Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI. Despite his popularity with the common people, his policies angered the gentry and he was overthrown, he was the eldest brother of Queen Jane Seymour, the third wife of King Henry VIII. Edward Seymour was born c. 1500, the son of Sir John Seymour by his wife Margery Wentworth, eldest daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth of Nettlestead and descended from Edward III. In 1514, aged about 14, he received an appointment in the household of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, was enfant d’honneur at her marriage with Louis XII. Seymour served in the duke of Suffolk's campaign in France in 1523, being knighted by the duke on the 1st of November, accompanied Cardinal Wolsey on his embassy to France in 1527. Appointed Esquire of the Body to Henry VIII in 1529, he grew in favour with the king, who visited his manor at Elvetham in Hampshire in October 1535.
When Seymour's sister, married King Henry VIII in 1536, Edward was created Viscount Beauchamp on 5 June 1536, Earl of Hertford on 15 October 1537. He became Warden of the Scottish Marches and continued in royal favour after his sister's death on 24 October 1537. In 1541, during Henry's absence in the north, Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Audley had the chief management of affairs in London. In September 1542 he was appointed Warden of the Scottish Marches, a few months Lord High Admiral, a post which he immediately relinquished in favour of John Dudley, the future duke of Northumberland. In March 1544 he was made lieutenant-general of the north and instructed to punish the Scots for their repudiation of the treaty of marriage between Prince Edward and the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, he landed at Leith in May and pillaged Edinburgh, returned a month later. In July 1544 he was appointed lieutenant of the realm under the queen regent during Henry's absence at Boulogne, but in August he joined the king and was present at the surrender of the town.
In the autumn he was one of the commissioners sent to Flanders to keep Charles V to the terms of his treaty with England, in January 1545 he was placed in command at Boulogne, where on the 26th he repelled an attempt of Marshal de Biez to recapture the town. In May he was once more appointed lieutenant-general in the north to avenge the Scottish victory at the Battle of Ancrum Moor. In March 1546 he was sent back to Boulogne to supersede the earl of Surrey, whose command had not been a success. From October to the end of Henry's reign he was in attendance on the king, engaged in the struggle for predominance, to determine the complexion of the government during the coming minority. Personal and religious rivalry separated him and Baron Lisle from the Howards, Surrey's hasty temper precipitated his own ruin and that of and his father, the duke of Norfolk, they could not acquiesce in the Imperial ambassador's verdict that Hertford and Lisle were the only noblemen of fit age and capacity to carry on the government.
Upon the death of Henry VIII, Seymour's nephew became king as Edward VI. Henry VIII's will named sixteen executors, who were to act as Edward's Council until he reached the age of 18; these executors were supplemented by twelve men "of counsail" who would assist the executors when called on. The final state of Henry VIII's will has occasioned controversy; some historians suggest that those close to the king manipulated either him or the will itself to ensure a shareout of power to their benefit, both material and religious. In this reading, the composition of the Privy Chamber shifted towards the end of 1546 in favour of the Protestant faction. In addition, two leading conservative Privy Councillors were removed from the centre of power. Stephen Gardiner was refused access to Henry during his last months. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, found. Other historians have argued that Gardiner's exclusion had non-religious causes, that Norfolk was not noticeably conservative in religion, that conservatives remained on the Council, that the radicalism of men such as Sir Anthony Denny, who controlled the dry stamp that replicated the king's signature, is debatable.
Whatever the case, Henry's death was followed by a lavish hand-out of lands and honours to the new power group. The will contained an "unfulfilled gifts" clause, added at the last minute, which allowed Henry's executors to distribute lands and honours to themselves and the court to Seymour, who became the Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person, who created himself Duke of Somerset. Henry VIII's will did not provide for the appointment of a Protector, it entrusted the government of the realm during his son's minority to a Regency Council that would rule collectively, by majority decision, with "like and equal charge". A few days after Henry's death, on 4 February, the executors chose to invest regal power in the earl of Hertford. Thirteen out of the sixteen agreed to his appointment as Protector, which they justified as their joint decision "by virtue of the authority" of Henry's will. Seymour may have done a de
Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven
Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven was Master of the Scottish Artillery and last husband of Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. He was a son of 1st Lord Avondale and his wife Margaret Kennedy, his brother was 1st Lord Ochiltree. Henry was a fifth-generation male-line descendant of Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany through his son Walter, he was thus a fourth cousin, twice removed of James IV of first husband of Margaret Tudor. Henry and Margaret Tudor were married on 3 March 1528. Margaret had divorced her second husband Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, she was mother to James V of Scotland and Margaret Douglas from her previous marriages. This third marriage would produce Dorothea Stewart, who died young. Reaction to the marriage was swift: Margaret and Henry were besieged at Stirling Castle by Lord Erskine, with the support of James V and her former husband, the Earl of Angus. Henry was imprisoned. However, after James V joined his mother at Stirling, Henry was created Lord Methven.
Margaret made Methven captain of her castle of Newark in Ettrick. In 1539, Henry and Margaret let their coalfield at Skeoch to John Craigyngelt; as rent he would supply 100 loads to Margaret's lodging at Stirling Castle. Henry was discovered to have been keeping a mistress in one of Margaret's castles. Margaret Tudor wished to divorce him but James V was reluctant to allow it. After she died in 1541, Methven was able to marry his mistress, Janet Stewart, daughter of John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Atholl and Lady Janet Campbell, her maternal grandparents were Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Elizabeth Stewart. Elizabeth was a daughter of 1st Earl of Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie. Margaret was a daughter of 1st Lord Montgomerie and Margaret Boyd. Henry and Janet were parents to four children: 2nd Lord Methven. Dorothea Stewart. Married William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie. Joan Stewart. Married Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll. Margaret Stewart. Married Andrew Stuart, Master of Ochiltree, eldest son of 2nd Lord Ochiltree.
During the war of the Rough Wooing, Methven wrote to Mary of Guise on 31 December 1547 to discuss the use of artillery in the war. He said that Regent Arran had been advised that the modest Scottish artillery at St Andrews Castle at the start might have taken the castle, the prolonged and expensive siege, after Arran had departed, had harmed public opinion. A recent ineffective show of artillery at Broughty Castle had only warned the English to get more support and re-fortify. Now, to take Broughty, more cannon needed to be supplied, Methven asked for French captains with intelligence of the field, intelligence to assiege and order artillery. Methven wrote to Mary of Guise again on 3 June 1548 with more strategic advice, he said that he had friends all over Scotland and had been diligent in acquiring intelligence of the motives of those Scots who favoured the English. He found four principal motives, he advised her that there were so many dissidents that the unity of Scotland would be best served by offering an act of remission, a general pardon, rather than punishment, as her husband James V had done for rebels during his minority.
Methven thought the defeat at Pinkie, was due to these causes, the unorderly haste of the Scottish army. He added that he heard it was widely known in Perth by the end of May that the Scottish artillery at the siege of Broughty Castle would be moved to the Siege of Haddington; the citizens of Perth hoped a French army would come to protect them from Broughty's English garrison. Methven had issued the guns at Broughty to the Earl of Argyll. Methven starting moving the guns on 6 June; as an example to the local lairds who were obliged to do this work, he yoked 240 oxen and began to drag the guns through his and Lord Ruthven's lands. At Haddington, he reported on 5 July, but on 17 July, the French officer D'Essé ordered the guns to be withdrawn. As English reinforcement approached Methven took the Scottish and French guns to Edinburgh and Leith, ordered their repair. Buchanan, Patricia Hill. Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scots. Scottish Academic Press. HMC, 9th report and appendix, Lord Elphinstone, 191. Queen Mary.
Annie Cameron, ed. The Scottish Correspondence of Mary of Lorraine: Including Some Three Hundred Letters from 20th February 1542-3 to 15th May 1560. Printed at the University Press by T. and A. Constable Limited for the Scottish History Society
Piero Strozzi was an Italian military leader. He was a member of the rich Florentine family of the Strozzi. Piero Strozzi was Clarice de' Medici. Although in 1539 he married another Medici, Laudomia di Pierfrancesco, he was a fierce opponent of the main line of that family, he fought in the army led by his father and other Florentine exile from France to oust the Medici from Florence, after their defeat at the Battle of Montemurlo, Piero fled to France at the court of Catherine de' Medici. He was in French service during the Italian War of 1542. Having raised an army of Italian mercenaries, he was confronted by the Imperial-Spanish forces at the Battle of Serravalle, where he was defeated. In 1548 he was in Scotland supporting Mary of Guise of behalf of Henry II of France, during the war of the Rough Wooing. There he designed fortifications against the English at Haddington; as he was shot in the thigh by an arquebus at Haddington, Strozzi supervised the works at Leith from a chair carried by four workmen.
Strozzi designed works at Dunbar Castle with the assistance of Migliorino Ubaldini. In 1551 he defended Mirandola against papal troops during the War of Parma, he was named Marshal of France in 1554. He fought in the defence of the Republic of Siena against Cosimo de' Medici, leading a French army, he obtained a pyrrhic victory at Pontedera on 11 June 1554, but his army could not receive help from the ships of his brother Leone and he was forced to retreat to Pistoia. On 2 August his defeat at the Battle of Marciano meant the end of the Sienese independence. In 1556 he was lord of Épernay. In 1558, under the command of Francis, Duke of Guise, he participated in the siege of Thionville, near Metz in Lorraine, he died there from wounds received on 21 June 1558. He is credited as the inventor of the dragoon military speciality, his son Filippo was a military commander, as was his brother Leone Strozzi, a Knight of Malta, known as the Prior of Capua. Fortescue, John William, A History of the British Army, volume I, chapter 2, Macmillan, 1899 Oman, Charles.
A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century. London: Methuen & Co. 1937
Leone Strozzi was an Italian condottiero belonging to the famous Strozzi family of Florence. He was the son of Filippo Strozzi the Younger and Clarice de' Medici, brother to Piero and Lorenzo Strozzi. After his father's defeat in the Battle of Montemurlo, Strozzi fled with his brothers to France, at the court of Catherine de' Medici, he fought against Cosimo I de' Medici at Siena, but was again defeated. In 1530, Strozzi became a knight of the Order of Malta. In 1536, he was named commander of the galleys of the Order, a position he held again in 1552. In August 1547 he captured St Andrews Castle in Scotland from the Protestant Lairds of Fife who had killed David Beaton; the lairds knew an expert was in the field when they observed cannon being winched into position with ropes rather than exposing the besiegers to their fire. Strozzi died in the siege of Scarlino, in Tuscany, during the unsuccessful defence of Republic of Siena against Florence and the Holy Roman Empire, shot by an arquebus ball.
Landi, Fausto: Gli ultimi anni della Repubblica di Siena 1525 - 1555, Edizioni Cantagalli, Siena 1994 Condottieri Italian Wars Battle of Marciano
Auchencrow is a small village in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland, by the Lammermuir range of hills, near Reston. The modern name, tends to obscure the question of origins. A Gaelic origin is accepted by Nicholaisen, it is thought that the meaning is "achaidh na cra" "field of the tree or trees" This is contradicted by the 12th-century name-form ‘Alden-’ preserved, for example, in four 13th-century Durham charters. Mac an Tàilleir suggests the form Aldenacraw may be derived from a name for the watercourse rather than the settlement itself. In c. 1210 the village was referred to as Aldenegraue. Something like ‘Halden’s Grave’ or ‘Halden’s Grove’ could be nearer the original idea, but it is more natural to use the current name, to speak of the village of Auchencrow; this is itself a form only derived by folk-etymology from the much longerrunning ‘Edencraw’ or ‘Auchencrawe’: an evolution from Halden- to Alden- or Eden- to Auchenand from -grove/ -grave to -crawe to -crow. James Hutton, the founder of modern geology, farmed two miles to the west.
A James Hutton Trail was established in 2006. South of Auchencrow towards Chirnside, during the war of the Rough Wooing, Billie was burnt in May 1544 during the withdrawal of Lord Hertford's army from Edinburgh; the castle tower, "Byllye tower 9 miles from Berwick on the edge of Lammermore, between Angus's barony of Boncle, Coldingham", was captured on Candlemass Day in January 1548 by the English soldier Thomas Carlile, who overcame the guard with 10 companions dressed "in maner of Skottes." He garrisoned the tower with 50 horsemen. Billie Castle was mentioned with two other neighbouring strongholds Bonkyll Castle and Blanerne Castle in a prophetic rhyme referring to their construction in the time of David I. Auchencrow and Billie were mentioned in place-name verses recorded in the 19th century. Although the 19th-century editor considered the latter verse of recent origin, he noted "Jamie Bour" as a reference to the servant of Robert Logan of Restalrig and Fast Castle mentioned in the Gowrie Conspiracy trial in 1608, who had property in the village.
List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland RCAHMS record on Auchencrow Mains Gazetteer for Scotland In the territory of Auchencrow: long continuity or late development in early Scottish field-systems? Image of Auchencrow
John Knox was a Scottish minister and writer, a leader of the country's Reformation. He was the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church, he was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549. While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England, he married his first wife, Margery Bowes; when Mary I ascended the throne of England and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country.
Knox moved to Geneva and to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity, he created a new order of service, adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, thus ending his association with the Church of England. On his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility; the movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, who governed the country in the name of her young daughter Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk, he continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the Queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices.
When she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband Lord Darnley and King James VI was enthroned in her stead, Knox called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days. John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian, his father, William Knox, was a merchant. All, known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child, their eldest son, carried on his father's business, which helped in Knox's international communications. Knox was educated at the grammar school in Haddington. In this time, the priesthood was the only path for those whose inclinations were academic rather than mercantile or agricultural, he proceeded to further studies at the University of St Andrews or at the University of Glasgow. He studied under one of the greatest scholars of the time. Knox was ordained a catholic priest in Edinburgh on Easter Eve of 1536 by William Chisholm, Bishop of Dunblane.
Knox first appears in public records as a priest and a notary in 1540. He was still serving in these capacities as late as 1543 when he described himself as a "minister of the sacred altar in the diocese of St. Andrews, notary by apostolic authority" in a notarial deed dated 27 March. Rather than taking up parochial duties in a parish, he became tutor to two sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry, he taught the son of John Cockburn of Ormiston. Both of these lairds had embraced the new religious ideas of the Reformation. Knox did not record when or how he was converted to the Protestant faith, but the key formative influences on Knox were Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart. Wishart was a reformer, he first moved to England. He was forced to make a public recantation and was burned in effigy at the Church of St Nicholas as a sign of his abjuration, he took refuge in Germany and Switzerland. While on the Continent, he translated the First Helvetic Confession into English, he returned to Scotland in 1544.
In December 1543, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, the appointed regent for the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, had decided with the Queen Mother, Mary of Guise, Cardinal David Beaton to persecute the Protestant sect that had taken root in Scotland. Wishart travelled throughout Scotland preaching in favour of the reformation and when he arrived in East Lothian, Knox became one of his closest associates. Knox acted as his bodyguard. In December 1545, Wishart was seized on Beaton's orders by the Earl of Bothwell and taken to the Castle of St Andrews. Knox was present on the night of Wishart's arrest and was prepared to follow him into captivity, but Wishart persuaded him against this course saying, "Nay, return to your bairns and God bless you. One is sufficient for a sacrifice." Wishart was subsequently prosecuted by Beaton's Public Accuser of Archdeacon John Lauder. On 1 March 1546, he was burnt at the stake in the presence of Beaton. Knox had avoided being arrested by Lord Bothwell through Wishart's advice to return to tutoring.
He took shelter with Douglas in Longniddry. Several months he was still in charge of the pupils, the sons of Douglas and Cockburn, who wearied of moving from place to place while being pursued, he toyed with the idea of taking his pupils with him. While Knox remained a fugitive, Beaton was murdered on 29 May 1546, within his residence, the Castle of St Andrews
Inchkeith is an island in the Firth of Forth, administratively part of the Fife council area. Inchkeith has had a colourful history as a result of its proximity to Edinburgh and strategic location for use as home for Inchkeith Lighthouse and for military purposes defending the Firth of Forth from attack from shipping, more protecting the upstream Forth Bridge and Rosyth Dockyard. Inchkeith has, by some accounts, been inhabited for 1,800 years. Although most of the island is of volcanic origin, the island's geology is varied; as well as the igneous rock, there are some sections of sandstone, shale and limestone. The shale contains a great number of fossils. There are several springs on the island; the island has the lowest average rainfall in Scotland at 550 millimetres annually. The island has an abundance of springs. James Boswell noted two wells on the island during his visit, speculated as to the former existence of a third within the Castle; the name "Inchkeith" may derive from the medieval Scottish Gaelic Innse Coit, meaning "wooded island".
The latter element coit, in Old Welsh coet, is from the Proto-Celtic *cēto-, "wood". The late 9th century Sanas Cormaic, authored by Cormac mac Cuilennáin, suggests that the word had disappeared from the Gaelic of Ireland by that period, becoming coill. Although Scottish Gaelic was closer to Brythonic than Irish was, the Life of St Serf calls the island Insula Keð, suggesting the possibility that the specific element in Inchkeith was not comprehensible to that hagiography's anonymous author or translator. Since Gaelic had all but disappeared as a language spoken natively in southern Fife by the mid-14th century, there is no continuous Gaelic tradition for the name, but the modern form is Innis Cheith; such a rocky and exposed island can however never have supported many trees so it would be reasonable that the derivation may be otherwise. Early associations between Saint Adomnán and the island may indicate that the second element is derived from the name of his contemporary and associate Coeddi, bishop of Iona.
Nothing is known about the early history of Inchkeith, there is no certain reference to the island until the 12th century. In the days when people were compelled to cross the Firth of Forth by boat as opposed to bridge, the island was a great deal less isolated, on the ferry routes between Leith/Lothian and Fife. Like nearby Inchcolm and the Isle of May, Inchkeith was attacked by English raiders in the 14th century; this was the period when the Scottish Wars of Independence were in full swing, decisive battles were being fought in the Lothians and in the Stirling/Bannockburn region, so the island was in the route of any supply or raiding vessels. It is unknown who owned Inchkeith from the 8th century onward, but it is known that it was the property of the Crown until granted to Lord Glamis, an ancestor of the Queen Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. In 1497, the island was used as an isolated refuge for victims of the'Grandgore', or modern-day syphilis in Edinburgh. The'grandgor' was recognised in the 1497 Minutes of the Town Council of Edinborough "This contagious sickness callit the Grandgor.".
The Grandgore Act was passed in September 1497, causing Inchkeith, as well as other islands in the Firth, such as Inchgarvie, to be made a place of "Compulsory Retirement" for people suffering from this disease. They were told to board a ship at Leith and once there, "to remain till God provide for their health", it is probable. In 1589, history repeated itself, the island was used to quarantine the passengers of a plague ridden ship. More plague sufferers came here from the mainland in 1609. In 1799, Russian sailors who died of an infectious disease were buried here. During the reign of King James IV in the Renaissance, Inchkeith was the site of a language deprivation experiment. According to the historian Robert Lyndsay of Pitscottie, James IV directed in 1493 that a mute woman and two infants be transported to the island, in order to ascertain which language the infants would grow up to speak isolated from the rest of the world, thought to be the'original' language, or the language of God.
According to these accounts, the infants did not speak. James Grant quotes Lyndsay on this topic, he ordered them to take a mute woman and to put her in Inchkeith, to give her two children, to provide her with everything she would need for their nourishment. His goal was to discover what language the children would speak when they were old enough to have "perfect" speech; some say they spoke good Hebrew. In the 16th century, the island suffered further English depredation during the war of the Rough Wooing; the General Earl of Somerset garrisoned the island in 1547 after the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. His force of marines were ordered to reinforce the island, so they built a large square fort, with corner towers, on the site of the present day lighthouse. A French soldier, Jean de Beaugué, described how the building works were visible from Leith in June 1548. De Beaugué wrote that four companies of English soldiers and a company of Italians were ordered to help the English workmen