centuries, spread to the south and east; this was a period of mixture between immigrants and the indigenous population, between new cultural influences and existing practices. Chinese influence was obvious in the bronze and copper weapons, dōkyō, dōtaku, as well as irrigated paddy rice cultivation.
Three major symbols of Yayoi culture are the bronze mirror, the bronze sword, the royal seal stone. Between 1996 and 1999, a team led by Satoshi Yamaguchi, a researcher at Japan's National Museum of Nature and Science, compared Yayoi remains found in Japan's Yamaguchi and Fukuoka prefectures with those from China's coastal Jiangsu province and found many similarities between the Yayoi and the Jiangsu remains; some scholars have concluded. Mark J. Hudson has cited archaeological evidence that included "bounded paddy fields, new types of polished stone tools, wooden farming implements, iron tools, weaving technology, ceramic storage jars, exterior bonding of clay coils in pottery fabrication, ditched settlements, domesticated pigs, jawbone rituals." The migrant transfusion from the Korean peninsula gains strength because Yayoi culture began on the north coast of Kyūshū, where Japan is closest to Korea. Yayoi pottery, burial mounds, food preservation were discovered to be similar to the pottery of southern Korea.
However, some scholars argue that the rapid increase of four million people in Japan between the Jōmon and Yayoi periods cannot be explained by migration alone. They attribute the increase to a shift from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural diet on the islands, with the introduction
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
Saikū, or Saigu known as Itsuki-no-miya, was a village located 10 kilometers north-west of Ise Shrine, arguably the most significant Shinto shrine in Japan. Sometimes referred to as the Bamboo Palace, Saikū served as the palace and public offices of the Saiō, an unmarried Imperial princess who served at Ise Shrine on behalf of the emperor from the Asuka period to the Nanboku-chō period of Japan. After the collapse of the Saiō system, Saikū reverted to a rice-farming village that exists as a part of Meiwa Town, Mie Prefecture. Saikū reached its peak from the late Nara period to the early Heian period. Many buildings and relics that date from this period have been found. Buildings that date from this time are of the shinden-zukuri style and were made of cedar and Japanese cypress and were constructed by interlocking wooden beams without the use of nails. While digging foundations for new housing in 1970 in the Saikū area, a large Haniwa horse was found, one of the largest found in Japan; the housing construction was halted and excavations began, confirming the site of the ancient Saikū town.
Saikū Historical Museum now stands on the site of the original discovery. Each year further excavations take place on a small scale, with much of the Saikū site still untouched; as the ancient buildings were made of wood, which has long since disappeared, the site was redeveloped several times over its long history, excavations can reveal several generations of buildings whose foundations must be matched together to form a view of the town's layout. Most focus is given to the early Heian period, when the town was at its peak in influence. In addition to the museum, a reconstructed Heian period residence, known as Itsukinomiya Hall of Historical Experience, has been built next to Saikū train station. Itsukinomiya Hall is not a restoration of a former building, but a reconstruction based on existing shinden-zukuri buildings elsewhere in Japan; the ancient Saikū site measures 2 kilometres from east to west, 700 metres from north to south and covers a total area of 137 hectares, making it one of the largest historical sites in Japan.
Sections of the eastern administrative district of the site have been excavated and working is being carried out in the site's central area. The town was built on a grid structure based on Chinese traditions and consisted of several large blocks of 120 metres in length, surrounded by high wooden walls. Inside each block were buildings of varying size and purpose, built of Japanese cypress in the method of the day, using interlocking blocks of wood to hold the structure together; the buildings were rectangular in shape and built on poles dug into the ground, with a floor raised up to a meter from the ground. Some blocks contained a small well from which to draw water, or shrines or structures for food storage. Itsukinomiya Hall of Historical Experience information brochure. Media related to Saikū at Wikimedia Commons Saiku Historical Museum Itsukinomiya Historical Experience Hall
Suzuka International Racing Course
The Suzuka International Racing Course is a motorsport race track located in Ino, Suzuka City, Mie Prefecture and operated by Mobilityland Corporation, a subsidiary of Honda Motor Co, Ltd. It has a capacity of 155,000. Soichiro Honda decided to develop a new permanent circuit in Mie prefecture in the late 1950s. Designed as a Honda test track in 1962 by Dutchman John "Hans" Hugenholtz, Suzuka is one of few circuits in the world to have a "figure eight" layout, with the 1.2 km back straight passing over the front section by means of an overpass. The circuit has been modified four times: In 1983 a chicane was put at the last curve to slow the cars into the pit straight and the Degner curve was made into two corners instead of one long curve. Following the death of Daijiro Kato at the 2003 Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix, Suzuka reconfigured the motorcycle variant of what is now known as the Hitachi Automotive Systems Chicane before the final turn, added a second chicane, between the hairpin and 200R.
The circuit can be used in five configurations. The "east" portion of the course consists of the pit straight to the first half of the Dunlop curve, before leading back to the pit straight via a tight right-hander; the "west" course is made up of the other part including the crossover bridge. The chicane between the hairpin and 200R separates the west and full course sections between cars and motorcycles; the Degner curve was named in honour of Ernst Degner after he crashed his factory Suzuki 50 there during Suzuka's inaugural All Japan Championship Road Race meeting on 3 November 1962. Suzuka touted by F1 drivers and fans as one of the most enjoyed, is one of the oldest remaining tracks of the Formula One World Championship, so has a long history of races as venue of the Japanese Grand Prix since 1987, its traditional role as one of the last Grands Prix of the season means numerous world championships have been decided at the track. Suzuka was dropped from the Formula One calendar for the 2007 and 2008 seasons in favour of the Toyota-owned Fuji Speedway, after the latter underwent a transformation and redesign by circuit designer Hermann Tilke.
Suzuka and Fuji were to alternate hosting the Japanese Grand Prix from 2009. However, after Fuji announced in July 2009 that it would no longer be part of the F1 calendar, Suzuka signed a deal to host the Japanese Grand Prix in 2009, 2010 and 2011; the circuit closed for a year in order for the renovation to make it F1-compliant for 2009, with the last major event held on November 18, 2007, although some annual events were still held. The track held a re-opening day on April 12, 2009. Suzuka hosts other motorsport events including the Suzuka 1000 km endurance race. A part of multiple GT racing series including the now defunct group C class of the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship, the Suzuka 1000 km as of 2006 is now a points round of the Super GT Series, is the only race of such length in that series. In 2010, the GT500 pole position time was 1:55.237. In 2007, the GT300 pole position time was 2:06.838. Another major motorsport event is the Suzuka 8 Hours for motorcycles, run since 1978.
This event attracts big name riders and with the exception of 2005, due to the importance of the major manufacturers' involvement, the FIM ensures that no motorcycle races clash on the date. NASCAR organized the NASCAR Thunder 100, a pair of exhibition 100-lap races on the east circuit, a 1.4 miles layout which utilizes the pit straight and esses, before rejoining the main circuit near the Casio triangle. The cars were Sprint Cup Series and Camping World West Series cars and the field was by invitation for the two races, run after the 1996 and 1997 seasons; the 1996 event was marred by tragedy when during practice, pace car driver Elmo Langley died of a heart attack in the Chevrolet Corvette pace car at the esses during an evaluation run. The pole position speed was 83.079 miles per hour. During qualifying for the 1997 race, rain caused Goodyear to use rain tires on Sprint Cup cars for the first time in the modern era, it was announced on June 21, 2010 that the east section of the Suzuka Circuit would host the Japan round of the 2011 WTCC season instead of the Okayama International Circuit.
At the 2012 event, the pole position time was 52.885 seconds, for an average speed of 94.875 miles per hour. Following two major accidents in 2002 and 2003, one of the main issues in safety has been at the corner 130R. In 2002, Toyota F1 driver Allan McNish suffered a high-speed crash through the bump, which sent him through a metal fence. Track officials revised the 130R, redesigning it as a double-apex section, one with an 85 metres radius, a second featuring a 340 metres radius, leading to a much closer Casio triangle, with the chicane becoming a "bus stop" type for motorcycles. However, the problem continued for the new revised section. During the 2003 MotoGP Grand Prix of Japan, the track's first major event since the revisions, MotoGP rider Daijiro Kato was killed when he crashed in the new section, on his way to the brak
Aichi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is known as the Tōkai region; the capital is Nagoya. It is the focus of the Chūkyō metropolitan area; the region was divided into the two provinces of Owari and Mikawa. After the Meiji Restoration and Mikawa were united into a single entity. In 1871, after the abolition of the han system, with the exception of the Chita Peninsula, was established as Nagoya Prefecture, while Mikawa combined with the Chita Peninsula and formed Nukata Prefecture. Nagoya Prefecture was renamed to Aichi Prefecture in April 1872, was united with Nukata Prefecture on November 27 of the same year; the government of Aichi Prefecture is located in the Aichi Prefectural Government Office in Nagoya, the old capital of Owari. The Aichi Prefectural Police and its predecessor organisations have been responsible for law enforcement in the prefecture since 1871; the Expo 2005 World Exposition was held in Nagakute. In the third volume of the Man'yōshū there is a poem by Takechi Kurohito that reads: "The cry of the crane, calling to Sakurada.
Ayuchi is the original form of the name Aichi, the Fujimae tidal flat is all that remains of the earlier Ayuchi-gata. It is now a protected area. For a time, an Aichi Station existed on the Kansai Line between Nagoya and Hatta stations, but its role was overtaken by Sasashima-Live Station on the Aonami Line and Komeno Station on the Kintetsu Nagoya Line. Located near the center of the Japanese main island of Honshu, Aichi Prefecture faces the Ise and Mikawa Bays to the south and borders Shizuoka Prefecture to the east, Nagano Prefecture to the northeast, Gifu Prefecture to the north, Mie Prefecture to the west, it measures 106 km east to west and 94 km south to north and forms a major portion of the Nōbi Plain. With an area of 5,153.81 km2 it accounts for 1.36% of the total surface area of Japan. The highest spot is Chausuyama at 1,415 m above sea level; the western part of the prefecture is dominated by Nagoya, Japan's third largest city, its suburbs, while the eastern part is less densely populated but still contains several major industrial centers.
Due to its robust economy, for the period from October 2005 to October 2006, Aichi was the fastest growing prefecture in terms of population, beating Tokyo, at 7.4 per cent. As of April 1, 2012, 17% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Aichi Kōgen, Hida-Kisogawa, Mikawa Wan, Tenryū-Okumikawa Quasi-National Parks along with seven Prefectural Natural Parks. Thirty-eight cities are located in Aichi Prefecture; these are the towns and villages in each district: Companies headquartered in Aichi include the following. Companies such as Fuji Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors, Sony, Suzuki and Volkswagen Group operate plants or branch offices in Aichi; as of 2001, Aichi Prefecture's population was 49.97 % female. 139,540 residents are of foreign nationality. JR Central Tokaido Shinkansen ■Tokaido Line ■Chūō Main Line ■Kansai Line ■Taketoyo Line ■Iida Line Meitetsu NH Nagoya Line IY Inuyama Line KM Komaki Line TA Centrair Line TA Tokoname Line ST Seto Line TK Toyokawa Line GN Gamagori Line TT Toyota Line KC Chita Line MU MY Mikawa Line TB Bisai Line CH Chikko Line TB Tsushima Line Kintetsu E Nagoya Line Aonami Line Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line Meijo Line Tsurumai Line Sakura-dori Line Meiko Line Kamiiida Line Toyohashi Railroad Aichi Loop Line Nagoya Guideway Bus Linimo Toyohashi Railroad Expressways and toll roads National highways Chubu Centrair International Airport Nagoya Airfield Nagoya Port – International Container hub and ferry route to Sendai and Tomakomai, Hokkaido Mikawa Port – automobile and car parts export and part of inport base Kinuura Port – Handa and Hekinan National universities Aichi University of Education Graduate University for Advanced Studies - Okazaki Campus Nagoya Institute of Technology Nagoya University Toyohashi University of Technology Public universities Aichi Prefectural University Aichi Prefectural University of the Arts Nagoya City University Private universities The sports teams listed below are based in Aichi.
Central LeagueChunichi Dragons J. LeagueNagoya Grampus JFLFC Maruyasu OkazakiTokai Regional LeagueFC Kariya L. LeagueNGU Loveledge Nagoya B. LeagueSAN-EN NeoPhoenix（Toyohashi and Hamamatsu） SeaHorses Mikawa（Kariya） Nagoya Diamond Dolphins（Nagoya） Toyotsu Fighting Eagles Nagoya（Nagoya） Aisin AW Areions Anjo（Anjō） V. LeagueToyoda Gosei Trefuerza JTEKT Stings（Kariya） Denso Airybees Toyota Auto Body Queenseis Top LeagueToyota Verblitz Toyota Industries Shuttles（Kariya） F. LeagueNagoya Oceans（Nagoya） X-LeagueNagoya Cyclones（Nagoya） Kirix Toyota Bull Fighters Aichi Golden Wings AFLNagoya Redbacks Australian Football Club（Nagoya） Notable sites in Aichi include the Meiji Mura open-air architectural museum in Inuyama, which preserves historic buildings from Japan's Meiji and Taishō periods, including the reconstructed lobby of Frank Lloyd Wright's old Imperial Hotel. Other popular sites in Aichi include the tour of the Toyota car factory in the city by the same name, the monkey park in Inuyama, the castles in Nagoya, Okazaki and Inuyama.
Aichi Prefecture has many wonderful beaches. For example, Hi